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Full text of "The Street railway journal"

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I 



THE 



jet Railway 
Journal. 



\ 



DEX TO VOLUME XXXI. 



January to May, 1908. 



McGraw Publishing Company, 
239 West 39th Street, 
New York. 



INDEX TO VOLUME XXXL 



Accident claims. Fraudulent: 

Baltimore bulletin, 625 

New York City, 233 

Washington, 153 

Accidents: 

Canadian railways, 166 

Chicago elevated railway, *639 

Chicago, on all roads, in 1907. 95 

Cost of. 839 

Great Britain, 187 

Indiana, 835 

Instruction on, Connecticut Co., 752 

New York City. 97, 300, 470 

Omaha, Neb.. Campaign against. 210 

Accountants' Association. Committees. 465 
Accounting: 

Car mileage for car maintenance, New York 

Interborough. 512 

Depreciation in electric railway accounting 

[Royse]. 687; Discussion, 731 

Depreciation of public utility properties' 

[Duffy]. 169 

Freight and express, Birmingham, *816 

Interstate Commerce classification: 

Comments, 361, 671, 840 
Conference at Washington. 840, 860 
Discussion [Brockway], 427; [Tingley], 
455, c785; [Wallis], 459; [May], 
• c613; [Lawton], c69r, [Kocher- 

sperger], c729; [Wight], 736 
Replies to circular [Swenson], c396; 

[Harries and Ham], c467; 618 
Report, Brooklyn, Interborough, N. Y. 

City Ry., L. I R. R.. 786 
Report, Central Electric Railway Asso- 
ciation. 738 
Report, Milwaukee Electric Railway 

& Light. Co., 614 
Report, New York Street Railway 
Association, 868 

Lighting companies. Classification proposed 

in New York State, 635, 671 
Memphis, Tenn., 819 

Overhead and storage battery, Anderson, 

Ind., *637 

Park reports, 118 

Power station, Birmingham, *887 

Records of construction costs. Value of, 670 

Repair shop : 

Anderson, Ind.. *538 

Boston, *554 

New York Interborough, 512 

New York & Queens County Ry., *552 

Adding machine (See Calculating machine) 

Advertising for traffic: 

■ Discussion at Central Electric Railway Asso- 
ciation. 173 

Transfers, Advertising on, 392 

Trolley express service, Lancaster, Pa., *791 

Advertising lost articles in Boston, 791 

Air brakes (See Brakes, Air) 

Air compressor for shops (N. B. & E. Co.), *5 74 

Albany, N. Y. : 

Cars, *75 

Report of United Traction Co., 795 

Albany & Hudson R. R.. Electric Park at Kinder- 
hook Lake. *326 
AUentown. Pa.: 

Annual report of Leigh Valley Transit Co.. 

147 

Increase in fares, 440 

Alternators : 

New type (E. C. Co.), 755 

Remedying defects in parallel operation of, 

Amarillo, Texas, Cars, *93 

American and British street railway practice, 

Differences in, 684 
American Institute of Electrical Engineers: 

-Banquet, 352 

Chicago meeting, 504 

Engineering education, 198 

Ithaca meetings, 358, 503, 835 

Schenectady meetings, 358, 441 

American Light & Traction Co., Annual report, 

146, 226 

American Museum of Safety Devices: 

Decorations for officers, 100 

Exposition in New York, 268, 623, 643 

American Railways Co., Earnings, 912 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Meet- 
ing on preservation of natural resources. 
644, 708 

American Street & Intenirban Railway Associa- 
tion: 

• Associate membership, 620 

Booklet, 503 

Committees, 465 

Convention Committee visits Denver, 827 

Executive committee meeting, 216 



\^^^ 

American Street & Interurban Railwa'^^^e«-unt- 

ants' Association (See Accob^arijts.' 

Association) ''^'t ' ( 

American Street c& Interurban Railway ClAioi , 

Agents' Association (See Claim Agents' 

Association) 

American Street & Interurban Railway Engi- 
neering Association: 
Committees, 19, 434 

Data sheets on inspection and maintenance 

practice, 874 
Maintenance of Way Committee meeting, 

560 

Standardization Committee meeting, 827 

Standardization data sheet, 913 

American Street Si Interurban Ralway Trans- 
portation and Traffic Association: 

Call for, 66, 89 

Committees, 465 

Executive committee meeting, 218 

Organization and constitution, 217 

Anderson. Albert. 473 • 
Anderson. Ind.: 

Changing transformer connections in emer- 
gencies. 343 

1. U. T. System Magazine. 666 

Maintenance of overhead lines and electrical 

equipment. 636 

Repair shop practice. 285. *647 

Repair shops, *539 

Strike, 57, 99, 356 

Appraisals of electric railway property, 446 
Arizona, Warren-Bisbee Ry. of., *780 
Armature coil press Hot, '"73 
Armature disk-cutting press (Bliss), *753 
Armature field coil tester, *73 
Armatures, Rewinding cost, 85 7 

(See also Repair shop practice) 

Arresters (See Lightning arresters) 
Atlanta, Ga.: 

Efifect of storm, 301 

Employees' benefit association, 553 

Interurban road. New, 354 

Laboratory, 498 

Atlantic City-Philadelphia trolley proposed, 878 
Aurora, Elgin c& Chicago Ry., Examination of 

trainmen, 6 1 1 
Australasian Tramway Officers' Association, 209 
Australia: 

Labor unions and municipal ownership, 22 

Melbourne, Proposed electrification, 186 

Austria: 

Statistics for 1905, 24 

Trieste-Monfalcone Ry.. 799 

Virgl railway in Southern Tyrol. *384 

Austrian Street Railway Association, Mainten- 
ance regulations proposed, 745 
Automobile cars (See Gasoline motor cars) 
Automobile truck. Trolley express. New Haven, 
Conn., *91 

Axle bearings and collars. Maintenance of 
[Hewes], 529 



Baggage checking system. Ft. Wayne & Wabash 

Valley Ry., 336 
Baker. C. F., 803 
Baking oven for repair shops, 73 

(See also Repair shop practice) 

Baltimore, Md.: 

— — Annual report of United Railways, 659, 660 
Bulletins: 

Accidents and ambulance chasers. 625 

"Rush problem." 410 

Summary of bulletins, 800 

Taxation and public service, 467 

Financial plan, 299 

Guide books in cars, 910 

Reconstruction of power system, *770 

Comments, 767 

Transfers, Advertising on, 392 

• Transfers in campaign against disease, 93 

Terminal station of Baltimore, Washington 

& Annapolis Ry., *241 
Bangor, Me.. Cars. *223 

Bavarian State Railway electrification, 420 
Bearings, Axle, Maintenance [Hewes], 529 
Berlin, Germany, Annual report, 761 
Birmingham, Ala.: 

Electric express service, *815 

Power plant, *884 

Block signal system: 

[Button], 140, 175 

Chicago South Side Elevated, *421 

Hudson River tunnels, 402 

Los Angeles, Cal., 496 

■ Massachusetts report. 57 

New York subway. Report by B. J. 

Arnold 463 

Single-phase railway signals (Blake) '*348 

Terre Haute. Ind '*612 

Uniformity in signals, 27? 

(Abbreviations: "'Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



Boiler-fgfd pumps: 

Compound, Use of, 711 

Special design, *52 5 

■ Boiler inquiries in Great Britian, 403 
Boiler-tube cleaner (Lagonda), "'753 
Boilers, High-temperature and high-pressure 
steam, 363 

B iston : 

Advertisement concerning children, 2 53 

Advertising lost articles, 791 

Annual report of Boston Elevated Ry., 60, 95 

Baldwin prize essay on Boston railways. 826 

Boston Transit Commission. Report of. 433 

Cambridge "L" extension, *262. 472, 914 

Cambridge subway and through transit, 763, 

835, 914 

Car defect record system, 554 

Charlestown lines. Increased service denied, 

873 

Consolidation of Elevated and West End 

companies, 62 1 

Engineering department. Changes in, 98 

Forest Hills extension, 472 

Generators, Commutating pole, *221 

Loading and dispatching cars, 860 

Medford extension, 876 

Middlesex Falls extension, 1 7 1 

Parcel storage, Washington street subway, 

462 

Railway merger bill in Legislature, 442 

Schedules of night cars, 566 

Rewards for employees, 24 

Subway: 

Bids delayed, 192 

Cambridge, 763, 835, 914 

Riverbank route, 301 

Washington Street, 433, 462 

Traffic statistics for one year, 61 

Boston c& Eastern Electric R. R.. Hearings, 12, 

470, 706, 877, 916 
Boston & Worcester Electric Ry. : 

Car house, '''431 

Earnings increase, 659 

Retirement of J. F. Shaw, 408 

(See also Framingham, Mass.) 

Brake rigging, Report, Central Electric Railway 

Association ['Taylor], 177 
Discussion, 175, cl81 

Brake-shoes for 1906, Brooklyn statistics, 545 
Brakes, Air: 

Cock interlock on Chicago cars, 9 1 

G. E. emergency, straight-air, "'8 

German automatic, '*'401 

Inspection of, Interborough Rapid Transit 

Co., *515 

Brakes, Track, Tests in Leeds, England, ""13 
Branch line serviee and trunk line congestion, 631 
Brazilian Northwest R. R.. 867 
Bridge terminal (See New York City. Williams- 
burg) 

Bridges: 

Concrete [Stark], 734 

Illinois Traction Co., St. Louis, '"15 

Portland, Ore., *790 

Bridgeport, Conn., Improvements in, 93 
Brill, J. G., Co.: 

Annual report. 35 5 

• Purchase of Danville Car Co.. 696 

Brill, John A., ■*5S(i 

British Westinghouse Co., Annual Report, 856 
Brockton & Plymouth Street Ry., Park condi- 
tions. 164 
Brooklyn: 

Brake-shoe statistics, 545 

Car record prints, '•'220 

Cars for elevated. Semi-convertible, "1400," 

*213 

Coney Island & Brooklyn R. R. : 

Bond issue, 641 

Cost of Coney Island traffic, 795, 888, 
917 

Comment, 881 

Earnings, July-Dec. 1907, 666 

Fire insurance department, 489 

Improvements proposed, 583 

• Interstate Commerce classification. Reply to, 

786 

Brooklyn Bridge, Report by W. H. Burr. 622 
Bruce. Peebles & Co., London, Suspension. 303. 
406 

Brush. M. C. '*586 

Brushes for generators. Pneumatic pressure for. 
529 

Buffalo: 

Clark joint [Clark]. 396 

Pay-as-you-enter cars. '•'47, 703 

Operating notes, 167 

Report of International Traction Co.. 500. 

502 

Buffalo, Lockport & Rochester Electrc Ry., 704 
Buffalo, Rochester & Eastern R. R., Hearing on 

extension to Troy, 2 26 
Buffers, Non-climbing (Hedlcy), '"42 5 
Business situation, 507 
Buttenheim, Harold 8., 473 



IV 



INDEX. 



[Vol. XXXI 



Cable railway in Southern Tyrol, *384 
Cairo, Egypt, turbine plant for, 572 
Calculating machine used by South Chicago City 
Ry., *694 

Calibration of instruments, Necessity for periodic, 
199 

California railway development, 192 

Camden & Trenton Ry., Receivership, 354, 500 

Canada: 

Accidents for 1907. 166 

Fort Erie Ferry Ry., Electrification, 762 

Single-phase railway. First [DeWitt], *38 

Statistics of electric railways [Payne], 165 

Street railway defined, 146 

Canadian Crocker- Wheeler Co., 753 
Canal haulage. Electric, 446 
Car cleaner. Vacuum (N. V. C. Co.), *698 
Car cleaning: 

Labor costs. New York, 486 

Methods and costs, Interborough Rapid 

Transit Co., 522 
Car defects (See Maintenance of rolling stock) 
Car design: 

Brooklyn Elevated semi-convertible cars, 

*2 1 3 

Center sill car, Troy, N. Y., *76 

Chicago elevated railway, *845 

Comparison of dimensions of typical cars, 2 1 

New York subway, type "3600," *423 

New York subway. Report bv B. J. 

Arnold, *337 
Discussion, 849 

Pay-as-you-enter cars, *2 56, *793 

Pay-as-you-leave, *87 

Semi-convertible cars, Cleveland, *2 58 

Car equipments. Testing at Worcester Poly- 
technic Institute, *2 54 

Car houses: 

Camden, N. J., *722 

Chattanooga, Tenn., *632 

Chicago City Ry., *597 

Framingham, Mass., *431 

Grand Rapids, Mich., *45 

Montreal, De Fleurimont St., *208 

New York City Railway Co., *205 

Pit construction: 

Camden, N. J., *723 

Chattanooga, *633 

York, Pa., *684 
■ Scranton. Pa., *451 

Standard construction and fire protection. 

Report of N. F. P. A., 912 
Car lift, Hydraulic, employing cables, *51 
Car mileage, accounting for maintenance. New 

York Interborough, 512 
Car record prints, Brooklyn, *220 
Car wheels (See Wheels) 
Car wiring: 

Cost, on Metropolitan Elevated, Chicago, 826 

Pay-as-you-enter cars. New York City, *256 

St. Louis, Steel underframe, 43 

Cars, Closed: 

Bangor, Me., *223 

Chicago & Northwestern Elevated, *8_44 

Indianapolis, Crawfordsville & W'estern 

Traction Co., *851 

Indianapolis & Louisville Ry., *5 

Lackawanna & Wyoming Valley Ry., *26 

Mexico-Electric Tramways Co., *224 

Parral, Mexico, *184 

Richmond & Chesapeake Bay Ry., *366 

St. Louis, *42 

Topeka, Kan., Screen gates, *18S 

Troy, N. Y., *75 

Warren, Arizona, *781 

Watertown, N. Y., Square end, *201 

Windsor, Essex & Lake Shore Rapid Ry., *38 

Cars, Combination: 

San Diego, Cal., *419 

Scranton. Pa., *453 

Cars, Construction. (See Work cars) 
Cars, Freight : 

Birmingham, Ala., *817 

Indianapolis, *851 

Cars, Funeral, Milan, Italy, *10 

Cars, Gasoline (See Ciasoline motor cars) 

Cars, Gondola, Side-dumping, Birmingham, *617 

Cars, Mail, Cleveland, *619 

Cars, Milk and express, Scranton, Pa., *454 

Cars, Pay-as-you-enter: 

Buffalo, N. Y., *47 

Chicago, 301. 497 

Cleveland. 566 

Des Moines, la., *746 

Door-opening device *617 

(Jewett) *793 

New York City. *2 56, 468, 490 

Newark, N. J., *648, 873 

Operative aspects, 3 

Cars, Pay-as-you-leave, *87 
Cars, Semi-convertible: 

Amarillo, Texas, *93 

Brooklyn Elevated, *213 

Cleveland, *258 

Clinton, Iowa, *144 

Houston, Texas, *496 

Visalia, Cal., *287 

Winston-Salem, N. C, *52 

Cars. Semi-steel: 

Amarillo, Texas, *93 

St. Louis, *42 

Cars, Steel, New York subway, *42 2 
Catenary construction: 

Bridges, Syracuse, L. S., & No. R. R., *2 51 

Equipment for (E. P. Morris Co.). *222 

N. Y., N. H. & H. Ry., Single catenary, *81 

Ontario, *39 



Baltimore & Annapolis Ry. 



Annual re- 



Catenary construction: (Continued) 

Richmond & Chesapeake Bay Ry., *369, 

*370 

Sag diagram [Coombs], 24^ 

Washington, " ' ■ ' 

*245 

(See also Overhead construction) 

Central Electric Railway Association: 

Annual meeting, Dayton Ohio, 59, 97, 173 

Committees for 1908, 303 

Interstate Commerce classification. Report 

on. 738 

March meeting, 471, 560 

May meeting, 831, 905 

Presidential address [NichoU], 178 

Work of the Association [NichoU], 178 

Central Electric Traffic Association, Organization, 

142, 176, 907 
Comment, 158 

Chattanooga, Tenn., Car house and shops, *632 
Chelsea, Mass., Fire, 7 59 

Chemistry and street railways [Walker], 430 
Chicago: 

Accidents, 95, *639 

Consolidation of elevated companies, pro- 
posed, 623. 830 

Electrification of steam roads, 622 

Elevated loop: 

Report by Ford, Bacon & Davis, 392 

Comment, 303, 362 
Report by George Weston, 7 58 

Expenditures for 1908, 707 

Plans for, 799 

Through routes for surface cars, 464 

Traffic figures on elevated lines, 54, 439, 623 

Transfers, Special, *464 

Water Chutes Park, *130 

Chicago City Ry. : 

Annual report, 350, 407, 662 

Car house, *597 

Fender, Shear-guard, *435 

Chicago Metropolitan West Side Elevated Ry. : 

Car wiring costs, 826 

Reports. 227 

Chicago & Milwaukee Electric Ry.: 

Financing, 830 

Receivershio. 267 

Chicago & New York Air Line [Manledoram], 907 
Chicago Northwestern Elevated Ry, : 

Extension to Evanston, 111., *842 

Wheel flange wear, 791 

Chicago & Oak Park Elevated R. R., 

port, 265 
Chicago Railways Co.: 

Mr brakes, 744 

Finances, 231, 409 

Instruction to employees, 303 

Pay-as-you-enter cars, 301, 497 

Reorganization, 62 

■ Strike threatened, 834, 918 

Chicago South Side Elevated Ry.: 

Block signals, *421 

Report. 228 

Stock Yards extension, *376 

Chicago Southern Street Ry., Progress, 232 
Chicago Subway Co., Locomotive, Electric, *646 
Chicago Union Traction Co.: 

Receiver's report, 834 

Sale of, 193 

China: 

Extensions to Mukden Ry.. 144 

Hongkong Electric Traction, Report, 825 

Shanghai electric railways, 49 5 

Cincinnati: 

Children's entertainment, 26 

Terminal, Proposed, 152 

Circuit breakers, Exoeriments with (Von 

Zweigbergk), 223 
Claim Agents' Association, Committees, 46 5 
Claim department: 

Advertisement concerning children, Boston, 

253 

Co-operation with maintenance department, 

509 

Methods of handling claims [Gross], 735 

Clark, A. F., 920 

Cleveland : 

Mail car, *619 

Municipal operation of railway, 796, 833 

Pay-as-you-enter cars, 566 

Publicity bureau, 836 

Rail bond tests, 402, 465 

Semi-convertible cars, *258 

Situation, 28, 62, 96, 98, 152, 

353, 406, 441, 469, 503, 

663, 706, 760 

Stock valulations, 616 

Strike on municipal lines, 875, 918 

Cleveland, Brooklyn & Elyria Ry., Extensions, 
467 

Cleveland Lake Shore Electric Ry., Annual re- 
port, 229 

Cleveland, Painesville & Ashtabula R. R., Annual 
report, 231 

Cleveland, Southwestern & Columbus Ry.: 

Annual report, 189 

Line car, *72 5 

Shops at Elyria, *724 

Clinton, Iowa, Semi-convertible cars, *144 
Club houses: 

Grand Rapids, Mich., *45 

St. Louis, Mo., *263 

Coal: 

Government requirements, 283 

Selection of, 239; [Bailey], 283 

Specifications Interborough Rapid Transit 

Co., 284 
(See also Fuel) 

Coil insulation by vacuum system at Marshall 

shops, Brooklyn, *57 7 
Columbus, Ohio, Rail controversy, 584, 665 



230, 266, 302, 
504, 582, 624, 



Columbus, Delaware & Marion Ry., Extension 
143 

Columbus Railway & Light Co., Annual meeting, 
229 

Commutator groover, *73 i*c^c 
Commutators, Truing up, on rotary [Greer J ^545 
Concrete beam track construction [Weber], *85 
Concrete mixer, Newark, N. J., *719 
Condenser speed regulation, 629 
Conduit construction, London County Council, 
*172 

Coney Island & Brooklyn R. R. (See Brooklyn) 
Connecticut Railroad Commissioners, Report, 189 
Connecticut Railway & Lighting Co.: 

Annual meeting, 666 

Instruction on accidents, 7 52 

Connellsville, Pa.: 

Hydraulic car lift, *51 

Power station, *524 

Repair shop practice of West Penn Rys., *73 

Conservation (See Natural resources) 
Contractors, Independent, Legal decision in 

Penn., 288 
Controller rack, in repair shop, *208 
Controllers: 

(General Electric), New, 89 

Richmond, Va., a.c.-d.c. multiple unit, *365 

600-1200 volt, 7 

Westinghouse No. 451, *40 

Copenhagen, Decision against municipal owner- 
ship, 386 
Coupler heights. Variation in, 882 
Crafts, P. P., *764 

Crane on electric work car, Newark, N. .1., *716 
Creosotes, Analysis and grading of, 747 

(See also Timber preservation) 

Culverts: 

Concrete, *683 

Corrugated galvanized metal (C. C. Co.), 

*186 

Curtain fixture (C. S. Co.), *436 



Dallas, Texas Traction Co., Completion of line, 
762 

Dayton & Xenia Transit Co., Receivership, 468 
Decatur, 111.. Terminal station, *64r 
Decatur, Ind., Earnings for 1907, 665 
Delaware & Hudson R. R. : 

Gasoline-electric motor car, *135 

Steam turbine power station, *783 

Depreciation, Resolution at Iowa convention, 789 
Depreciation in electric railway accounting 

[Royse], 687; Discussion, 731 
Depreciation of public utility properties in Wis- 
consin [Duffy], 169 

(See also Accounting) 

Des Moines, la.: 

Annual Statement, 357 

Pay-as-you-enter cars, *746 

Rooke system, 646 

Detroit, Mich,: 

Franchise, 148 

Injunction against low fare, 659 

T-rail recommended, 99 

Detroit, Flint & Saginaw Ry., Sale of, 871 
Detroit River tunnel, N. Y. Central R. R., Loco- 
motive, *494 
Detroit United Railways, Annual report, 266 
Direct current, high- voltage, Experiments, 223 
Doors: 

Opening device for pay-as-you-enter cars, 

*617 

Pneumatic operating device, *847 

Dublin United Tramways Co., Annual Report, 
405 

Dubuque, la.. Union Park [Mathes], *310 
Dunlop, G. T., 269 



Easton, Pa. : 

Bushkill Park, *116 

Island Park, *604 

Northampton Traction Co., *160 

Trip sheet and transfer envelope for con- 
ductors, 385 
Egypt, Demand for electric supplies, 779 
Electrolysis, Peoria suit, 469 
Employees: 

Benefit association at Atlanta, Ga., 553 

Benefit association at Fort Wayne, 497, 902 

Club rooms: 

Grand Rapids, *45 

St. Louis, *263 

Conductor's daily report, Easton, Pa., 385 

Cost of labor at inspection shops, New York, 

483, 486 

Examination of trainmen by Aurora. Elgin & 

Chicago Ry., 611 

Filling vacancies by bidding in, Hartford, 465 

Instructions, Chicago Railways Co., 303 

Instructions for conductors, Easton, Pa.. 385 

Labor unions and municipal o'vnership in 

Australia, 22 

Medical outfits. Oaklan-f I'H. 

Merit system of discipli ' 

Wabash Valley Tr 

[Hardy], 904, 906 

Reports of Buffalo, I6t 

Shop Foremen's Associ. 

50 

Topic talks at Ft. Wayn 

Trainmen and shop foi 

ideas between, 105 

Wage dispute in Pittsbui 

Wages of car house emi 

521 



wn], *171 
1 ort Wayne & 
Co., 191; 



.'lewark, N. J. 



74. 



I iterchange of 
• yeos. New York, 



(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence.) 



January — May, 1908.] 



INDEX. 



V 



Employees' Mutual Benefit Association of the Ft. 

Wayne & Wabash Valley Traction Co., 

497: [Vordermark], 902 
Engine failures in Great Britain, 744 
Engineering education, 198 

Europe, Status of high-tension d.c. and a.c. 
railways in, *727 

Evanston, 111., Extension of Northwestern Ele- 
vated R. R., *842 

Exeter, Hampton & Amesbury Street Railway, 
Sale of, 442 

Exhauster, Ball-bearing (M. F. Co.), *699 

Export trade, 711 

Express (See Freight and express) 



F 



Fairmont, W. Va., Additions to system, *808 
Fare collection : 

Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction Co., 381 

Interubran railways [Crafts], 685; Discussion 

732 

Pittsburg experiment of pay-as-you-enter, 

29, 35 
Fare registration: 

Coleman fare box system at Ogdensburg, 

N. v., 224 

Norfolk, Va., Cash fare receipt, *211 

Pay-as-you-enter car (D. T. E. Co.), *25 

Rooke system, 186, 646 

Scranton, Pa,, City and interurban fares, 453 

Fares : 

AUentown, Pa,, Increase, 440 

Central States, 179 

Detroit, Mich., Injunction against low fare 

659 

Massachusetts : 

Higherfares, 357, 468, 596, 644, 832, 914 

Statistics, 261, 272 
Special fare to park. Right to make, Indiana, 

150 

Feed-water heater. Steam, Economy test, 895 
Feeder sectionalization systems and the N. Y., 
N. H. & H. R. R. [Murray], *77 

Comments, 65 

Discussion, 83 

Fenders: 

Massachusetts, report, 56 

Shear-guard, Chicago, *435 

Financial: 

Canada, 165 

Cost of operation per passenger mile, Coney 

Island R. R., 888 

Earnings of Maine roads for 1907, 204 

Illinois, 461 

Indiana, 91, 502, 664 

Massachusetts, 55 

Michigan, 916 

New Hampshire, 232 

New Jersey, 644 

New York, 64 

Ohio, 48 ■ 

Ontario, 785 

Pennsylvania, 98, 702 

Replacement costs, New York, 470 

Findlay, Ohio, Work car on Western Ohio Ry., 

*559 

Fire extinguishers: 
(Childs), *S76 

Mounted on truck (Badger), *S78 

Fire insurance, changes in rules, 440 

Fire insurance department of the Brooklyn 

Rapid Transit Co., 489 
Fire prevention: 

Car houses and shops, 590 

Substation, 807 

Fire protection. Discussion by N. E. Street Rail- 
way Club, 737 

Fires, Chelsea, Mass., 759 

Floods in the Central States, 302 

Flues, Reinforced concrete, 527 

Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversville R. R., Sacan- 
daga Park. *316 

Fort Smith, Ark., Park operation. *1 14 

Ft. Wayne & Wabash Valley Ry.: 

Baggage checking system, 336 

Employees' Mutual Benefit Association, 49 7; 

[Vordermark], 902 

Meeting of general managers of McAfee 

properties, 832 

Meetings of Maintenance of Way Depart- 
ment, 743 

Merit system of discipline, 191 [Hardy], 904, 

906 

Track construction, *85; [Weber], *534 

Fort Worth, Texas, Improvements, 781 
Framingham, Mass.: 

Car house, *431 

Freight rights, 875 

Franchises, Valuation method [Floy], 662 
Freight and express: 

Birmingham, Ala., *81S 

Easton, Pa., Package transportation, 164 

Forms used in freight handling, 816 

-Framingham, Mass., Railway rights, 87 5 

Illinois Traction Co., United States Expres 

Co., 612 

Indiana, Ruling of Railroad Commission, 835 

Lancaster, Pa., Trolley as moying van, *791 

Massachusetts situatior. 212 

New Haven, Conn,, Trolley express truck, 

*91 

Rates for transporting milk and cream, 

Scranton, Pa., 454 

Rates, Joint, with steam, Iowa, 621 

Truck, Trolley, New Haven, *91 

Freight stations, Birmingham and Ensley, Ala., 

*815 



Fuel: 

Alcohol and gasoline. Relative value of, 682 

Tests of various grades of fuel, U. S. Geo- 
logical Survey, 642 
(See also Coal) 

Funeral trains, Electric, Milan, Italy, *10 



c 

Gages, Truck for different, *23 

Gaining machine for car and bridge construction 

(Fay & Egan), *144 
Gas engines: 

Failures in Great Britain, 744 

Maintenance [Ryerson], 50, c396; [Marburg], 

cl82 
(Mesta), 828 

Milwaukee & Northern Ry., Experience dur- 
ing storm, 186 

Operation of, by steam engineers, 841 

Producer gas for engine use: its manufacture 

and characteristics [Tuttle], 824 

2000-K W. gas-electric set for Bessemer 

works, *749 

Gasoline motor cars: 

Gasoline-electric : 

Delaware & Hudson R. R., *135 
(Strang), *435, 544 

Small Western roads, 249 

Southern Pacific R. R., 612 

Gates, Car, Screen, Topeka, *185 

Gear cutting tool, on axle (Osmer). *497 

General Electric Co. : 

Annual report, 800 

Curtis turbine business, 705 

General Managers' Association of McAfee prop- 
erties, Meeting, 832 

Generators: 

Commutating pole. 2700k.w. (G.E.), *221 

■ London County Council (Dick, Kerr & Co.), 

*400 

Motor generator vs. rotary converter in 

railway service, 273, *278 
Germany: 

Statistics, 730 

Trackless trolley lines, 249 

Glasgow, Municipal control, 395 
Glenn, T. K., *194, 236 
Glenn, W. H., *236 

Grand Rapids, Mich., Car house and club rooms, 
*45 

Grant, H. F., 668 

Great Britain, Statistics, 299 



H 

Hamilton Street Ry., Financial Matters, 500 
Hapgood, Richard, 305 

Hartford, Conn.. Bidding system of filling 

vacancies, 465 
Havana Electric Railway Co., Annual meeting, 

409 

Heaters for vestibules (Peter Smith), 144 
Heating, Massachusetts report, 56 

(See also Ventilation) 

Henry, Frank R., *506 
High-tension direct current: 

Experiments with 4000 volts, 223 

Indianapolis and Louisville Ry. [Hewett], 

*4; [Murdock], 501 

Comments, 1 

Railways in Europe, *727 

Hoists in repair shoos, 630 

Holland -American Construction Co., Dissolution 
of, 895 

Houston, Texas, Semi-convertible cars, *496 
Huff. S. W. *305 



I 

Ice leveler. Flanged teeth (Gifford-Wood), *287 
Illinois Railroad Commission, Annual report, 461 
Illinois Traction Co.: 

Bridge at St. Louis, Mo., *15 

Express service, 612 

Merchants' excursions, 849 

(See also Decatur, III.) 

Impostor, Plausible, 835 

Incandescent lamp testing meter (Johns-Man- 
ville), 24 

India, Surface contact system for Benares. *7S4 
Indiana; 

Accidents, 835 

Earnings of companies, 502 

Express companies and ruling of Railroad 

Commission, 83 5 

Fares, Right to make special, 150 

Merger with Kentucky lines, 912 

Operating rules discussed by railway repre- 
sentatives before Railroad Commission, 
345 

Railroad Commission, Annual report, 91, 664 

Railway situation [Nicholl], 178 

Railway statistics, 141 

Taxation of interurban lines, 7 59 

Indiana Engineering Society, Annual conven- 
tion, 141 

Indianapolis, Tolls on interurbans, 229 
Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction Co,: 

Ticket system, *381 

Track laying, *90 

Indianapolis, Crawfordsville & Western Traction 
Co.: 

Car tests, ISl 

Details of system, *850 



Indianapolis &■ Louisville Traction Co., 1200-volt 
direct current line [Hewett], *4; [Mur- 
dock], 561 
Comments, 1 

Inspection and maintenance practice. Data sheets 
of A. S. & I. R. E. A., 874 

Inspection by mileage. Costs of. compared with 
time-interval system, 483 

Inspection of rolling stock, Interborough Rapid 
Transit Co., *480, *51 1 

Institution of Civil Engineers, Annual Meeting, 
876 

Insulation of high tension transmission lines 

[Denneen], *899 
Insulators: 

High voltage lines [Locke], *5 71 

Section insulator (Ohio Brass Co.), *143 

International Electrical Exposition at Marseilles, 
France, 153 

Interstate Commerce Commission, Classification 

of accounts. (See Accounting) 
Interurban railways: 

Car intervals. Determining proper, 37 

Fares, Handling [Crafts], 685; Discussion, 

732 

Publicity for, 309 

Iowa, Joint freight rates required, 621 

Iowa Street & Interurban Railway Association: 

Convention, 353, 666, 731 

Depreciation and publicity. Resolution on, 

789 

Italy, Proposed railway development, 869 



J 

Jackson, Miss., Power station, *278 
Japan: 

Statistics of railways, 385 

Tokio hydro-electric plant, 220 

Tokio municipal bonds. 2 53 

Jolict, 111., Dellwood Park. -^118 

Journal bearings. Cost of renewal. New York, 681 

lournal boxes. Proper packing of, *517 

L 

Laboratory of the Georgia Railway & Electric 

Co.. Atlanta, 498 
Lackawanna & Wyoming Valley Ry., Cars, *26 
Lake Shore Electric Ry., Annual report, 229 
Lamp socket. Key-locking (G.E.), 618 
Lancaster, Pa. : 

Fare receipts, *383 

Trolley express, *791 

Leeds, England Track brake tests, *13 
Legal decisions: 

Canada definition of street railway, 146 

Charters, franchises and ordinances, 292 

Fare, Special, Indiana, 1 50 

Independent contractors, 288 

Coupler heights, 882 

Joint rates, steam road and electric, Iowa, 

621 

Negligence, Liability for, 288, 649 

Passengers. Constructive acceptance of, 649 

Pennsylvania's two-cent law unconstitu- 
tional, 150 

Sanitary condition of cars, Indiana, 488 

Lewiston. Augusta & Waterville Street Ry., Ex- 
tensions, 462 
Lexington & Interurban Ry., Organization, 190. 
Lighting, Electric, Linolite System, 184 
Lighting of cars. Improvements suggested, 415 
1 ightning arresters: 

Aluminum cell (G.E.), *792 

Choke coil, with discharge rod (Lord). *573 

Condensers used for, Watertown, N. Y., 201 

Electrolytic (Westinghouse), *618 

Horn, Indianapolis, *853 

Horn (Siemens-Schuckert), *575 

Lima, Ohio, Promotion of traffic by Western 

Ohio Ry. [Price], 138 
Line cars. (See Tower car; Work cars) 
Liverpool, Annual report, 762 
Locker, Metal (Darby), *223 
Locomotives, Electric: 
Chicago tunnel, *646 

Comparative tests of steam and electric, 

N. Y. Central R. R., 393 
Comparison of single-phase and three-phase, 

[Valatin], *16 

Detroit River tunnel, *494 

Spokane & Inland Ry., 491 

Locomotive, Steam, Discussion on passing of, 

346 

London: 

Conduit construction, *172 

Surface contact system, *569 

Underground railways. Finances, 253, 703, 

761 

London letters, 27, 187, 404, 579, 756 
Long Island Railroad Co.; 
Annual report, 704 

Reply to Circular of Interstate Commerce 

Commission, 786 
Los Angeles, Cal.; 

Huntington denies Harriman purchase, 621 

Interlocking switch and signal system for 

Pacific Electric Ry., 496 
Louisville, Ky.: 

Proposed consolidation, '9 1 2 

Strikes in 1907 [Funk], 20 

Transfers, 818 

Lorisville Railway Co., Annual report, 353 
Lubrication: 

Interborough Rapid Transit Co., *516 

Large plants. Lubrication in [Davis], 7 52 

Motor oil box. Integral, *74 

New York A Queens County cars. 551 



(Abbreviations: ''"Illustrated, c Correspondence. ) 



VI 



INDEX. 



[Vol. XXXI. 



M 

MacGovern, Archer & Co., 584 
Maine, Earnings for 1907, 204 
Maintenance department: Co-operation with 

claim department, 509, 806 
Maintenance of overload lines. (See Overhead 

construction) 
Maintenance of rolling stock: 
— —Anderson, Ind., 538 

Car defect record system, Boston, 554 

Interborough Rapid Transit Co., *672, *8S7 

(See also Repair shop practice) 

Maintenance of track. (See Track construction) 
Manchester, England, Park, the "White City," 

*112 

Manchester, N. H., Pine Island Park, *606 
Maps: 

Boston Elevated extension, 262 

Easton, Pa., and interurban lines, 160 

Fairmont & Clarksburg Traction Co., 808 

Indianapolis & Louisville Traction Co., 4 

London County Council tramways, 7 56 

Manhattan and Bronx boroughs showing sub- 
way and elevated systems, 479 

New Jersey, Public Service Ry., 715 

Northern Electric Street Railway, Scranton 

Pa., 448 

Northwestern Elevated R. R. extension to 

Evanston, 111., *842 
Porto Rico, 274 

Richmond & Chesapeake Bay Ry., 364 

Sacandaga Park, 316 

San Diego, Cal., 418 

Washington, Baltimore & Annapolis Ry., 240 

Marseilles International Electrical Exposition. 

153, 406, 470 
Martin, T. Commerford, decorated by French 

Republic, 100 
Massachusetts: 

Dividend-paying street railways, 231 

Electric railway properties of N. Y., N. H. & 

H. R. R., 831 

Fares : 

Higher, 357, 468, 596, 644, 797, 832, 914 
Statistics concerning, [Sullivan], 261. 
Comments on, 272 

Freight and express situation, 212 

Interurban railway condition, 95, 234, 670 

Legislation matters, 191, 267 

Public utilities bill, 151 

Railroad Commission, Report, 55 

Temporary railway locations, 582 

Massachusetts Electric Co. : 

Earnings, 795 

Report for 1907, 54 

Mathes, L. D.. *764 

Measuring instruments, Milli-voltmeter and 
shunt ammeter (Bristol), *92 

Medical outfits for employees, Oakland [Brownl, 
*171 

Memphis, Tenn.: 

Accounting system, 819 

Reconstruction of railway system, *530 

Street railway Y. M. C. A., 498 

Wrecking car, 399 

Mercury arc rectifiers for moving-picture ma- 
chines, *699 

Meter, Incandescent lamp testing (Johns-Man- 
ville), 24 

Mexico: 

Cars for Parral, *184 

Notes from, 300, 358. 471 

Mexico City: 
Cars, *224 

"Seeing Mexico" parlor car service, 166 

Michigan, Statistic; ''if 
Milan, Italy, Electric funeral trains, *10 
Mileage book, Central Electric Traffic Associa- 
tion, 905 
Millen, Thomas, *413 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light'Co., Inter- 
state Commerce Classification, Reply to 
circular, 614 

Minneapolis: 

Big Island Park and Lake Minnetonka 

[Warnock], *I06 
— — Earnings, 235, 351, 798 

Minnesota Railroad Commission, Proposed 

jurisdiction over electrics, 408 
Montreal, Car house, De Fleurimont St., *208 
Montreal Street Railway Co., Increase in capital, 
154 

Motor cars. Gasoline. (See Gasoline motor cars) 
Motor oil box. Integral, *74 
Motors, Electric: 

Commutating pole, G.E. 205, *9 

G.E. A-603, 247 

G.E. A-603A, *365 

Series repulsion railway motor (G.E.), *82, 83 

Siemens-Schuckert interpolc, *183 

Comments, 198 

Westinghouse No. 300, *215 

Moscow tramway purchase rumored, 191 
Mullaney, T. F., *837 

Municipal ownership in Copenhagen, Decision 
against, 386 



N 



Natick & Cochituate Street Ry. Co., Financia 

statement, 357 
National Amusement Park Association, Aims and 

objects, 129 

National Fire Protection Association, Report on 
standard construction for car houses, 
912 

Natural gas. Cost, Fairmont &"ClarksonlTraction 
Co., *810 



Natural resources, CDnservation of: 

Meeting, American Society of Mechanical 

Engineers. 644, 708 

National conference at Washington, 840 

New England Street Railway Club, 440, 471 582 

737, 876 

New Hampshire Railroad Commission Report, 
232 

New Haven, Conn.: 

Park proposed for Lighthouse Point, *123 

Trolley express truck, *91 

(See also Connecticut Company: New York, 

New Haven & Hartford R. R.) 
New Jersey: 

Governor's message on the railroads, 98, 150 

Operating reports of railway companies, 644 

Public Service Ry. (See Newark, N. J.) 

New Jersey Short Line R. R., Receivership, 354 
New Orleans: 

Car blockades, 192 

Changes in personnel, 617 

Condenser speed regulation, 629 

Curtis turbines. Tests, 789 

Transfer system, New, 151 

Waiting stations, *2 5 7 

New Orleans Railway & Light Co., Annual meet- 
ing and reports, 438, 703, 707 
New publications, 32, 359, 411, 472, 918 
New South Wales, Finances, 226 
New York Central R. R., Electrification: 

Financial matters [Wilgus], 393 

Locomotive order, 501 

Savings, Estimated, 491 

Storage battery house ventilation, *495 

Third rail shoes. Telltale clearance, 9 

New York City: 

Accidents, 97, 300, 470 

Earnings of New York City companies, 360 

Franchise tax assessments, 569 

Hudson & Manhattan R. R.: 

Financing of companies, 190 
First train, *49, 190 
Inspection of upper tunnel, 299 
Opening, 307, *329, 356 
Signal system, 402 
Third-rail construction, *330 



-Interborough-Metropolitan Ry.: 
Finances, Statement by 
Shonts, 351 



President 



Interborough Rapid Transit Ry.: 

Bond issue, 439, 468 

Car cleaning methods and costs, 522 

Car equipment department, 476, *478, 

*510. *672, *857 
Coal specifications, 284 
Contact shoe data, *858 
Delay records, 483 
East River tunnel: 

Effect on Brooklyn traffic, 152 

Opening, 50, 58, *88 

Train dispatching, *492 
Elevated road. Legality of third track, 

468 

Financial statement, 409, 438 
Labor cost at inspection shops, 483, 486 
Ninety-sixth street track changes, *2S3 
*343 

Organization chart of car equipment 
department, 478 

Reply to Circular of Interstate Com- 
merce Commission, 786 

Steel cars, *422 

Subway reports: 

Capacity, Arnold report, 882, 889 
Car design. Report by 13. J. 

Arnold, *337, 849, 889 
Signal system. Report by B. J. 
Arnold, 463 

Third-rail construction in tunnels, *330 

Ventilation system, *645 
New York City Ry.: 

Car house construction, *205 

Cars, Pay-as-you-enter, *256, 468, 490 

Changes in organization, 356 

Consulting engineers to the receivers, 
616 

Financial statement, 501 
Fire loss, 408 

Health campaign by means of transfers, 

396 

Railway officials exonerated, 669 

Replacement costs, 470 

Reply to Circular of Interstate Com- 
merce Commission, 786 

Transfer decision, 876 
New York cS: Queens County R. R. : 

Current collection in tunnel, *492 

Proposed sale of tunnel to city, 58, 408 
Notes, 30, 58, 97, 190, 233, 300, 355. 408, 439, 

468, 501, 583, 622, 659, 70S, 761, 802, 

833, 877, 915 

Pennsylvania R. R., Tunnels, Progress, 410 

-Public Service Commission: 

Brooklyn service, Recommendations, 
300 

Investigation, Results of, 692, 797 
Rapid Transit Act, Proposed changes in, 
97 

Recommendations by Gov. Hughes, 3 1 

Report for first six months, 149 
Subways, New Plans for, 30, 226, 266, 664, 

839, 917 
Third Avenue Lines: 

Finances, 190, 233 

Improvements, 913 

Receivership, 58 

Report of Receiver, 872 

Transfer matters, 581, 876 

Williamsburg Bridge underground terminal 

for Brooklyn cars, *592 

(Abbrev'ations: * Illustrated . c Correspondence.) 



New York City Club: 

Discussion of traction affairs, 470 

Transit exhibit, *10 

New York, New Haven & Hartford R. R.: 

Earnings, 299, 876 

Electric locomotive guarantees, 233 

Electrical equipment. Notes on, 153 

Electrification out of Boston, 665 

Freight and express business in Massachu- 
setts, 212 

Multiple unit a.c.-d.c. cars, 496 

New Canaan branch. Single-phase to be 

adopted, 20 

New York and Port Chester, Plans for line 

between, 59 
Park circuit, *321 

Single-phase distribution with special refer- 
ence to sectionalization [Murray], *77 
Comments, 65 
Discussion, 83 

Trolley purchases. Legal status of, 407, 831 

(See also Connecticut Co.; New Haven) 

New York Railroad Club: 

Dinner to H. H. Vreeland, 268 

Electrical night, 491 

New York State: 

Legislation matters, 300 

Street railway statistics, 64 

New York State Public Service Commission: 

Classification of accounts for lighting com- 
panies, 635, 67 1 

Report for first six months, 149 

New York State Street Railway Association: 

Executive session, 462 

Statement concerning Interstate Commerce 

classification, 868 
New Zealand, Tramway law. Proposed new, 142 
Newark, N. J.: 

Pay-as-you-enter car, *648, 873 

Public Service Corporation: 

Bond issue, 796 

Earnings, 584 

Maintenance of Way department 
[Schreiber], *714 

Shop Foremen's Association, 50 

Newcastle-on-Tyne, Special work, *400 

Norfolk, Va., Cash fare receipt, *211 

Norfolk & Portsmouth Traction Co., Annual re- 
port, 916 

North American Co.: 

Annual report, 148 

Bond issue, 762 

Northampton, Pa., Traction Co., Construction 
and operation, *160 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light Co., Annual re- 
port, 188 



Oakland, Cal., 'Medical outfits [Brown], *171 
Ogdensburg, N. Y., Coleman fare box, 224 
Ohio: 

Excursion rates. Right to make, 350 

Legislation, 150, 173, 234, 267, 302, 409, 440> 

467, 469, 501, 580, 625, 663, 704 

Railroad Commission Report for 1907, 48 

Railway situation [NichoU], 178 

Tax suit test, 299 

Ohio Electric Ry., Speed record, 828 

Ohio G. A. R., Special electric railway rates, 828 

Oil cup. West Penn Co., 523 

Oil filter, *520 

Oil house. New York Interborough, *521 
Omaha, Neb.: 

Campaign against accidents, 210 

Method of handling claims [Gross], 735 

Ontario, Earnings, 785 
Organization diagrams: 

New York Interborough R. T., Mechanical 

Department, 478 
Public Service Corporation, Maintenance of 

Way Department, 715 
Ottawa Electric Railway Co., Annual report. 227 
Overhead construction: 

Flexible hangers for contact wires [Mayer], 

*697 

Maintenance, Indiana Union Traction Co, 

636 

Memphis, Tenn., *531 

Richmond & Chesapeake Bay Ry., *369, *370 

Safety device for splicing sleeve, *252 

Sag adjuster, 24 

Scranton, Pa., Northern Electric Street Ry., 

*450 

Standards in Austria, 745 

Tangential suspension for trolley wire, *570 

Twelve hundred volts d.c, *8 

(See also Catenary construction) 



Painting of wooden cars. New York, Costs, 858 

Paris underground railways, 895 

Parks and pleasure resorts: 

Amusements : 

Contractors for attractions, 134, 347 
Moving pictures and their possibilities, 
325 

New entertainments, * 131 

Roller skating, * 1 09 

Vaudeville in parks [Hulse], *124 

Brockton & Plymouth Street Railway, 164 

Chicago Water Chutes Park, *130 

Contoocook Ri\er Park, Boston & Maine 

R. R., *608 
Design: 

Evolution of the modern park [Cope- 
land], *122 

Park for all kinds of weather [Hulse], 
*319 



i; 



January — May, 1908.] 



INDEX. 



VII 



Parks and pleasure resorts : (Continued) 
Dubuque, la., Union Electric Company's ex- 
perience [Mathes], *310 

Easton, Pa., *116, *604 

Fort Smith, Ark., *n4 

loliet. 111., *n8 

Kinderhook Lake, Albany & Hudson R. R., 

*326 

Management : 

Accounting and collecting receipts, 
Joliet, 111., 118 

Creating enthusiasm, Hinston. 110 
Manchester, England. The "White City," 

*112 

Manchester, N. H., Pine Island Park, *606 

Minneapolis, at Big Island Park and Lake 

Minnetonka [Warnock], *106 

New Haven, Conn., Proposed park, *123 

N. v., N. H. & H. R. R. Co.'s park circuit, 

*321 

Norumbega, Newtonville, Mass., 131, 460 

Pine Bluff, Ark., Forest Park, *605 

Sacandaga Park in the Adriondacks, *316 

St. John, N. B., Rockwood Park. *313 

Schenectady Ry. Co., Forest Park, *314 

Troy, N. Y., New Rensselaer Park, *324 

Passenger-mile cost of railway operation, 888 
Passengers, Limiting in New York. 589 
Pay rolls. Machine for printing, *694 
Pennsylvania: 

Independent contractor. Legal decision, 288 

Railroad Commissioners, 98 

Railway data for 1907, 702 

Two-cent law unconstitutional, 150 

Pennsylvania R. R., Annual report, 410 
Pennsylvania Street Railway Association, Meet- 
ing of executive committee, 3 1 
Peoria, III., Electrolysis E.uit, 469 
Peru, Railway notes, 15, 348 

Philadelphia, American Railways Co., Earnings 
912 

Piles, Reinforced concrete, 867 
Pine Bluff, Ark., Forest Park, *605 
Pipe bending machine, Pneumatic (Underwood) 
*52 

Pit construction. (See Car houses) 
Pittsburg : 

■ Car with side rods, 82 7 

Pay-as-you-enter-car experiment, 29, 35 61 

Philadelphia Co., Report, 798 

Steam turbines at Brunot Island power 

• plant, *908 
Wage dispute. 871 

Pittsburg & Allegheny Valley Ry., Reorganiza- 
tion of, 702 

Poles: 

Combined use of, by railway, telephone and 

lighting companies, *530 

Crnsumption in 1906, 260 

Galvanized steel, for transmission lines 

(Milliken), *436 

Metal (P. P. & F. Co.), *403 

Preservation. (See Timber preservation ) 

Specifications, Northwestern Cedarmen's 

Association, 866 
Polyphase railways in Europe, 728 
Portland, Ore.: 

Bridge, *790 

Extensions, 757 

Increase in travel, 430 

Porto Rico, Tramway and power developments 
in, *274 

Pottsville, Pa., Eastern Pennsylvania Railways. 

IJxtension, 412 
Power station practice: 

Alternators, Remedying defects in parallel 

operation of, 51 

Auxiliaries, 36, 883 

Fuel. (See Coal) 

High-pressure, and high-temperature steam 

363 

Inspection records, Value of, 768 

Pilot lamps in power stations, 447 

Raising the load factor, 768 

Working conditions in small plants, 238 

Power station records: Fuel records and station 

outputs, 445 
Power stations: 

Baltimore, Reconstruction, *7 70 

Bay Shore Park, Baltimore, *7 76 

Birmingham, Ala., *884 

Brunot Island, Pittsburg. *908 

Combined railway, lighting and exhaust- 
steam plant [Boughton], 640 

Connellsville, Pa., Original deviecs, *524 

Crawfordsville, Ind.. *850 

Fall River, Mass., Auxiliary equipment 36 

lackson, Miss., *278 

Mechanicsville, N. Y., *783 

Watertown, N. Y., No attendants, *,'00 

Windsor, Essex & Lake Shore Rapid Rv 

*40 1 . ■ 

(See also Substations) 

Power transmission. Progress in, 713 

Preston, England, Truck, Compensating. *2i 

Pretoria, S. A., Contemplated changes, 746 

Producer gas. (See Gas engines) 

Providence, R. I., Operating department, changes 
in, 154 

Pumps, Boiler feed, of special design, *52 5 

Q 

Question box of Southwestern Electrical & Gas 
Association, 865 

R 

Rail bender for heavy rails (P. P. & F. Co.), *576 
Rail joints: 

Brazed, Tests, 402 

Clark joint in Buffalo [Clark], c396 



Clark, Tests in Cleveland, 465 

Rails, T: 

Controversy in Columbus, 584, 665 

Recommended for Detroit, 99 

Register cards on cars, 723 
Reinforced concrete: 

Electric railway construction [Stark], 733 

Piles and ties, *86 7 

Progress in construction, 417 

Viaduct of Richmond & Chesapeake Bay Ry . , 

*374 

Repair shop practice: 

Anderson, Ind., 285, *647 

Boring wheel with lathe, *726 

Chicago City Ry., *597 

Keeping track of distantly located shops, 67 

Lifting apparatus necessary, 881 

New York Interborough Rapid Transit Co., 

*478, *510, *672, *8S7 

New York & Queens County Ry., *546 

Ordering of parts, Brooklyn, *2 59 

Planning for the future, 1 

Tool lists. Importance of keeping, 308 

Tool locations in shops, 5 7 

Welding of motor cases by thermit process, 

*647 

West Penn Rys., *73 

Wheel grinder, *286 

(See also Maintenance of rolling stock) 

Repair shop records. Purposes of, 591 
Repair shops: 

Anderson, Ind., *539 

Chattanooga, Tenn., *632 

Chicago City Ry., *S98 

Elyria, Ohio, *724 

Marshall, Brooklyn, Coil insulation, *5 7 7 

New York & Queens County Ry., *546 

St. Louis, *487 

Washington, Baltimore & Annapolis Ry., 

*246, 248 

Repair wagons. (See Tower wagons; Tower car; 
Work cars) 

Rhode Island Railroad Commission, Report of, 
504 

Richmond & Chesapeake Bay Ry., Single-phase 

system [Hewett], *364 
Road Congress, International, at Paris, 726 
Rotary converters. Truing up commutators 

[Greer], *54S 
Rutland Railway, Light & Power Co., Annual 

report, 701 



s 

Safety devices. (See American Museum of 

Safety Devices) 
St. John, N. B., Rockwood Park, *313 
St. Louis, Mo.: 

Bridge of Illinois Traction Co.. *15 

Cars, Pay-as-you-enter, 355 

Cars with steel underframe, *42 

Club rooms for employees, *263 

— Earnings of the United Railways, 59, 354, 

503, 661, 701, 703, 912 

Repair shops. Addition, *487 

Statistics of operation, 391 

Tax on street railways, 878, 917 

Tower car with pneumatic hoist, *52 

Trouble wagons, *17, *22 

St. Paul, Minn., Twin City Rapid Transit Co. 

(See Minneapolis) 
San Diego, Cal., Street railway system, *418 
San Francisco: 

Earnings, 759, 798 

Extension to San Jose, 913 

Financial conditions, 232 

Ocean Shore Ry , 44, 169 

Terminal station for steam and electric lines 

301 

Track reconstruction, *68 

Western Pacific R. R., Electricity for, 266 

Sand box for continuous and intermittent flow. 

Preston, Eng., *26 
Sand dryer of Public Service Ry., *716 
Sao Paulo Tramway, Light & Power Co., Annual 

report, 830 
Saw, Band rip (Fay & Egan), *224 
Schedules: 

Analysis of, 159 

Boston night chart, 566 

Schenectady Railway Co., Forest Park. *314 
School tickets in New Jersey, 52 
Scranton, Pa.: 
Cars, *452 

Lackawanna & Wyoming Valley R. R., 

Avoca substation, *8 1 2 

Northern Electric Street Railway Co., *448 

Seattle, Wash., Fake claim, 875 
Shanghai Tramways, Construction notes, *18 
Shop Foremen's Association, Newark, N. J., 50 
Shreveport, La., Safety device for splicing sleeve, 

*252 

Signals. (See Block signal system) 
Signs: 

Indicator for run numbers, *696 

Suggestions, 66 

Signs, Electric: 

Electric kaleidoscope, 618 

Porcelain signs (Colonial), *619 

Simplon tunnel railway, *72 7 
Single-phase railways: 
Europe, Notes, 728 

Richmond & Chesapeake Bay Ry. [Hewett] 

*364 

Status [McClellanl, 282 

Switzerland, 826 

Washington, Baltimore tic Annar'olis Ry., 

*240 

Windsor, Essex & Lake Shore Ra|>id Ry. 

[DeWitt], *38 
York, Pa., *683 



Snow plow (Wilder), *572 

Snow sweeper, Watertown, N. Y., 201 

South America: 

Guayaquil Tramway Co., 252 

Western, Electrical conditions in, 232 

Southwestern Electrical & Gas Association: 

Convention at El Paso, Texas, 821, 863, 865 

May meeting, 471 

Meeting of Executive Committee, 99 

Spokane, Wash., Theater train service on the In- 
land Empire, 166, 207 
Springfield, 111., Interurban traffic, 827 
Springfield, Mass., Extensions, 707 
Standardization of accounts. (See Accountants' 
Association: Accounting, Interstate 
Commerce Classification) 
Standardization data sheet of American Street & 
Interurban Railway Engineering Asso- 
ciation. 913 

Standardization of trolley wheels, harps and poles 

[Cole], 561 
Statistics: 

Austria, 1905, 24 

Boston traffic, 61 

Canadian electric railways [Payne], 165 

Chicago L traffic, 54 

Earnings of New York City street railway 

companies, 360 

Great Britain, 299 

Massachusetts. 1898-1907. 56 

Pole consumption in 1906, 260 

(See also Financial) 

Steam separator. Horizontal, *525 

Steam turbines. (See Turbines, Steam) 

Step. Folding. Troy, N. Y., *76 

Steubenville & East Liverpool Railway & Light 

Co., Extensions, 375 
Stoker, Underfeed (Taylor), *397 
Stone crushers, Newarl:, N. J., *719, *720 
Storage batteries: 

Correction of troubles, 869 

Unit principle (S. E. A. Co.), *I85 

Storage battery houses: 
Concrete house, *162 

Ventilation on the N. Y. Central R. R.,'*4g5 

Stores department. Economy in. 806 

Street Railway Journal combined with Electric 

Railway Review, 805 
Street scrapers and wheels (Nuttall), *143 
Strikes: 

Chester, Pa., 665, 707 

Chicago, threatened, 834 

Cleveland municipal lines, 875 

Indiana Union Traction Co.. 57. 99. 356 

Louisville. Ky.. in 1907 [Funk], 20 

Pensacola, Fla., 665, 707 

Substations : 

Avoca substation of Lackawanna & Wy- 
oming Valley R. R., *812 
Baltimore system, *774 

Chicago & Northwestern Elevated R R 

*843 

Construction costs, Reducing, 590 

Fires in, 807 

Indianapolis, Crawfordsville & Western 

'fraction Co., *85S 

Richmond & Chesapeake Bay Ry., *372 

^Washington, Baltimore & Annapolis Ry., 248 

Surface contact system: 

Benares, *754 

London, *569 

Swiss report on American electric railways, 895 
Switzerland, Second single-phase railway, 826 
Switchboards, Continuous-current, Types of 348 
Switches, Electric, Car passing from 600 to 'l200 
volts. *9 

Switches, Track, Three-way (Allen), *19 
Syracuse, Lake Shore & Northern 'r. R., Con- 
struction details [Wharft], *2 50 



T 

Taxation and public service in Baltimore. 46 7 
Terminal of Williamsburg Bridge, *S92 
Terminal stations: 

Baltimore, *241 

Decatur, 111.. *641 

Richmond & Chesapeake Bay Ry., *373 

— San Francisco union terminal proposed, 301 

lerre Haute. Indianapolis & Eastern Ry.. Sema- 
phore switch signals, *bl2 
Testing plant for cars at Worcester Polytechnic 
Institute. *254 

Tests: 

Fuel tests by U. S. Geological Survey 642 

rests of cars by Purdue students on indian- 

apolis, Crawfordsville 8i Western Ry., 
181 • ' ' ' 

Texas floods, 914 

Theater at Celaron Park, Lake Chautauqua, *125 
Theater train service developed in Spokane 
Wash., 207 

Thermit welding of motor cases, Anderson Ind 

*647 
Third-rail : 

Belgium, Under-running, 346 

Chicago, South Side, *380 

Contact shoe data, Interborough Rapid 

Transit, *858 

East River tunnel, N. Y., & 0. C. R R *-it;2 

Hudson River tunnels, *330 ' 

Shoe fuses in New York. *S14 

Telltale for clearance of shoes. 9 

Through routes in city service, 271 
Tickets: 

Cash fare receipt, Norfolk, Va., *211 

Cleveland, Aluminum 3-cent disks, *898 

Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction Co *381 

Mileage book, Central Electric Traffic 'Asso- 
ciation, 905 
Milk tickets, Scranton, Pa., *4S4 



(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence. ) 



VIII 



INDEX. 



[Vol. XXXI. 



lickets (Continued.) 

School tickets in New Jersey, 52 

Tickets as a fare medium for street and inter- 
urban railway traffic [Ohmer], 896 

(See also Fares; Transfers) 

Ties: 

Preservation. (See Timber preservation) 

Reinforced concrete, *867 

Renewals, 743 

Timber jjreservation: 

Circular, U. S. Forest Service, 436 

Creosotes, Analysis and grading of, 747 

Directions for using Avenarius carbolineum, 

*754 

Open tank treatment for ties and cross-arms, 

*567 

Review of present practice and economics 

[Schoch], 821 
Time-table imposter, 410. 434 
Toledo. Ohio, Railway merger. 918 
Toledo, Fostoria & Findlay Ry., Completion, 153 
Toledo & Indiana Ry., Receivership, 603 
Toledo Railways & Light Co.: 

Agreement with city, 871 

barnings, 147, 265, 502 

Finances, 832 

Topeka, Kan., Cars with screen gates, *185 
Tower car with pneumatic hoist St. Louis. *52 
Tower wagons, St. Louis: 

Automobile wagon. *22 

Transportation cars, *17 

Track construction; 

City construction for interurban cars 

[McMath], 141 

Cost of concrete beam track [Weber], *85 

Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction Co., *90 

Location of electric railways [Baldwin], 782 

Maintenance of track on new grade [Smith], 

907 

Memphis, Tenn., *530 

Proper construction and maintenance [Web- 
er], *534 

Public Service Ry., New Jersey [Schreiber], 

*714; *720 

San Francisco reconstruction, *68 

Standards in Austria, 745 

T-rail construction in paved streets [Lowd], 

♦864 

Trackless trolleys in Germany, 249 
Traffic, Promotion of [Price], 138 
Transfers : 

Advertising on, Baltimore, 392 

Audit of, 629 

Baltimore, Used in campaign against disease, 

93 

Chicago, Special, *464 

Health campaign in New York, 396 

Limitation of, New York City, 876 

Louisville, Ky.. 818 

New Orleans, 151 

New York City, Discontinuance of certain 

transfers, 581 
Transformers : 

Changing transformer connections in emerg- 
encies, 343 
Portable set for park lighting, 609 



Transportation department, Buffalo, 167 
Trenton & New Brunswick R. R., Receivership, 
354 

Trolley base (Bayonet), *574 
Trolley bushing, Rifled (Ives), *578 
Trolley catcher (Lord), *578 
Trolley ear (Dyer), *576 
Trolley harps: 

Balanced spring (U. C. F. Co.), *646 

(R. F. R. Co.), *573 

Trolley pole. Tension indicator for (C. A, Co.), 
*755 

Trolley wheels and sleet scrapers (Nuttall), *143 
Trolley wheels, harps and poles. Standardization 

of [Cole], 561 
Trolley wires, Wear of, with sliding contact, 154 
Trouble wagons. (See Tower wagons; Tower 

car; Work cars) 
Troy, N. Y., New Rensselaer Park, *324 
Trucks: 

Chicago & Northwestern Elevated R. R., 

*848 

Design of [Vauclain], *562 

(Preston), for different gages, *23 

Storage battery (Westinghouse), *23 

Watertown, N. Y., *202, *203 

Tunnels. (See names of railways under New 

York City) 
Turbines, Steam: 
Cairo, Egypt, 572 

Comparison of Parsons and Curtis turbines 

[Emmet], 21, 432; [Bibbins], 332 

Curtis, Tests at New Orleans, 789 

Double-flow, Brunot Island power plant, 

Pittsburg, *908 

Exhaust elbow and valve box, *526 

"Mixed pressure" (Williams & Robinson), 

403 

Westinghouse-Parsons, Statistics, 504 

Turnstile for street cars, *648 

u 

Underwriters' National Electric Association, 

Proposed changes in rules, 440 
Unit, Value of a [Carver], 537 
Utica & Mohawk Valley Ry., Symbol for, 191 

V 

Ventilation: 

Instruction to conductors, 104 

New York subway, *645 

Watertown cars, N. Y., 202 

Vesuvius Railway, 698 

Viaduct, Reinforced concrete, Richmond & 

Chesapeake Bay Ry., *369, *372, 374 
Visalia, Cal., Semi-convertible cars, *287 
Vreeland, H. H., Dinner to, by New York Rail- 
road Club, 268 

w 

Wagons. (See Tower wagons) 
Waiting stations: 

New Orleans. *2 5 7 

York & Hanover Ry., *683 

(See also Terminal stations) 



WalHs, R. N., *506 

Washington, -D. C, Capital Traction Co., Report 
of, 228 

Washington, D. C, Railway cS: Electric Co.: 

Annual report, 834 

Attempt to defraud, 153 

— — Directors, 146 

Washington, Baltimore & Annapolis Ry., Single- 
phase system, *240 
Washington: 

Chehalis & Centralia Railway & Power Co.. 

193 

Power development in the Inland Empire, 57 

Watertown, N. Y.: 

Black River Traction Co. [Lefevre], *200 

Car and truck work proposed, 300 

West Jersey & Seashore Ry., Plan for leasing, 762 
Westboro & Hopkinton Street Ry. Co., Financial 

statement, 357 
Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co.: 

Bond plan. 154 

Finances, 664 

Reorganization, 757, 799 

Westinghouse Machine Co,, Changes, 623 

Weston, C. V., *63 

Weston, George, 101 

Wheel grinder (Remelius), *286 

Wheels: 

Boring with lathe, *726 

Flange wear, Chicago elevated, 791 

Inspection, New York Interborough, 515 

Investigation of steel and cast iron wheels 

[Flower], 32 

Renewal cost. New York, 857 

Standards in Austria, 745 

Williamsburg bridge terminal. (See New York 

City) 

Windsor, Essex & Lake Shore Rapid Ry., Single- 
phase equipment [DeWitt], *38 

Winnipeg Electric Street R. R., Annual report 
191, 438 

Winnipeg purchases railway and light properties, 
584 

Winston-Salem, N. C, Semi-convertible cars, *52 

Wisconsin. Public utility law and depreciation 
accounts, 169 

Wisconsin Electric & Interurban Railway Asso- 
ciation, Meeting, 153 

Worcester, Mass., Grade crossings, 878 

Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Electric car- 
testing plant, *2 54 

Work cars: 

Design of, 399 

Line car, Cleveland, Southwestern & Colum- 
bus Ry., *725 

Lme car on Western Ohio Ry., *S59 

Lisbon, Portugal (Brill), 87 

Public Service Ry., *717, *718 

Y 

York, Pa., Single-phase railway, *683 
Y. M. C. A. work, Memphis, Tenn., street rail- 
way, 498 
Youngstown & Southern Ry., 9 



AUTHOR INDEX 



A 

Alexanderson, E. F. New single-phase railway 
motor *82 

Arnold, B. J. Report on subway car design in 

New York, *337 
Report on subway signal system, New York 

City, 463 

B 

Baldwin, R. H. Economic location of electric 

railways, 782 
Bibbins, J. R. Turbine economies, 332 
Boughton, J. H. Combined railway, lighting and 

e.xhaust-steam plant, *64U 
Brockway, W. B. 'Ihe small company and the 

new classification of accounts, 427 
Brown, J. Q. First aid to injured employees, 

*171 

Button. C. P. Signal systems for electric rail- 
ways, 140 

c 

Carver, D. F. The value of a unit, 537 
Clark, C. H. The Clark joint in Buffalo, 396 
Cole, Adam. Standardization of trolley wheels, 

harps and poles, 561 
Copeland, H. L. Evolution of the modern 

amusement park, *122 
Crafts, P. ^. Handling fares on interurban rail- 
ways, 685 

D 

Denneen, F. S. Insulation of high tension trans- 
mission lines, *899 

De Witt, S. C. Single-phase equipment of the 
Windsor, Essex & Lake Shore Rapid 
Ry., *38 

E 

Emmet, W. L. R. Turbine economies. 21, 432 

F 

Funk, J. T. Louisville strikes, 20 

c 

Grcf V. C. L. Truing up rotary commutators, 
*545 

Gross, A. W. Methods of handling claims by 
electric railways, 735 



H 

Hardy. Frank. Merit system of discipline, 904 
Hewes. John. Axle hearings and collors, 529 
Hewett J. R. Indianapolis & Louisville 1200- 

volt direct current line, *4 
Richmond & Chesapeake Bay single-phase 

railway, *364 
Hulse, E. P. Preparing a street railway park for 

all kinds of weather, *319 
Vaudeville in electric railway parks, *124 

K 

Kochersperger, H. M. The Interstate Commerce 
classification, 729 

L 

Lawton, W. H. The Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission's classification, 691 

Lefevre, A. H. Black River Traction Companv 
of Watertown, N. Y., *200 

Locke, F. M. Insulators for extremely high 
voltage lines, *57 1 

Lowd, Mark. Track construction, *864 

M 

Mapledoram, B. A. Chicago and New York Air 
Line, 907 

Marburg, L. C. Gas engine maintenance. 182 

Mathes, L. D. Park experience of the Union 
Electric Company. Dubuque, la.. *310 

May, W. W. Interstate Commerce Classifica- 
tion of accounts, 613 

Mayer, Joseph. Flexible hangers for the over- 
head contact wires of electric railways. 
*697 

Murdock. H. D. 1200- volt d.c. system of the 
Indianapolis & Louisville Traction Co., 

561 

Murray, W. S. New Haven system of single- 
phase distribution with special reference 
to sectionalization. *7 7 

N 

NichoU, H. A. Electric railway situation in the 
Central States, 178 

o 

Ohmer, J. F. Tickets as a fare medium for street 
and interurban railway traffic, 896 

(Abbreviations: * Illustrated, c Correspondence. ) 



P 

Payne, J. L. Electric railways in Canada, 165 
Price, C. F. Promotion of traflfic, 138 

R 

Royse, Daniel. Depreciation in electric railway 

accounting, 687 
Ryerson, W. N. Gas engine maintenance, 50 

396 

s 

Schoch, E. P. Review of the present practice 
and economics of timber preservation 
821 

Schreiber, Martin. Way department of the Tub- 
lie Service Railway Company, *714 

Smith, William. How best to maintain track on 
a new grade, 907 

Stark, N. M. Reinforced concrete in electric 
railway constrnr-tion, 733 

T 

Taylor, R. C. Fundamental brake rigging for 
high speed electric railway cars, 177 

Tingley, C. L. S. Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission's proposed classification of 
accounts. 455, 785 

Tuttle, W. B. Producer gas for engine use: its 
manufacture and characteristics, 824 

V 

Valatin, Bela. Large electric locomotives for 

heavy service, *16 
Vauclain, A. C. Electric motor and trailer trucks 

*562 

Vordermark, H. E. Employees' mutual benefit 
association. 902 

' w 

Wallis, R. N. Interstate classification and the 
small railway, 459 

Wamock, A. W. Big Island Park and Lake 
Minnetonka, *106 

Weber, H. L. Proper construction and main- 
tenance of tracks in electric railway 
service, *5.H 

The permanent way, *85 

Wharff, E. M. Syracuse, Lake Shore & Northern 
R. R., *250 

Wight, C. L. Interstate Commission statistics 
and accounts, 736 



Street Railway Journal 



XXXI. NEW YORK, SATURDAY, JANUARY 4, 1908. No. 1 



Vol. 



Published Every Saturday by the 

McGraw Publishing Company 

James H. McGraw, Pres. Curtis E. Whittlesey, Sec. & Treas. 



Main Office: 
NEW YORK, 239 West Thirty-ninth Street. 



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Code used. 

Copyright, 1907, McGraw Publishing Company. 



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REMITTANCES. — Remittances should be made by check. New York 
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BACK COPIES. — No copies of issues prior to September, 1904, are 
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DATE ON WRAPPER shows the month at the end of which the 
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that date will be much appreciated by the publishers. 

During 1907 the Street Railway Journal printed and cir- 
culated 427,250 copies, an average of 8216 copies per week. 
Of this issue 8250 copies arc printed. 

The Twelve Hundred Volt Road in Indiana 

There has been so much discussion on the relative ad- 
vantages of single-phase and 1200-volt direct current for 
interurban railway operation that a great deal of interest 
attaches to the description of the Indianapolis & Louisville 
l20o-volt line published in this issue. This system has been 
made possible only by the introduction of the commutating 
pole motor, which has now become common on a number 
of 6oo-volt lines where the conditions under which the 
motors operate are so arduous that a more highly developed 
machine than those formerly used is required. The Indian- 
itpolis & Louisville Railway, however, constitutes the first 



application of the motor in this country to double the usual 
railway voltage. Whether this line is to be the precursor 
of a considerable development of 1200-volt railways re- 
mains to be seen, but it is at least to be followed by an 
immediate and larger installation by the Southern Pacific 
Railway on its Oakland lines, as has already been chronicled 
in our news columns. 

An examination of the details of the equipment of the 
Indianapolis & Louisville Railway shows that while the line 
potential in tiie interurban sections of the system is 1200 
volts, all parts of the equipment have been designed to 
operate, so far as possible, on 600 volts. Thus the genera- 
tors are of this voltage, but are mounted in pairs on the 
engine shaft and are connected in series so as to supply both 
potentials. The motors on the higher tension portions of 
the line also operate in series and the auxiliary car circuits 
are supplied with 600 volts by a dynamotor or motor- 
generator with 600 volts on each of its two commutators. 
Of course provision has to be made in the motors for mo- 
mentary increases in voltage, owing to the slipping of 
wheels and other possible causes, so that they, and other 
parts of the equipment which are also subject to this tem- 
porary increase in pressure, have to be insulated for this 
contingency. On the other hand, the diagram of feeder 
distribution indicates the practical results secured by the 
.system through the absence of sub-stations on a 30-mile 
line and the small amount of overhead copper required. 

Although it involves the use of a slightly more compli- 
cated car equipment than that usually employed on inter- 
urban railways, we do not see why the system should not 
prove entirely practicable, and it certainly affords econo- 
mies of moment. Whether the gain by doubling the volt- 
age is sufficiently high to make the 1200-volt system a seri- 
ous competitor to the single-phase equipment in a large pro- 
portion of the roads which are awaiting construction re- 
mains to be seen. Nevertheless, there must be many cases 
of interurban lines of about this length, where the ability 
to operate without sub-stations would prove very conveni- 
ent, especially as the equipment can readily be employed on 
600-volt sections in cities without the necessity of carrying 
much additional apparatus. 

Looking Forward to Trouble That May Occur 

When a car shop once gets behind in its work, the ten- 
dency is toward further delay and congestion unless some 
special effort is made to catch up. The reason is evident 
when the procedure in some shops overcrowded with work 
is watched closely for a few hours. Two men may be 
changing armatures under a small car, a job which should 
require perhaps three-quarters of an hour, but if they are 
delayed in their work because other departments in the 
shop are behind time, they may take twice as long as they 
should. Perhaps there are no bearings of the proper-.«ize, 
and tiir lathes may be in use on some undertaking which 



2 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. i. 



cannot be stopped, so that the men engaged on the armature 
are compelled to scrape out bearings for themselves. Again, 
the brush holders may be found in need of repairs, and as 
none in good order can be found the work is delayed until 
those taken out of the motor can be put in order. There 
may be a dozen other causes for longer or shorter delays. 
If many of the details of the repair work take twice as 
much time as necessary, there is evident reason for the 
shop getting farther and farther behind with the repairs. 

Much inconvenience and delay, and maintenance charges 
as well, will be reduced considerably if during dull periods 
every man will do some planning for the future. This is 
primarily, of course, the duty of the foreman, but with 
proper training the men may be taught to help. There is 
hardly a shop in which dull periods do not come when the 
foreman is at a loss to know some work at which to put 
his men. Occasionally he may even tell them there is 
nothing to do. A few weeks later the same foreman may 
be "up in the air" because he has no stock of repair parts 
ready. There may be plenty of worn bearings, shorted 
controller blow-out coils, burned-out canopy switches or 
circuit-breakers, brush holders with weak springs, and other 
defective electrical parts, but none can be found ready for 
immediate use. 

The foreman who does look forward to the "rainy day," 
or more specifically, probably, to the lightning storm, will 
find that he can take care of cripples about as fast as they 
come in. Instead of holding a car two hours or more until 
a controller blow-out coil or a canopy switch can be re- 
paired, he detains it probably fifteen minutes, or just long 
enough to change coils or switches. And in a hundred other 
ways time is saved just when time is valuable. Time in 
this case also means money and a saving also of nervous 
energy until a time when it can be used to better advan- 
tage. 

Operative Aspects of Electric Railroading 

We abstracted last week a paper on steam railroad elec- 
trification by W. N. Smith, which is rather out of the 
ordinary in that it lays especial stress on operating condi- 
tions. There is little doubt that most discussions of the 
electrification question have been too much from the single 
standpoint of cost of motive power, or from that of in- 
creased capacity due to increased acceleration. In some 
special cases these considerations are entirely pertinent, but 
when the matter of general railway operation is taken up 
the situation is altered. If one examines the detail of gen- 
eral railway operation it is at once apparent that motive 
power and increased capacity due to acceleration are not 
the determining factors in earning capacity. Mr. Smith 
lays especial stress on the effect of block signals and pre- 
cautions generally on track capacity and his suggestions 
are of rather serious import. He intimates that the in- 
creased capacity for train movement found on some inter- 
urban lines is secured by a far looser system of train dis- 
patching than is considered safe on steam railroads and 
goes so far as to say pretty plainly that since with single 
cars the probability of an accident on a large scale is dim- 
inished there is a corresponding tendency to take long 
chances. 

We have more than once remarked that interurban roads 



might well profit by the dearly bought experience of steam 
railways in train dispatching, but that interurban managers 
consciously take undue risks in order to keep up capacity 
we very much doubt. If such a thing is true it is the rare 
exception. The fact is that electric railroading has grown 
up from street railways proper in which each car takes 
care of itself by observation. The growth of telephonic 
dispatching from this is an obvious one and before the 
management is aware of the fact it sometimes happens that 
the safe limitations of telephonic dispatching have been al- 
ready past. The ease with which electric operation can be 
adopted to an absolute block system is well understood, yet 
the hesitancy of steam roads in going into automatic block 
signalling puts them in a bad position to criticize their 
neighbors. Hardly more than 3 per cent of the railway 
trackage of the United States is controlled by automatic 
blocks and only about 173^ per cent is actually controlled 
by any kind of block system. The full absolute block sys- 
tem is not a favorite with railway men since it is likely 
sometimes to tie up traffic which a permissive block system 
would in nineteen cases out of twenty let through in entire 
safety. Railway men do not like to remember what occurs 
in the twentieth case. Yet the permissive block system as 
carried out on many railways implies, in Mr. Smith's judg- 
ment, a considerably higher degree of caution than is usua) 
on interurban electric roads. And Mr. Smith also points 
out that a block system carried out in the usual manner 
actually saves time over a mere telegraphic dispatching 
system owing to prompter notice to the train hands. 

The main point of Mr. Smith's contention seems to be 
that in the comparisons between electric and steam motive 
power there has been a large unconsidered factor due to 
the necessities of practical train dispatching which must be 
fully taken into account before one can properly calculate 
the costs of handling traffic after electrification. The 
precedents of interurban roads are unsafe to follow. Prac- 
tically all roads yet operated by electricity deal with a 
fairly uniform kind of traffic handled at fairly uniform 
speed. The average steam road on the contrary finds some 
of its chief traffic difficulties in the necessity of handling 
everything, from fast through expresses to local freight, on 
a single track, at least in one direction. One cannot there- 
fore readily generalize on the effect of electrification re- 
garding traffic upon a single track, or for that matter upon 
a double track road. Each separate case must be consid- 
ered upon its merits. It may easily happen, for instance, 
that the limit of practicable train weight and speed in 
freight haulage may depend upon the necessary schedule 
for maintaining connections with a few fast passenger 
trains. The single car scheme for passenger traffic so at- 
tractive in electric railroading may become absolutely dis- 
astrous on a line already overloaded with freight, which 
from motives of economy must be hauled in long trains. 
Mr. Smith naturally favors electric traction, yet feels as do 
many practical electrical engineers that there are very many 
operative features which have been given scant considera- 
tion by those in charge of installations, who have at- 
tempted, without experience in the details of railway opera- 
tion, to treat of the general case. It has in fact been far 
too usual to dismiss such matters with the intimation that 
they will take care of themselves after electric motive 



January 4, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



power is adopted. Without doubt electrification will pro- 
duce marked changes in operation, yet the great uncer- 
tainty on this point is a serious obstacle to such improve- 
ment. 

Aspects of the Pay-as- Yoa-Enter Car Problem 

If the operation of the pay-as-you-enter cars now on trial 
in some of the larger cities of this country is. sufficiently 
studied by executive officers, there is little doubt that some 
most valuable conclusions will be turned to account in the 
general improvement of rolling stock design with regard to 
traffic conditions. The problem of car selection in differ- 
ent climates and cities is one of such breadth that each new 
type of car placed in service can be made to contribute 
something to the general solution for a given locality or 
division or system. For many years the set arrange- 
ment of the interior arrangement of cars, except, so far as 
length is concerned, seemed as immutable as the laws of the 
Medes and Persians, or as the existing steam railroad 
coach. The Brownell "accelerator" type was perhaps the 
first departure which received any considerable acceptance. 
It is becoming more and more apparent now, however, that 
the details of car design are of immense importance in the 
successful handling of traffic, which means the minimum 
expense for accident claims no less than the economical 
movement of rolling stock in sufficient volume to meet the 
business of¥ered. 

The advantages of the pay-as-you-enter car have been so 
often discussed that they need not be repeated at this time, 
but it is worth while to touch upon some of the incidental 
features of the car selection problem with respect to the 
pay-as-you-enter car in particular, the introduction of new 
types of rolling stock upon lines where the public is familiar 
with long established car designs, and the securing of 
greater freedom from accidents under existing conditions. 
In some cities a change in car type is liable to arouse con- 
siderable hostile criticism from the public unless the com- 
pany's patrons have the matter presented to them clearly 
and tactfully before the cars are placed in service and dur- 
ing the early days of the new operation. Following out 
this idea in one city where pay-as-you-enter cars were 
placed in commission on certain lines for trial purposes, 
the company distributed to its patrons a short time before 
the change was made small cards showing the new cars in 
plan, the seating and aisle arrangements, the position of the 
conductor on the rear vestibule and the normal path of the 
passenger through the car from the time of boarding to the 
time of departure. These cards, with the simple, straight- 
forward directions painted on the bodies and also given by 
the conductor to uncertain passengers as they entered the 
rear vestibule proved to be a great help in reducing con- 
fusion and in preparing the public mind for the change, 
M'hich was, of course, revolutionary in comparison with the 
former practice of requiring the conductor to collect fares 
inside the car and watch the steps. There is certainly a 
field in the local newspaper press for the clear explanation 
of new car types prior to their use on the tracks of a busy 
division. 

If the full benefits of a pay-as-you-enter type of car are 
to be enjoyed it is important to consider the detailed fea- 
tures with great care beforehand. Some recent improve- 



ments suggest what can be done in this direction. The 
separation of entering from exit traffic is essential to short 
stops, measured by the average number of passengers taken 
on or discharged in a given time. To this end the small 
side door at the conductor's left in the rear vestibule should 
normally be closed. In times of congestion when passengers 
cannot well work their way out through the car aisle to the 
front vestibule it may be used as an exit, but care must be 
taken to keep passengers from entering at this point. An- 
other point of value in a recent pay-as-you-enter car con- 
sists in placing the grab handles inside the vestibules to 
prevent boarding the car while it is in motion, and particu- 
larly when the doors are closed. Finally, the arrange- 
ment of a locking lever operated by the motorman in con- 
nection with the front vestibule door seems to prevent acci- 
dents at the forward end of the car. These features are not 
all conditioned by the type of car being of the pay-as-you- 
enter variety, but are applicable to the semi-convertible 
easy-access car as well. They may also be perfectly satis- 
factory in one city and not suited to the conditions 
of another. The point is that an inch or two of 
difference in the location of minor fittings may make a 
vast difference in the operating success of a given car type.. 
In some cars the different operating handles are incon- 
veniently located in the vestibules, and the lack of easy con- 
trol of special features may contribute to an accident in 
time of emergency. Closer study on the part of car build- 
ers of the actual operation of some of these features in 
service is certain to result in progress. 

Redticing Congestion on Terminal Platforms 

As traffic increases at electric railway terminals it be- 
comes more and more essential to reduce the congestion of 
platforms caused by the short train units handled in limited 
trackage spaces. An example of such a terminal is the 
Sullivan Square station of the Boston Elevated Railway 
Company. This is a double level station for combined sur- 
face and elevated service, and on the elevated train level 
free bodily transfer is given between the trains and the sur- 
face cars which have been berthed on stub tracks after as- 
cending an incline from the street. On the street floor 
there are only surface cars running through the station on 
loop tracks. The growth of traffic at this station has been 
very considerable within the last two or three years and the 
running of foreign cars into the station at the elevated level 
has added to the burdens of the terminal, largely on account 
of their relative infrequency. 

The longer headway of these large through cars has re- 
sulted in increasing the congestion at the platforms imme- 
diately served by them through the accumulation of waiting 
passengers who desire to take the through rather than the 
local lines. Both local and through cars are operated on 
the same stubs, and the accumulation of through passengers 
was found to interfere so much with the movement of local 
patrons that the company has recently transferred all the 
through cars to the lower level, leaving the upper level free 
for elevated and local service in larger volume. Short 
stairway connections afford easy access to both classes of 
service. Re-distribution of this kind are well worth con- 
sidering in all cases where there are several classes of in- 
terfering service. 



4 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXX I. No. r. 



THE INDIANAPOLIS & LOUISVILLE 1200 VOLT DIRECT 
CURRENT LINE 



r.Y JOHN R. IIEWETT 



Tlie lines of the Indianapolis & Louisville Traction Com- 
pany extend from Seymour in the north to Sellcrsburg in 
the south, which is a distance of a little over fortv-one 




MAP SHOWING ROUTE OF THE INDIANAPOLIS & LOUISVILLE 
LINE AND CONNECTIONS 

miles, and, as the name implies, the company will operate 
through cars from Louisville, Ky., to Indianapolis, Ind., 
making a run of 1 10 miles. The line is of special interest 
from manv standpoints. It is the first interurban road to 



the first railway in this country to be operated on the high- 
tension, direct-current system. The electrical features will 
be dealt with later in the present article. 

The connections between Indianapolis and Louisville are 
made as follows: The lines of the Indianapolis, Columbus 
Southern Traction Company extend from Indianapolis to 
Seymour and are operated at 600 volts direct current. The 
Indianapolis and Louisville lines connect Seymour with 
Sellersburg'and operate at 1200 volts direct current, while 
the Louisville & Northern Railway & Lighting Company 
; nd the Louisville & Southern Indiana Traction Companies, 
respectively, connect Sellersburg with Jeffersonville and 
Jeffersonville with Louisville, both roads being operated 
at 600 volts direct current, the latter penetrating into the 
heart of Louisville, Ky. 

The accompanying map emphasizes the importance of 
I'lis new road, showing the connections now made possible 
between Louisville and places of importance in Indiana. 
I'he Indianapolis & Louisville line parallels the tracks of 
the Pennsylvania Railroad for a considerable part of the 
way, and, owing to the fact that the steam trains run at 
very frequent headways, it is anticipated that a very large 
])ortion of the local traffic will be secured by the new road. 
The prospects for building up a large express and light 
freight business are very encouraging. The prices charged 
for transportation will be below those of the competing 
steam railroad, and as the 2-cent fare law is in force 
throughout Indiana, the facilities for cheap transportation 
will be increased. Excellent terminal facilities have been 
secured in both Indianapolis and Louisville to enable the 
company to carry its passengers to the center of both cities. 

GENF.R.\L SCHEME OF ELECTRIFICATION 

The general scheme of electrification is of a most simple 
nature. The 1200-volt direct current is generated in the 
power house by two standard 6oo-volt railway generators 
connected in series, and is fed direct to the trolley and feed- 
ers. There are no sub-stations. 

POWER HOUSE 

The power house is at Scottsburg, Ind., about midway 
l>etween Seymour and Sellersburg. It is a substantial red 
Ijrick and steel building with a dividing wall separating the 
engine room from the boiler compartment. Its over-all 
length iheasures 108 ft. 6 ins. and its extreme breadth is 




POWER HOUSE, CAR BARN AND ARTIFICIAL LAKE, INDIAN.\rOLlS & LOUIS\"ILLE LIXE 



give connection through this section of the country with 
the capital of Indiana, which city holds such a prominent 
position in the field of electric traction, and it is one of 
the best constructed electric roads in the country ; but the 
most interesting feature will be found in the fact that it is 



III ft. 3 ins. The present mechanical equipment consists 
of two Allis-Chalmers single-cylinder Corliss engines, each 
rated at 750 hp, and four Babcock & Wilcox water-tube 
boilers, each rated at 300 hp, and designed for a steam 
pressure of 160 lbs. per square inch. Additional space is 



Jaxuarv 4- 19C8.J 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



provided in the power house for anot'ncr engine and for 
two water-tube boilers of the same rating as the above. 
At present the engines are working non-condensing, as 
in tlie first place some uncertainty was felt as to whether 
an ample supply of water would be available. Now, how- 
ever, an excellent water supply has been obtained by the 
construction of an artificial lake, and it is probable that a 
condenser plant will be installed. 



of the building. Arched openings connect this pit to the 
boiler room. In this manner the coal is taken direct from 
the pit to the boilers. The i)it is filled with coal from 
above, rails being laid along its length and supported by 
cross I-beams only, so that the hopper-car can discharge 
direct to the pit. 

The plan of the power house gives a good conception of 
the general layout, while the accompanying half-tones 




TWO-CAR TRAIN ON INDIANAPOLIS & LOUISVILLE LINE 



The chief items in the electrical equipment are four 
General Electric M. P. 8-300- 120-600- volts, compound 
wound generators. Two of these units are mounted on the 
extended shaft of each engine and have their armatures 
in series to give 1200 volts. The fields are also connected 
in series on the grounded side. 

The switchboard consists of six panels, all of which, 
together with the instruments, were supplied by the Gen- 



show, respectively, the general exterior appearance of the 
Iniilding and the interior of the boiler room. The power 
house has two steel stacks, each 125 ft. high. A third will 
be added when the additional equipment is installed. 



CAR HOUSE 



The car house is also at Scottsburg. It is a red brick 
building and has more than sufficient capacity to hold the 




S^S-FT. BRIDGE ON INDIANAPOLIS & LOUISVILLE LINE, CROSSING MUSCATATUCK RIVER 

eral Electric Company. They are as follows: Two gen- present equipment, which consists of eight 50-ft. passenger 

erator panels, two feeder panels and two exciter panels, cars and two express cars. The length of the building is 

The switches are all of the knife pattern. 173 ft. 4 ins. and the width 69 ft. 10 ins. The four tracks, 

The provisions made for handling the coal are of a very which extend the entire length of the structure, each have 

simple nature. A pit has been constructed immediately a 55- ft. wheel pit. 

outside of the boiler house which runs for the entire length One corner of the car house has been equipped as a 



6 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[\\,L. XXXL No. I. 



workshop and drill presses, lathes and forges have been 
installed. The facilities in this direction provide for the 
inital equipment of the cars, as well as for the subsequent 
repairs. The storeroom, motormen's and conductors' room, 
together with the offices of the train dispatcher and general 
superintendent of the line, are all under the same roof as 
the car house. The water tower, partly seen to the right in 
the exterior view of the building, has been erected to 
reduce the fire risk. It has a capacity of 30,000 gallons. 




as "Richmond B." and consist of an iron tube ins. in 
diameter and 9 ft. long. TKfe insulators were supplied by 
the Ohio Brass Company and provide double the insulation 
which is customary for 600-volt constructions. 

The poles are placed 90 ft. apart on tangents and 60 ft. 
spacings are allowed on curves. Native chestnut poles are 
used throughout. These measure 8 ins. at the top and 14 
ins. at the bottom. They are all set in the ground for a 
depth of 6 ft. in cuts, and an additional depth of 2 ft. is 
allowed on fills. 

A single No. 0000 trolley wire of 
grooved section is employed. It is 
held in alignment by 8 four-screw 
clamps reinforced with soldered 
strain guys every half mile. Light- 
ning arresters are installed every 
1000 ft. and are tapped alternately to 
the trolley and feeder. Telephones 
have been installed throughout the 
system, and jack boxes are attached 
to the poles at all sidings and at half- 
mile intervals. 



EXTERIOR OF INDIANAPOLIS & LOUISVILLE COMPANY'S CAR BARN 



One of the accompanying cuts present a general view of 
the company's property at Scottsburg, showing the power 
station, car house and the artificial lake. This lake has an 
estimated capacity of 15,000,000 gallons and was made by 
the building of the bank seen in the picture. The bank is 
armoured with concrete and serves as the embankment for 
the main track. The power house, car barn and lake occupy 
approximately 32.3 acres. 

TRACK 

The line of the Indianapolis & Louisville Traction Com- 
pany consists of a single track throughout with turnouts 
about every three miles. The gage is standard, and the 
rails, which are of the Carnegie Section B, weigh 75 lbs. 
per yard. The rail bonds are brazed 
on to the outer side of the rails and 
cross bonds are installed about every 
1000 ft. The ties are of white and 
black oak spaced 2-ft. centers. The 
track is rock ballasted for its entire 
length. 

Illustrations are presented of the 
two most important bridges on the 
road. One, showing the bridge span- 
ning the Muscatatuck River, is 525 ft. 
long with a central truss span of 135 
ft. and smaller spans of 24^ ft. each ; 
the other shows the bridge across the 
Vernon Fork of the same river, 480 
ft. long, with a central truss span of 
150 ft. and five 66-ft. spans. 

The right of way in both country and towns is 60 ft. 
wide with certain stretches of 100 ft. in width. The fran- 
chises have been granted to the company for fifty years. 
Depots and freight warehouses are being built at all the 
towns along the line. 

OVERHEAD CONSTRUCTION 

The line throughout is of a single-pole bracket construc- 
tion on tangents and of the span type at curves. The 
insulator used in both span and bracket construction is 
shown in one of the illustrations. The brackets are known 



FEEDERS 

The feeders are supported on the 
telephone crossarms and the feeder 
distribution is shown on the diagram on page 8. The 
power house occupies an appro.ximately central position, 
and as the arrangement of feeders is symmetrical in 
each direction, it is only necessary to consider one- 
half: For the first five miles from the power house the 
feeder has a capacity of 500,000 circ. mils, and for the next 
ten miles 300,000 circ. mils, when the capacity is reduced to 
211,000 circ. mils for two miles. The feeders and trolley 
are tied together every 1000 ft. This is an exceedingly sim- 
ple arrangement and it will be noted that there are no sub- 
stations for the forty-one miles of road. 

THE ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT OF THE CARS 

The entire electrical equipment of the cars was furnished 




BRIDGE CROSSING THE VERNON FORK OF THE MUSCAT.ATOCK RIX'ER 



by the General Electric Company of Schenectady, N. Y., 
and consists of ten motor equipments, eight of these being 
for passenger cars and the remaining two for express 
service. 

The motors are of the G. E. 205 type, which are com- 
mutating pole units rated at 75 hp each when wound for 
600 volts and insulated for 1200 volts. In general, the 
mechanical features of the G. E. commutating pole motor 
are similar to those constructed for standard 600-volt 
service, except that they are provided with four smaller or 
commutating poles between the main poles. The principal 



January 4, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



7 



points of difYerence between this and the standard type 
were described in the Street Railway Journal for June 
22, page 1 1 12, and for June 29, page 1142. 

The commutating poles are permanently connected in 
series with the armature, which arrangement insures a 
variation of excitation and commutating field strength in 
sympathy with the load of the motor. The exciting fields 
are connected and handled in an exactly similar manner 
to those on a standard 600-volt equipment. When operat- 
ing on a 600-volt trolley the motors are grouped in the 
standard series parallel relationship, and when operating 
on 1200-volt trolley they are divided into two groups, each 
of two motors in series. These groups are in series and 
parallel for accelerating and free running, respectively. 
The change from the 600-volt connections to the 1200-volt 
conections is made through the commutating switch de- 
scribed later. 

The control is of the Sprague-General Electric multiple 
unit type, the most essential features of which are the 
master controller, situated in the cab, and contactors and 
reverser, etc., located under the car floor. The following 
paragraphs will give the principal details, which are of 
interest : 

The master controller is of Form C-35 A, and is a stand- 
ard Type M controller, exactly like those used on 600-volt 
equipments. It has a single cylinder with a direct con- 
nected handle and is automatic in action, cutting off the 
power should the motorman release his grip of the handle, 
and also applying the brake at the same time through a 
pilot valve. 

The function of the commutating switch is to change the 
motor connections and the motor rheostat connections when 
the car passes from a 600-volt to a 1200-volt trolley and 
vice versa. The switch used on these equipments is known 
as Type 42A, and is placed in the car alongside the con- 
troller for operating convenience. 

All chances of the commutating switch being thrown 




INTERIOR OF POWER STATION AT SCOTTSBURG, SHOWING 
GENERATORS CONNECTED IN SERIES 



while the controller is in an operating position are elim- 
inated by the fact that it is so designed as to require two 
hands to throw it. The controller, being automatic, re- 
turns to the off position immediately when the motorman 
releases his hand from the handle. 

The direction of rotation of the armatures is reversed 
by a D.B.-22-A reverser. In this instance, the change is 
effected by reversing the direction of the current flow in 



the fields, as the motor connections are so arranged that 
when the car is operated on the 1200-volt trolley the mo- 
tors are connected in two series, and also owing to the 
fact that the auxiliary control circuits are never subjected 
to the higher potential, the reverser is of the standard pat- 
tern used on 600-volt equipments. 

A type 41-A motor cut-out switch is installed on each 
car and is arranged to cut out a pair of motors when op- 
erating on either 600 or 1200 volts. This switch, as re- 
gards its general appearance and operation, does not differ 
from those employed on standard 600-volt equipments. 




INTERIOR OF THE BOILER HOUSE AT THE PLANT AT 
SCOTTSBURG 



Contacts are provided which prevent the operation of the 
control system beyond the series position in the event of a 
pair of motors being cut out when operating on a 1200-volt 
section of the line. 

The operating mechanism of the contactors is similar to 
those used on standard 600-volt equipments, the only point 
of difference being that additional insulation is used to 
meet the requirements of the higher voltage. The bell 
crank for operating the interlocks is insulated and the con- 
tactor boxes are insulated from the car. 

The protective devices are similar to those of a standard 
600-volt equipment, with the exception that an additional 
blow-out is provided in the main fuse-box, which makes it 
more effective. 

To avoid changes in the connections of the controlling, 
lighting and heating circuits when changing from 600 volts 
to 1200 volts a motor generator, or more properly a dyna- 
motor, is carried on the car. This machine can be de- 
scribed as a motor-generator with two sets of windings 
wound on the same core, and in the same slots. It is pro- 
vided with a commutator at each end. The 600 volts for 
operating the control circuit when the car is running on 
1200 volts is obtained as follows: The trolley is connected 
to one set of brushes on the first commutator, the other set 
of brushes on commutator No. i being connected to a set 
of brushes on commutator No. 2, while the remaining set 
of brushes on commutator No. 2 is grounded. As one set 
of windings is always generating while the other set is 
motoring, it is obvious that the potential across the brushes 
of commutator No. 2 will be half of the applied voltage, 
namely, 600 volts. The dynamotor has a rated capacity 
of 12 kw. 

CAR PANELS 

The car panel is in the baggage compartment to the right 
of the motorman's seat, and is, therefore, easily accessible. 
The principal items of its equipments are as follows : Light- 



8 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. i. 



ing switch and fuse, pump switch and fuse, headlight and 
fuses, control cutout switch and fuses, and current limit 
relay. 

CHANGING FROM 6oO TO 1200 VOLTS 

The A. M. S. 22-A switch, shown on the opposite page, is 
employed to make the necessary changes in the con;rol cir- 
cuits when the car passes from a 600 to 1200 volt trolley, 
or vice versa. The normal position of this switch is for 
1200 volts, which prohibits the possibility of the higher 
voltage ever being impressed on any of the auxiliary cir- 
cuits under any circumstances. When the car is on a 1200- 
volt section the switch is at its normal position and all the 
auxiliary circuits are connected to the 600-volt terminals 
of the dynamotor. When the car passes to the 600-volt 
section the switch is thrown and held thrown by a retaining 
coil. In this position the auxiliary circuits are connected 
direct to the 600-volt trolley. It should be noted that the 
energizing coils of the contactors and reverser are never 
subjected to a higher potential than 600 volts. 

All the cables are run in loricated conduits insulated from 
the contactor boxes by fiber couplings. 

METHOD OF CONTROL 

Having given the details of the 
more important pieces of appara- 
tus which go to make up the elec- 
trical equipment, it is a simple 
matter to describe the control sys- 
tem. 

When operating on 600 volts the 
control is exactly similar to a 
standard 600-volt, multiple-unit. 
type-M automatic control. When 
operating on 1200 volts the motors 
are grouped as already described, 
and the control is accomplished by 
supplying (through the medium of 
the dynamotor) a 600-volt current 
for operating all the auxiliary cir- 
cuits. 

From the above it is obvious 
that the only difference in the con- 
troller circuits during 600 and 1200 
volts operation is that in the commutating switch 
former case the auxiliaries are 

connected direct to the trolley as a source of power, while 
in the latter case the dynamotor reduces the higher pressure 
to 600 volts before it is fed to the auxiliary circuits. So, 
in both instances, the control is a 600-volt control. 

INSTALLATION OF APPARATUS 

A point of special interest in these equipments will be 
found in the fact that the method of attaching the elec- 
trical apparatus to the under side of the car is novel and 
possesses some indisputable advantages. All the apparatus 
is hung from specially constructed wrought-iron frame- 
works, which, in their turn, are bolted to and insulated from 
the under side of the car; for example, the large contactor 
box, circuit breaker, reverser, control rheostat for the dyna- 
motor, and the small contactor box for the dynamotor, 
together with the G.G. rheostats, are all hung from 
one metal framework, while the dynamotor is supported 
from another and the compressor outfit from a third. 

These metal frameworks are built up and drilled to tem- 
plate and the apparatus is also drilled to template. The 
principal advantages secured by the adoption of this method 
of installing the apparatus under the car are the following: 



The number of holes drilled on the under framework of 
the car is very materially reduced, and, therefore, the car 
structure is not weakened in any way; the apparatus is 
interchangeable from one equipment to another, everything 






0000 n-oZ/ej'-^ I 




1 M M M 






1 1 1 1 m7i 1 1 1 1 1 


/^aer \oooo 


:300000cm 


^00000 C/)f 


1 jocooo CM \oood 



DIAGRAM OF FEEDER LAY-OUT 




INSULATOR FOR SPAN AND BRACKET CONSTRUCTION 

l)cing drilled to template; greater clearance is left above 
the apparatus for the installation of the cable conduits and 
the brake rigging; the apparatus can be installed in a much 
more compact manner, and thus more available room is 
left on the under side of the car. 

BRAKES 

The brake equipments consist of standard G. E. emer- 
gency, straight-air brakes provided with difYerential gov- 
ernors. The compressors are of type C. P. -22. The func- 
tion of these differential governors is to equalize the work 
on all the pumps on a train of cars when operating in 
multiple unit connection. This is accomplished by the 
provision of two diaphragms of an unequal area. The 
larger diaphragm is connected directly to the main reser- 
voir and the smaller connected to a pipe which is in con- 
nection (when the emergency valve is in its normal posi- 
tion) with the reservoir line running through the train. 
A check valve is located in the pipe leading from the main 
reservoir line -to prevent the passage of air from the latter 
to the former. 

If the governor on any car starts the compressor, the 
pressure in the main reservoir of that car and also the 
pressure in the reservoir line running through the train is 
increased, but the pressure is not raised in the main reser- 




■^KNfl To Tmm Una 

take Clrnder^^ X^^„A To R«»rvoir 

LiDc Air Compressor 

To Brake Cylinder pipj f„ Re„n-oir One must lie Jj" 

CONNECTIONS OF EMERGENCY STRAIGHT AIR BRAKE SYSTEM 
FOR MULTIPLE UNIT OPERATION 

voirs on the remaining cars. This results in the governors 
on the remaining cars being set in operation and insures 
all the compressors doing an equal amount of work. 

The connections of the emergency straight air-brake sys- 
tem for multiple unit operation are shown in an accompany- 
ing diagram. 



January 4, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



9 



CAR BODIES 

The eight cars, which were constructed by the Niles Car 
& Manufacturing Company, are of the combination type, 
each containing a passenger compartment, a smoker and 
baggage compartment and a toilet. They are all single- 
ended cars and the control apparatus is situated in a railed- 
off portion of the baggage compartment. The principal 




INTERIOR OF SWITCH FOR CHANGING CONTROL CIRCUITS 
WHEN CAR PASSES FROM 600 TO 1200 VOLTS 

■dimensions are as follows: Length of the bumpers, 50 ft.; 
baggage compartment, 8 ft. 11 ins.; smoker compartment, 
10 ft. 9 ins.; main passenger compartment, 23 ft. 9 ins., and 
rear vestibule, 4 ft. The extreme width is 8 ft. 10 ins. ; 
height from track rails to under side of sills, 3 ft. 5 ins. ; 




COMMUTATING POLE RAILWAY MOTOR WOUND FOR 600 
VOLTS AND INSULATED FOR 1200 VOLTS 



height from under side of sill to top of trolley base, 9 ft. 
6 ins., and extreme height from top of rail to top of trolley 
"base, 13 ft. 2 ins. The seating capacity is fifty-three, allow- 
ing thirty in the passenger compartment, sixteen in the 
smoker and seven in the baggage compartment. 

The interior of the cars is finished throughout in ma- 
hogany; the ceiling is in the semi-empire style, painted and 
decorated in green and gold. The floors are covered with 
inlaid Greenwich linoleum. The seats in the main passen- 
ger com[)artmcnt are upholstered in plush, and those in the 



smoker are upholstered in leather. Each car is heated by 
a Peter Smith No. 2 hot water heater. 

The trucks, which are of the Baldwin type, class No. 
78-25, were designed for a centerplate load of 25,000 lbs. 
each and have a wheel base of 6 ft. 6 ins. The wheels are 
of hard, forged, rolled steel, 34 ins. in diameter, and with 
rims 23/2 ins. thick. The treads are 3 ins. and the flange 
^8 in. deep. The axles are all forged steel 5^ ins. in diam- 
eter at the motor bearing and 63/2 ins. at the gear seats; the 
journals, which are of the M. C. B. type, are 4j4 ins x 8 ins. 

The two freight and baggage cars are 50 ft. in length 
over buffers with an extreme width of 8 ft. 10 ins. These 
cars are made to resemble the passenger cars as much as 
possible and are painted and lettered in the same style. 


WATCHING NEW YORK CENTRAL SHOES 

It is the standard practice in the New York electric zone 
of the New York Central & Hudson River Railroad, to 
keep the height of the third-rail shoes within yg, in. of the 
standard. To discover shoes not complying with, this re- 
quirement, a spring telltale has been installed at iioth 
Street. At this point the shoe passes through an open 
wood section containing a spring which operates a gong 
whenever the shoe is more than Ys in. high or low. A boy 
on the lookout at this point notes the number of the car or 
locomotive operating the telltale and sends in a report to 
the inspection department. Upon receipt of the report at 
the inspection shed, the men adjust the shoes and also 
determine whether the allowable variation of 3^ in. in 

side play is exceeded. 



THE CONNECTING LINKS BETWEEN YOUNGSTOWN, 0., 
AND JACKSON, MICH., 441 MILES DISTANT 

With the Youngstown & Southern Railway in operation 
between Youngstown and Salem, a through route will be 
established to Jackson, Mich., a distance of 441 miles, and 
the running time will be eighteen hours and fifty-five min- 
utes. In fact, the entire route would be from New Castle 
and other points in eastern Pennsylvania to Jackson, which 
lengthens it to a great extent. The Youngstown & South- 
ern operates between Youngstown and Leetonia, while the 
Youngstown & Ohio River road connects with the Stark 
Electric at Salem. The western terminus of this line is at 
Canton, where it connects with the Northern Ohio Trac- 
tion & Light system, with Cleveland as a northern terminus. 
Between that city and Toledo the Lake Shore Electric op- 
erates cars on a fast schedule and between Toledo and the 
Detroit & Jackson other Everett-Moore roads are in opera- 
tion. On the eastern end the Mahoning & Shenango Valley 
Railway & Light Company operates a system of lines which 
reach a number of Ohio and western Pennsylvania points. 
While the route lies over a number of different lines, the 
system of selling through tickets in operation in Ohio 
will enable the companies to handle passenger business in 
a very satisfactory manner. 



Through the generosity of E. J. Moore, a prominent 
Philadelphian, who was formerly a director of the Inter- 
state Railways Company, the conductors and motormen of 
the Wilmington City Railway Company had a very merry 
Christmas. A fine turkey dinner had been spread for them 
at the company's offices and it was served to the men from 
10 o'clock in the morning until 2 in the afternoon. More 
than 130 of the men enjoyed the dinner. The details were 
all arranged by General Manager S. S. Hofif, who was at 
the office throughout the day to greet the men. 



lO 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[\^0L. XXXL No. I. 



ELECTRIC FUNERAL TRAINS IN MILAN 



In every great city the disposal of the dead is a perplex- 
ing problem and one which as yet has not been very satis- 
factorily solved. Italy, where cremation has long been 
extensively practiced, has perhaps led all other countries 




TERMINAL STATION AT PORTO ROMANO, THE STARTING POINT OF THE FUNERAL 
TRAINS— THE STORAGE CAR HOUSES ARE AT THE LEFT 



art shown in the memorials erected to the deceased. The 
principal cemetery at Milan is owned by the municipality 
and is one of the most extensive and artistic in the world. 
With the recent improvements which are described in this 
article, it forms part of what is probably one of the best 
organized systems of burial in existence. 

Years ago the Milan Government 
recognized the impracticability of 
having a large cemetery located within 
or near the city limits. The value of 
land, the necessity of providing for 
expansion, the dictates of hygiene, 
etc., all led the Government to adopt 
a policy which will ultimately close 
the numerous cemeteries within the 
city and practically all in the suburbs, 
with the exception of Cimitero Monu- 
mentale, which is the one with which 
this article deals. This new cemetery 
is located several miles beyond the 
city limits and is of sufficient area to 
accommodate the requirements of 
Milan for many years. Being at such 
a distance from the city, the Govern- 
ment decided not to make the mourn- 
ers depend upon carriages, but to con- 
struct an electric railway especially 
for carrying the corpses and the at- 
tendants between the city and the 
cemetery. The cemetery A'as opened 
for burial purposes in 1895. At first 
the railway was single track through- 




FUNERAL TRAIN WITH MOTOR CAR CARRYING THE CASKET 



in the scientific conduct of mortuary matters. The prin- 
cipal cemetery at each of the larger cities in the Italian 
peninsular, but particularly in the Northern half, is a 
place well worthy of a visit from the tourist, on account 
of the taste displayed in laying out the grounds and the 



out, but within a year it was changed to double track, so as 
to avoid all delays and confusion, which tend to annoy those 
traveling in the funeral cortege. 

The original city terminus of this line was in Via Bra- 
mante, close to the city limits and alongside one of the 



January .4, lycS.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



II 



older cemeteries still in existence. At this station the body 
is transferred from the hearse to the electric car. Current 
lor the operation of the cars is purchased from the Edison 
Illuminating Company, of Milan, which operates both the 
lighting and street railway systems of the city. The feeder 
system is so arranged that on Sundays, fete days or at other 
times of peak load extra feeders can be switched in to 
reinforce those ordinarily in use. 

A large portion of the track of this 
Stygian railway occupies what is 
practically a private right of way, as 
there is little vehicular traffic at those 
places. As the cars run at slow speed, 
it has been considered necessary to 
use only a 36-lb. T-rail. This rail is 
carried on oak ties 6 ins. x 8 ins. x 
8 ft. and spaced 32 ins. apart, except 
at the joints, where the spacing is re- 
duced to 16 ins. In paved streets an 
84-in. girder rail on steel ties is used 
and standard gage is employed 
throughout. There is nothing of spe- 
cial interest in connection with the 
construction of the line, as the ordi- 
nary bracket type of trolley construc- 
tion is used. 

The rolling stock was especially de- 
signed for the service. The service 
first inaugurated between the Via 
Bramante station and the cemetery 
consisted of hourly funeral trains and 
ordinary passenger trains running 
at 20-minute intervals. The funeral 
train is made up of a motor car and a 
trailer. The motor car carries the 
nearest relatives, eight of whom are 
furnished with free transportation to 



In addition to the funeral trains there is a regular pas- 
senger service for those desiring to visit the cemetery and 
those who live along the line. The cars used in this service 
and for following the train carrying the casket are similar 
in every way to those used on the regular city lines. The 
motor cars are of the single-truck type and can carry 40 
persons, 20 seated and 20 on the platforms. The trail cars 
carry 44 people, 20 seated and 12 on each platform. 




\ FUNERAL TR.MN STARTING FROM THE PORTO ROMANO FUNERAL STATION 




SINGLE TRUCK MOTOR CAR FOR MOURNERS 



SINGLE TRUCK TRAIL CAR FOR CARRYING THE CASKET 



and from the cemetery. The trail car shown herewith has 
two compartments for caskets, with a space above them for 
floral or other tributes. The compartment at the rear end 
of the car is for the clergymen who accompany the bodies. 
Each funeral train is immediately followed by one or more 
passenger cars for the mourners, the number of cars de- 
pending upon the size of the funeral. 



The fare was originally 15 centimes, or 3 cents, each 
way, but in September, 1902, it was reduced to 10 centimes, 
or 2 cents. On page 12 are plotted several curves, which 
will give some idea of the growth of the business done by 
this railway line up to 1906. 

The success of this first station was so marked that the 
Government decided to continue and improve the system. 



12 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. i. 



As stated in the early part of this article, the Via Bra- 
mante station, from which the funeral trains started, is at 
a considerable distance from the center of the town, hence 
people living on the opposite side of Milan have necessarily 
had to travel a long distance by carriage before reaching the 
point of departure. After considerable trouble, the Govern- 
ment succeeded in purchasing a tract of 5680 square meters, 
or about two acres, near the Porta Romana, which is 
on the diametrically opposite side of the city from the Via 




IB95 /m 1397 '898 /d99 /900 ' /90I ' /90i: /90} m^i- . 90^ /9C6 ' 
STATISTICS OF ELECTRIC FUNERAL SERVICE IN MILAN 

Bramante station. On this tract an elaborate ter- 
minal station and mortuary chapel have been built. The 
building is arranged to receive funeral parties and to 
provide suitable rooms in which the funeral services can 
be carried on. Two parties can be taken care of simul- 
taneously, each entering from opposite ends of the build- 
ing. Rooms are also provided for parties who are waiting 
their turn. Opposite this building is a car house in which 
the rolling stock is stored and made up, thus avoiding all 
switching and confusion on the station platform. 
The cars purchased for service in 

the new station differ considerably 

from those used in connection with 

the Via Bramante station. The motor 

cars are constructed to carry only one 

casket at a time. They are of the 

single-truck type, and measure over 

platforms 6.9 meters, or about 22^^ ft. 

The car body is divided into three 

compartments — one for the casket, 

which takes up about a quarter of the 

space ; another quarter is reserved for 

the clergymen, and the remainder of 

the car body, which is separated by a 

partition from the other compart- 
ments, is reserved for the eight mourners, who are given 
free transportation to the cemetery. The platforms are 
closed on the right and are fitted with vestibules. The in- 
side finish of the car is in black walnut and teak. The 
windows are of ground glass, but can be lowered. Each 
window is provided with a shade of dark, lead-colored 
material decorated in Oriental stvle. 



The compartment reserved for the coffin is closed on the 
outside by means of a hinged door, which opens from the 
top toward the bottom, and is balanced and fastened by 
two vertical chains. On the inside there is a false sliding 
door, which, by means of iron rollers and a T-iron track, 
can be slid out upon the open door to facilitate the loading 
and unloading of the corpse. 

Double-truck trail cars are used by those mourners who 
do not travel with the body. At present there are in service 
eight motor cars and five trail cars. The price of tickets 
to those belonging to the funeral party is 30 centimes 
6 cents), and passengers with these tickets are allowed to 
remain one hour in the cemetery. 

This service was begun Oct. 3 of this year, and, for a 
time, only the dead from the districts immediately adjoin- 
ing the terminal station will be taken care of. Later other 
districts will be added to the list. 

With the opening of this new station it is expected that, 
as soon as possible, the old station at Via Bramante will be 
improved, and, as the system develops, two other stations 
will be built, one in the eastern side of the city and one in 
the west. This paper is indebted to Francesco Minorini, 
chief engineer of the Department of Public Works of 
Milan, for the information and illustrations contained in 
this article. 



THE BOSTON & NORTHERN TO HAVE ANOTHER HEARING 



The case of the Boston & Eastern Electric Railroad, one 
of the interurban projects considered in a general order by 
the Massachusetts Railroad Commission several months ago 
and held in abeyance by the commission at that time, is 
about to be reopened. The company has asked the com- 
mission to give a hearing with reference to approval of its 
general scheme as modified since the first presentation. At 
that time the company, having planned a new quick service 
hne from Beverley and Danvers, through Salem and Lynn, 
to Boston, propose to connect it with the Boston Ele- 
vated system at the already overcrowded terminal in Sulli- 
van Square. The commission negatived such a roundabout 
method without dismissing the scheme in its entirety. Now 
the company" proposes to reach the heart of the city directly 
l)y means of a tunnel under the harbor from East Boston 
and a subway from the water front to Postoffice Square in 
the middle of the financial district. Meanwhile it has 




DOUBLE TRUCK TRAIL CAR FOR MOURNERS 



amended and readvertised its articles of incorporation, leav- 
ing out mention of Everett, a city traversed by the original 
line, but not included in the revised survey. The commis- 
sion will shortly set a date for rehearing the matter. 



The directors of the Manila Electric Railway & Light 
Company have declared a dividend of i per cent. 



January 4, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



13 



t'cal pull of about 4,000 Ib^. on lOO-lb. standard rail when 
the magnets are saturated. The retardation of these mag- 
nets when so energized is from 1600 to 1800 lbs. for the 
two on a clean rail at a speed of three to four miles per 
hour. This has been found by separately exciting . the 
magnets and towing the car by another car. The brakes 
were also arranged so as to be applied manually and thus 
be independent of electric operation. 

The brake was found to be practically non-skidding, and 
any momentary stoppage of the wheels, equivalent to per- 
haps one revolution of the same, could be caused only by 
moving the controller right around, instead of passing 
from notch to notch. Further, the skidding in no way 
affected the stop, as residual magnetism was sufficient to 
keep the brake in operation for the fraction of time before 
the car stopped. In attempting to make the wheels .skid 
when going at high speed on a heavy grade they could not 
be made to do more than stop momentarily before com- 
mencing to roll again, and this, as previously stated, did 
not affect the retardation of the brake. 

The possession of a manually operated track brake hav- 
ing the characteristics outlined points to the fact that the 
wheel brakes may be dispensed with, as their use in case of 
emergency is more likely to cause trouble than not, or in 
case of runaways (as experiments have shown) on steep 
grades, it is scarcely possible to stop at all with this brake. 
.\gain, in runaway conditions a motorman should never 
have at his hand a means of rendering more powerful 
l:irakes inoperative, which may easily be done in the ex- 
citement of the moment by the application of the wheel 
brake in addition to the electro-magnetic brake. It follows 
that by the removal of brakes acting on the periphery of 
the wheels the remaining methods of braking are easily- 
arranged so that they cannot neutralize each other if all 
are operated simultaneously. On the other hand, they help- 
each other up to the limit of the full braking force possible- 
Regarding the mcit diffcult fault in electro-magnetic brak- 



1 1 

i I I ' 




ELEN'ATKJN OF LEEDS TRUCK 



BRAKING TESIS IN LEEDS, ENGLAND 



On N.ov. 25, 1907, J. B. Hamilton, general manager of 
the Leeds (England) City Tramways, gave a public test 
with two cars, one No. 87, fitted with the latest type of 
Westinghouse magnetic brake, and the other, No. 270, with 
a new electro-mechanical track brake designed by the 




LEEDS TRUCK WITH TRACK BRAKE 



tramways' own engineer. In view of the careful manner 
in which the trials were carried out the following detailed 
report should prove of interest. All the tests were made 
on Whitecote Hill, the profile and grades of which are 
given in one of the accompanying cuts. The accompanying 
information is from a report by Mr. Hamilton on the sub- 
ject. 

Both cars were of exactly the same weight and carried 
the same equipment except the brakes as noted. They had 
Dick-Kerr 35-A motors, and British Thomson-Houston 
B-13 controllers. Both cars had top deck cover, were 
mounted on Brill 6-ft. wheel base trucks, and weighed, un- 
loaded, 23,600 lbs. each. The Leeds electro-mechanical 
track brake, used on car No. 270, had auxiliary track blocks 
of cast iron. 

The action of the new mechanism, which is shown in 
an accompanying half-tone and drawing, is as follows: 
The main track block travels along the rail backward 
relatively to the car when pressure is applied either by 
exciting the magnet or mechanically. This action takes 
with it the vertical lever, which is in cam form. The 



cams force the triangular-shaped thrust pieces outwards 
and these thrust pieces tend to force the connecting links, 
between the bracket on the car frame and the auxiliary 
blocks, into a straight line, thus applying pressure to the 
auxiliary blocks. The drag or pull of the auxiliary blocks 
is taken by the separate links secured to car frame below 
the axle boxes. 

The magnets on both cars were of the Westinghouse type 
with poles longitudinally along the rail and giving a ver- 



ing, namely, tlie failure -to build up, the use of the electro- 
magnetic brake for service work would insure the contacts 
being always clean and therefore the risk of failure prac- 
tically negligible, but to overcome this possibility of failure 
a switch is provided on the canopy which on being closed! 
connects the trolley line to the magnets. In the event of 
failure of line current or trolley coming off, recourse nuist 
be had then to the manual operation of the track brake. 
The Leeds experiments have shown that at high speeds 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. I. 



(on many occasions 28 to 30 miles per hour) the trolley 
has never once left the wire, and it is reasonable to say 
that the manual application would be fully applied either 
by the motorman, or motorman and conductor, long before 
30 m. p. h. were reached. 

The brake automatically limits the current in the motors 
in the following way : The weight on the auxiliary track 
blocks is taken off the wheels. The greatest amount of 
weight which can be so taken is the weight of the car 
above the axle boxes ; that is, the weight of the motors, 
wheels, etc. (about 4J/2 tons), is always left on the wheels, 
but this is insufficient to drive the wheels to generate the 
high currents obtained on other forms of magnetic brakes. 
The answer to the argument which may be advanced that 
this tends to derailment is, that the same principle is com- 
mon to all track brakes, but with this brake, speed sufficient 
to derail a car by centrifugal force in rounding a curve 
could never obtain, as any one of the three systems of 
operating would check the car before such a speed was 
reached. 

The behavior of the new brake is not greatly affected by 
a greasy rail. The action of the leading block appears to 
scrape the rail clean for the magnet and the rear block. 
The large wearing surface of the brake shoes, over 3 ft. 
per side of car, reduces the heating of the blocks and of 
course the frequency of adjustment and renewal owing 
to wear. A feature common to all magnetic brakes, about 
which it may be useful to remark, is their action when on 
the short pieces of manganese met with at switches and 
crossings. When on manganese the magnets are inopera- 
tive, but the braking effort is transferred to the motors, 
which now act as a common rheostatic brake, as they would 
do if the car was off the track. 

The life of the track is generally limited by the life of 
the rail joints, which is as a rule much less than that of 
the rail between the joints, therefore it seems sensible to 
brake on the rail (apart from the other advantages ob- 
tained therefrom) and obtain useful work from the whole 



Car No. 282. — Fitted with electro-mechanical track brake with au.xiliary 
track blocks. The magnets on this car are identical with those on 
Car No. 87. 

All tests made on grade i in 8.4 i in 9.6, unless otherwise specified. 
No sand used on any of the stops. Rail coated with black deposit. 

TEST NO. I. 

Car No. 87 with wheel gear disconnected and magnets separately ex- 
cited to demonstrate the amount of braking due to the magnets. 

RESULT. 

With magnets excited with 42.5 amps, each, car accelerated. Initial 
sijeed before application of magnets, 5 to 6 miles per hour. Car was 
stopped by wheel brake in addition to magnets on lesser grade immedi- 
ately above Leeds and Bradford. 

TEST NO. 2. 

Car No. 87. — Magnets operated in conjunction with motors. 

RESULT. 

Coasting the above grade at 3 to 4 miles per hour the cunent generated 
per motor was 28 amps, at 166 volts. 

TEST NO. 3. 

Car No. 87. — Coasting with motors only. (Known as rheostatic brake.) 
RESULT. 

.Speed, 3 to 4 miles per hour. Amps, per motor, 40. E.m.f. per 
motor, 204. Car No. 87 was here sent to depot to have wheel brake 

.nllachment refitted. 

TEST NO. 4. 
Car No. 270. — Manual operation of track brake. 

RESULT. 

Coasted down at speed up to 10.3 m.p.li. and stopped when desired. 
TEST NO. 5. 

Brake energized from trolley by special switch on canopy. This affords 
an accurate idea of the work done on the brake as distinct from the 
motors. 

RESULT. 

Speed m.p.h. Amps, per magnet. Distance to stop. 

"■4 39 104 feet. 

I5-0 39 229 " 

It is interesting to note in connection with condition of rail, that the 
preceding week, when the brake was under the inspection of Mr. Baker, 
of Birmingham, and Mr. Simpson, of Preston, the results were as below: 
Speed m.p.h. Amps, per magnet. Distance to stop. 

17-9 37'/i 137 feet. 

18 37K> 126 " 

In this case the rail was wet and rather greasy, which enables better 
stops to be made than when the rail has a coating of nearly dry, black 
deposit. See also remarks below regarding tachometer belt. 




Grades 



16.87 


Cor 5S yds, 


10.43 


53 >■ 


8.4 


.. 00 .. 


0.6 


., 60 " 


11.31 




IB. 13 


30 ■• 


'J.l'j 




lO.'JO 




12.32 


I. 23 •■ 


20.3;; 




21.5 


.. 25 


13.54 


.. 37 .. 


10.21 


.. 00 


12.90 


.. 00 >> 


13.32 


.. 30 


23.3'J 


.. 85 




053 " 



PROFILE AND GRADE OF WHITECOTE HILL, ON V^'HICH TESTS WERE MADE 



of the track instead of, as at present, grinding wheels 
away and having to relay rails not worn out. The report 
also points out that use of track brakes would also tend to 
Teduee corrugation. The results of the tests at Leeds 
follow : 

RESULTS OF BRAKE TRIALS MADE NOV. 25, 1907, ON 
WHITECOTE HILL, RODLEY, LEEDS. ENGLAND 
(Car No. 87. — Fitted with Westinghouse latest form of magnets, but 
without wheel attachment to same. 



TEST NO. 6. 

High speed stops by brake energized by motors. 

RESULT. 
Amps. Volts 
Speed on per motor. per motor, 

application Max. observed. Max. observed, 
of brake. Kick only. Kick only. 

84 



193 
17.8 
21.6 



90 
102 



700 

663 
803 

663 



Distance 
to stop. 
109 feet. 

64 " 
115 



January 4, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



15 



Up to this point the car had i8 passengers on board. Twelve now 
alighted to observe the stops from the road. 

Amps. Volts 
Speed on per motor, per motor, 

application Max. observed. Max. observed. Distance 
of brake. Kick only. Kick only. to stop. 

23.6 90 829 152 feet. 

27.0 94 893 246 

26.3 84 9>8 231 " 

It was noticed more so on the last two stops that the tachometer belt 
was slipping, as in spite of running over the brow of the hill on full 
power for 150 yds., the reading indicated as noted above. It was gener- 
ally agreed that a more correct estimate of speed would have been 30 
miles per hour. 

Again, as compared with last week, the state of the rail as it affects 
to-day's stops are interesting, although the speeds recorded to-day are 
low, due to tachometer belt, already noted. 

Amps. Volts 
per motor. per motor. 

Max. observed. Max. observed. Distance 
Kick only. Kick only. to stop. 

70 561 83 feet. 

90 561 74 

80 446 60 " 

80 765 132 " 

shown, as the test proceeded, indicates as was 
observed at the time, that the blocks had scraped the rail clean. This 
did not happen to the same extent to-day, as deposit was dry and affected 
the braking in a similar manner to what might be expected if rail was 
slightly blackleaded. 

TEST NO. 7. 
down liill with brake energized by motors and 



ST. LOUIS BRIDGE OF THE ILLINOIS TRACTION SYSTEM 



speed on 
application 
of brake. 

19.0 

19-5 

19.7 

24.0 

The improvement here 



Car No. 270. — Coast 
note current required. 



Speed m.p.h. 

10 (estimated) 



RESULT. 

Amps, per motor. 
6 (fairly steady) 

Maximum 8. 
3 to 6 generally 



Max. volts 
per motor. 
15,3 

1 20 



TEST NO. 8. 

Car No. 270. — Make high speed on rheostatic brake, that is, motors only. 
(Brake disconnected.) 



On I in 10. 



RESULT 
to 13 grade, lower part of hill. 



22^ In spite of careful operation of controller, wheels skidded 
almost continuously for approximately 150 yds. until bottom 
of hill was reached. 

19.0 Same result as recorded above. 

TEST NO. 9. 

Car No. 270.- — Coast down on motors. Note high current. 

RESULT. 

This was not done, but the result of same test on Car No. 87, made 
after coasting with magnets (No. 2 test above), will be accurate, as the 
equipments on both cars are exactly alike, and both cars are same weight. 

TEST NO. 10. 

Car No. 270.- — Endeavor to make stops by reversing motors. 

RESULT. 

As time was getting short tliis was, by common consent, not carried 
out. It may be said, however, that on previous trials a stop could not 
be made by reversing. Test carried out at suggestion of Board of Trade 
with car loaded with three tons of iron, afforded an indication of the 
retarding force required on a grade of this kind (i in 8.4). If car was 
allowed to gain an initial speed of about 5 m.p.h., and first notch of con- 
troller (power side) applied (motors reversed), car continued to run 
forward. On application of second notch car gradually came to a stop 
and remained stationary. On application of third notch car commenced 
to move slowly back. Any attempt to make a stop resulted in wheels 
slipping and revolving in reverse direction, with reduction of retarding 
power, and hence worse result. 

On the lower part of the hill, when coasting with brake (manually 
applied), at about 6 miles per hour, the electro-magnetic brake was 
applied in addition. Result — a very sudden stop. A similar result would 
be obtained if all three brakes were applied simultaneously. 

As it was now late, and Car No. 87 with wheel attachment refitted had 
not been completed, tests proposed in three of programme were abandoned. 



Iquitos, Peru, has a narrow-gage steam railroad, used 
principally for hauling freight, called Ferrocarril Urbana 
de Iquitos. A fifteen-year concession has also just been 
granted the Empresa Electrica, for a tramway, and the 
material has already been ordered, mostly from the United 
States. No name has as yet been decided upon, the con- 
cession having been given the Empresa Electrica, or Elec- 
tric Enterprise, for both light and railroad. 



Frequent reference has been 
made in this publication to the 
bridge to be erected across the 
Mississippi River at St. Louis by 
the St. Louis Electric Bridge 
Company, an organization sub- 
sidiary to the Illinois Traction 
System. The bridge proper will 
consist of three spans, the middle 
one 523 ft. and the other two 521 
ft. long. Steel approaches on 
each side will lead up to the main 
structtire. A temporary approach 
on the Illinois side will carry the 
tracks and wagon way into 
Venice on a 4 per cent grade. 
Eventually, however, the ap- 
proach for the car tracks will be 
extended at a grade of i}i per 
cent across several railroad 
tracks and to Madison. 

On the St. Louis side the 
wagon way and car tracks will be 
carried at a per cent grade 
over the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy Railroad. The wagon 
way will then be carried down to 
Salisbury Street at a 4 per cent 
grade. The car tracks will con- 
tinue at a grade of 1.75 over 
other railroad tracks and over 
Broadway to Ninth Street. All 
piers will be of concrete with 
stone facing and granite coping. 
Those supporting the main span 
and the two adjacent ones under 
the approaches will be carried 
down 60 to 65 ft. to bed rock. 
Other approach piers will be sup- 
ported on piles. 

The bridge has been designed 
for present steam railroad train 
loading without steam locomo- 
tives, or for two 120-ton electric 
locomotives, and will be heavier 
than either of the two bridges 
now spanning the river at St. 
Louis. In general outlines it is 
similar to the Merchants' bridge, 
but is of somewhat different con- 
struction. The wagon ways will 
probably be located in the center, 
but as traffic increases they will be 
placed outside the trusses on can- 
tilever supports. Ralph Mojeski, 
of Chicago, as consulting" engi- 
neer for the bridge company, de- 
signed the structure. The first 
caisson was sunk at Venice on 
Dec. 8. About 150 men are to 
work on the project during the 
winter, but the force is to be in- 
creased to 250, the maximum effi- 
cient number, with the advent of 
spring weather. 



Wagon Approach 



3,. 



2 X- 



2" 




r 7 



i6 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. i. 



LARGE ELECTRIC LOCO MOTIVE S FOR HEAVY SERVICE 

BY BELA VALATIN 

An account was published, on page 848 of the Street 
Railway Journal for Oct. 26, of the new 15-cycle single- 
phase electric locomotive built for the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road for test purposes. The periodicity adopted — 15 cycles 
— has been repeatedly recognized in numerous recent dis- 
cussions, to be the most favorable as regards the weight 
and properties of the electrical equipment of the rolling 
stock generally, and, according to many experts, is espe- 
cially desirable for single-phase motors, rather than the 
hitherto universally accepted periodicity of twenty-five 
cycles. This, by the way, is the periodicity in use on the 
large three-phase railway lines of Europe, the Valtellina 
and the Simplon roads, and is that to be used for the 
Giovi & Savona-San Giuseppe lines, just under construc- 
tion. 

It will surely be interesting to experts to compare the 
records attained by this single-phase locomotive and those 
on the New Haven road with the results obtained with 
three-phase locomotives. 



diameter of the drivers is 72 inches. From these data the 
speed of the motor must be 236 r. p. m. The chief data of 
the two motors are then, as shown in Table I : 

TABLE I. 

Single-phase Tliree-phase 

motor. motor. 

Rated capacity in horse-power 500 iioo 

Weight, pounds, G 19,500 22,000 

Revolutions per minute, n 236 220 

Weight factor /" G x 11 X 

( 1 4^ 20 

v. 2200 X 100 -x IIP / 

From this table it appears that the weight factor of the 
single-phase motor is more than double that of the corre- 
sponding three-phase motor ; that is to say, the three-phase 
motor will develop more than double the power of the 
single-phase motor at the same weight and number of revo- 
lutions. 

A^ery interesting results are also reached if we consider 
the whole locomotive. The diagram below was made for 
this purpose. To confine the comparison to construction 
actually carried out the' type of locomotive represented by the 
Italian model previously mentioned has been adopted. The 
mechanical part of the locomotive would be changed only 
in so far as the wheel diameter would have to be increased 




PLAN AND ELEVATION OF THREE-PHASE LOCOMOTIVE FOR ITALIAN STATE RAILWAYS 



The latter are now built with three ranges of speed, as 
readers of this paper know.* The 8-pole motor of a loco- 
motive of this type, built by the Ganz Electric Co. for the 
Italian State Railways, has a capacity, on one hour rating, 
of 1500 hp, at a weight of 13.4 tons (metric), and at 220 
r. p. m. While building new locomotives of the same type the 
manufacturers have recently found it possible, through some 
changes in the design, to increase the rating of the motors 
by 20 per cent to 1800 hp, while the external dimensions 
and the speed of the motor remain unaltered. Another 
8-pole motor of similar construction, designed by the Ganz 
Electric Co., developing iioo hp on the one hour rating 
at 3000 volts, 15 cycles and 220 r. p. m., weighs 10 metric 
tons. Neither of these motors has forced draft. 

This last motor seems suitable for a comparison with the 
single-phase motor of the Pennsylvania locomotive, since 
neither the weights, nor the speeds of the two motors differ 
materially. The capacity on the one hour rating of each 
motor of the Pennsylvania locomotive is stated to be 500 
hp, the rated drawbar-pull is given as 14,700 lbs., and the 
*See Street Railway Journal, April 6, 1907, page 575. 



to 77 ins., SO that the speed of the locomotive might be the 
same as that of the Pennsylvania locomotive at the rated 
capacity. The two motors are the 8-pole iioo hp three- 
phase motors above described, and may be run at half their 
standard speed in concatenation, in which case one of the 
motors has to be commutated to low-tension in the same 
manner as the 12-pole motor of the three-speed locomotive. 

The weight of the locomotive, as actually carried out, 
was 62 metric tons. In consequence of the larger drivers 
the mechanical part of the locomotive proposed for com- 
parison would be increased by about 3 tons, from 30 to 33 
tons, metric. The weight of the motors themselves would 
be only 20 tons, as against 25 tons for the motors of the 
three-speed locomotive, so that the total weight of the loco- 
motive would be 60 metric tons, equivalent to 66 American 
tons. 

If we allow a departure from the condition that the 
motors of the two locomotives compared should have the 
same number of revolutions, and, for three-phase, adopt a 
six-pole motor or a four-pole motor, that is to say, motors 
of one and one-half times or double the number of revo- 



January 4, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



lutions, the weight of the motors decreases quite consid- 
erably. At the same time the wheel diameter also in- 
creases, and with it the weight of the mechanical part of 
the locomotive. The locomotive proposed for comparison, 
therefore, is far from being the most favorable design 
which might be put forward from the point of view of 
constructional weight for three-phase currents. On the 
other hand, with single-phase motors, a reduction of the 
total weight could hardly be attained through an increase 
of motor speed and decrease of wheel diameter — provided 
the gearless arrangement with the motors mounted on the 
shaft is retained — on account of the large dimensions of 
the motors, which put a limit to the minimum diameter of 
the wheels. On the other hand, if an arrangement of 
driving by cranks and connecting rods should be adopted, as 
in the three-phase locomotive, great constructional ditncal- 
ties arise in consequence of the increased distance between 
axles, the greater difference in the height of axles and 
shafts, etc. 

Table II gives the chief data of the two locomotives un- 
der comparison : 

TABLE II. 

Single-phase Three-phase 
locomotive. locomotive. 



Total weight of locomotive in American tons 140 66 

Adhesive weight in tons 100 46 

Weight of motors in tons 37 22 

Rated capacity of motors in horse-power 2000 2200 

Tractive effort on the one-hour rating in pounds. 14,700 16,170 

Length over all in feet 62 41 

Speed in miles per hour at rated capacity 50 50 



From these data it appears that the locomotive of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad, at an approximately equal capacity, 
has a weight more than double that of a corresponding 
three-phase locomotive. Concurrently the hauling power of 
the locomotive is less than that of the three-phase locomo- 
tive, because, to arrive at the paying train-weight, double 
the amount has to be deducted from the total train-weight 
for the idle weight of the single-phase locomotive, as for 
the three-phase one. This is of importance, especially if 
there are heavy grades on the road. If, for instance, the 
railroad has a constant grade of i per cent, that is to say, 
one where the motors may not be loaded beyond their rated 
capacity, the Pennsylvania locomotive will be al)le to haul 
267 American tons, beside its own weight, while the three- 
phase locomotive will haul 382 tons, beside its own weight, 
or 43 per cent more. The speed in both cases is fifty miles 
per hour.* When the long grades of the line are higher 
than I per cent this ratio becomes yet more unfavorable 
for single-phase current. For instance, the single-phase 
locomotive compared, may, on a constant grade of 2 per 
cent, haul 123 American tons, whereas the three-phase loco- 
motive will haul 212 tons, or 72 per cent more, or if the 
three-phase locomotive exercises only the same tractive 
ef¥ort as the single-phase locomotive considered, 197 tons, or 
still 60 per cent more. 

Table II also shows for the single-phase locomotive, a 
considerably greater weight on drivers, which, on the basis 
of a coefficient of one-fifth, yields a maximum tractive 
effort of 40,000 lbs. However, if we consider that so high 
a maximum with a tractive effort, on the one hour rating, of 
only 14,700 lbs., is scarcely needed, and, with other electric 
locomotives (for instance, large d. c. locomotives), is never 
called for; if we further consider that three-phase locomo- 
tives will give a higher tractive effort for the same ad- 
hesive weight, than single-phase locomotives, owing to the 
even character of the torque of the three-phase motor as 
contrasted with the pulsating torque of the single-phase 
motor, we shall conclude that this circumstance does not 

The train resistance in this calculation has been taken at ifi Ihs. per 
ton on the level. 



represent a disadvantage of three-phase operation. At the 
same time it should be noted that it would be easy to de- 
sign a three-phase locomotive, which, at the same total 
weight (66 tons), would utilize its entire weight for adhe- 
sion, and should the requirements regarding maximum pull 
be still higher, the weight could be further increased by 
the addition of ballast weights. Even then the locomotive 
would weigh only about half as much as the single-phase 
locomotive considered, while it could, without trouble, de- 
velop for a short time the maximum tractive effort re- 
quired. 

The maximum tractive effort of the Pennsylvania loco- 
motive is not so much a consequence of its motor capacity., 
as of its great construction weight, which is a disadvan- 
tage, and cannot be done away with because of the great 
weight of motors and transformers. It may be said, there- 
fore, that, roughly speaking, half the weight will suffice to 
turn out a three-phase locomotive of the same, or rather 
more power than that of a corresponding single-phase loco- 
motive. 



TRANSPORTING TROUBLE WAGONS ON CARS 

The accompanying illustration shows the method em- 
ployed by the United Railways Company, of St. Louis, for 
getting a trouble wagon and team from one portion of the 
system to another by transporting them over its lines. A. 
trip that would require two or three hours in the ordinary 




CAR USED FOR TRANSPORTING LINE WAGON IN ST. LOUIS 

manner is frequently made on the car in half an hour. In 
one instance the team and wagon were transported to Creve 
Coeur Lake in about an hour. With the horses drawing" 
the wagon at least three-quarters of a day would have beea 
consumed. The ends of the car employed are hinged in 
such a manner that when thrown down they serve as a 
walkway for the horses. Backing onto the car is avoided, 
as the team can be driven on at one end and oft' at the 
other. 



Gaceta de Madrid states that the Spanish Director Gen- 
eral of Public Works has granted a concession to La Com- 
pania General de Tranvias y Ferrocarriles Vicinales, of 
Alicante, Spain, to install electric traction on the tramways 
in Alicante, of which they are concessionaries. 



i8 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. i. 



SHANGHAI TRAMWAY NOTES 



The establishment of a tramway system of the first mag- 
nitude at a distance from home of some 12,000 miles is no 
small undertaking, and its engineering features call both 
for careful forethought at home and for technical skill, 
resource and a nice appreciation of the labor problem on 
the spot. The importance of the Shanghai Tramways is 



practice and departures from standard apparatus have been 
avoided as far as possible. It is obvious that this is a very 
important matter, in view of the enormous distance sepa- 
rating the scene of operation from the nearest available 
factories. It is a small matter to replace a defective or 





.\ XIEW OF THE LINE IN THE RE.SIDENTIAL DISTRICT 

perhaps best indicated by the fact that their mileage, in- 
cluding the lines in the international and French conces- 
sions, is only exceeded by about a dozen of the hundred and 
odd systems in the United Kingdom, and is practically iden- 
tical with that of the tramways in Leicester, England, a 
city having a population of a quarter of a million. The 



INSTALLING A TURN-OUT IN ONE OF THE MAIN STREETS 

damaged part when the factory is within a few hours rail 
journey, but it is quite another matter when six weeks are 
occupied in transit. 

At the time of writing some nineteen months have 
elapsed since the ground was broken and the work of con- 
struction commenced. During this time the progress made 




AN INTERESTING PIECE OF SPECIAL WORK BEING INSTALLED BY CHINESE LABORERS 



population of Shanghai is nearly a million, and more than 
one-half of the entire foreign trade in China passes through 
it. It ranks already as the eighth shipping port in the 
world, its trade having increased from £45,000,000 in 1902 
to £70,000,000 in 1906. 

The original concession was obtained by Bruce, Peebles & 
Company, Ltd., of London and Edinburgh, and transferred 
to the Shanghai Electric Construction Company, Ltd. The 
system has been designed throughout according to modern 



would be no discredit even to a system in the heart of a 
manufacturing country. Nearly thirty miles of track have 
been completed, and the difificulty of the work has been ac- 
centuated by the fact that some of the streets are both nar- 
row and tortuous and the population very dense. Nearly 
all the routes in the international concession are now com- 
pleted, the only items yet unfinished being one or two cross- 
ings, bridges, etc., where special work is necessary. 

The generating plant which the Municipal Council in- 



January 4, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



19 



stalled as an installation for the supply of electricity to the 
tramways was shipped some months ago from the works of 
the manufacturers, Bruce, Peebles & Company, Ltd., Edin- 
burgh, and is now erected on site. It includes at present 
two 6oo-kw railway generators and one 300-kw motor gen- 




SPRING LOIK FOR TONGUE SWITCH 

erator. About 100 cars will be required for the operation 
of the system and these are mostly delivered. They are 
specially adapted to the peculiar requirements of the traffic, 
having separate accommodation for Europeans and natives 
and being of the semi-convertible type, suitable for all vari- 
ations of the climate. A very fine car house with ample 
repairing facilities has been built. 

One of the illustrations shows the overhead system as 
constructed in the residential quarter of the city, while the 



.SPRING i.Ol'k I'OR TRAllJNG SWITC II 

two Other views show some of the special work in the main 
streets of the city, which has all been undertaken by Edgar 
Allen & Company, Ltd., of Sheffield, as sub-contractors. 
The points and crossings were all in Allen's Lnperial man- 
ganese steel and fitted with Allen & Warlow's three-way 
mechanism, as shown in the other illustrations. This mech- 
anism enables the switch to be worked in three ways, either 
as a spring switch set always to the left — as usual in Eng- 
land — or to the right as in the United States, or to be set 
in either direction. The special work was constructed at 
Sheffield ready for laying on site, including the rails and 
accessories. 

The entire work of constructing the tramways is being 
carried out by Bruce, Peebles & Company, Ltd., as main 
contractors, under the supervision of Harper Bros., of 
London, as consulting engineers. 



RECENT WORK OF THE ASSOCIATION 

During the last week the secretary of the American 
Street & Interurban Railway Association has issued to the 
member companies the official report of the meetings at At- 
lantic City of the Accountants and Claims Agents' Asso- 
ciations. Both are more voluminous than last year and in- 
clude handsome engravings of the presiding officers. Dis- 
tinctive colors have been adopted this year for the covers 
of the proceedings of the dif¥erent associations. Those of 
the accountants arc bound in orange as in previous years, 
those of the claim agents in green, those of the engineers 
in brown and those of the American in gray. The proceed- 
ings of the two latter associations in pamphlet form will be 



ready for distribution within a week and cloth bound copies 
will be sent out to the members about Jan. 18. 

Considerable attention has been given during the past 
year to the enlargement of the facilities of the association 
lor collecting and distributing statistics, and from now on 
the secretary will be assisted by a statistician who has had 
several years of practical experience in this line of electric 
railway work. The association already has a valuable sta- 
tistical library, and this will be enlarged from time to time 
so that eventually it will contain copies of practically all 
governmental, state and municipal laws, reports and docu- 
ments of general value to the members, as well as copies of 
various books, pamphlets, reports and other statistical data 
bearing upon the general subject of street and interurban 
railways. 

Considerable attention has been devoted to the question 
of a suitable badge to be worn by associate members and 
several designs have already been submitted to the secre- 
tary. It is expected that the executive committee will take 
some action in this matter at its January meeting. 

At the 1907 convention the executive committee was re- 
quested to take steps toward the organization of a fourth 
affiliated association which would take over all of the gen- 
eral work of the American Association relating to transpor- 
tation, traffic and operating, leaving the latter free to de- 
vote its time to executive matters and questions of broad 
policy. It is expected that this new association will be 
organized in the near future and a communication relative 
to this matter will soon be sent to the member companies. 
A communication will also be sent to them shortly relating 
to the work accomplished since the Atlantic City convention 
in connection with the classification of accounts, in regard 
to which the committees of the association have been in 
conference with the Interstate Commerce Commission. 

In a letter just issued to members the secretary and treas- 
urer says: "The report of the treasurer for the year ending 
Oct. I, 1907, showed total receipts of approximately $25,000 
and expenditures of practically the same amount as the re- 
ceipts. The expenditures during the year 1907-1908 will 
probably be somewhat more than those of the year 1906- 
1907, as the work of all the associations is becoming broader 
and more comprehensive. It is therefore quite essential 
that the old member companies continue in their support 
and that the membership be increased during the coming 
year. During the year just past the membership increased 
approximately 15 per cent, and it is expected that with a 
more active campaign for membership the increase during 
the coming year will be considerably greater." 

President Simmons of the Engineering Association has 
announced the following committees: 

Standardization — W. H. Evans, master mechanic Interna- 
tional Railway, Buffalo, N. Y. ; H. A. Benedict, electrical en- 
gineer United Traction Company, Albany, N. Y. ; R. C. Taylor, 
superintendent motive power Indiana Union Traction Company, 
Anderson, Ind. ; H. H. Adams, superintendent of shops United 
Railways & Electric Company, Baltimore, Md. ; M. O'Brien, 
master mechanic United Railways Company of St. Louis ; J. M. 
Earned, engineer maintenance of way Pittsburg Railways Com- 
pany, Pittsburg, Pa. ; H. W. Blake, editor Street Railway 
Journal, New York City; C. B. Fairchild, Jr., editor Electric 
Traction IVcckly, Cleveland, O. ; L. E. Gould, editor Electric 
Raihvay Reviezv, Chicago, 111. 

Control — E. W. Olds, superintendent rolling stock The Mil- 
waukee Electric Railway & Light Company, Milwaukee, Wis. ; 
G. J. Smith, master mechanic Kansas City Railway & Light 
Company, Kansas City, Mo. ; P. N. Jones, electrical and me- 
chanical engineer Pittsburg Railways, Pittsburg, Pa. ; J. S. 
Pevear, Twin City Rapid Transit Company, Mituica]ioIis, 
Minn.; H. Donovan, master mechanic VVasliington, Baltimore & 
Annapolis Electric Railway. Baltimore, Md. 



20 



STREET RAILWAY JOURxVAL. 



[VcL. XXXI. Xo. r. 



Maintenance and Inspection of Electrical Equipment — L. L. 
Smith, master mechanic Chicago & Milwaukee Electric Rail- 
road, Highwood, 111. ; W. D. Wright, master mechanic The 
Rhode Island Company, Providence, R. I. ; E. T. Hunger, mas- 
ter mechanic Metropolitan West Side Elevated Railway, Chi- 
sago, 111. ; C. C. Long, electrician United Traction Company, 
Reading, Pa. ; L. W. Jacques, master mechanic Ft. Wayne & 
Wabash Valley Traction Company, Ft. Wayne, Ind. 

Way Matters — Charles H. Clark, engineer of way Interna- 
tional Railway, Buffalo, N. Y. ; Thomas K. Bell, chief engineer 
Wilkes-Barre & Wyoming Valley Traction Company, Philadel- 
phia, Pa.; C. A. Alderman, J. G. White & Co., New York City; 
E. O. Ackerman, engineer of way Columbus Railway & Light 
Company, Columbus, O. ; G. L. Wilson, engineer and road- 
master Twin City Rapid Transit Company, Minneapolis, Minn. ; 
C. B. Voynow, assistant engineer Philadelphia Rapid Transit 
Company, Philadelphia, Pa. ; Martin Schreiber, engineer main- 
tenance of way Public Service Corporation of New Jersey, 
Newark, N. J. 

Car Wiring — George W. Palmer, Jr., Boston, Mass. ; C. B. 
King, manager London Street Railway, London, Ont. ; L. P. 
Crecelius, Public Service Corporation of New Jersey, Newark, 
N. J. ; Hugh Hazelton, consulting engineer. New York City ; 
S. M. Coffin, master mechanic Mobile Light & Railway Com- 
pany, Mobile, Ala. 



THE LOUISVILLE STRIKES 

BY J. T. FUNK, 
General Superintendent Louisville Railway Company 

So much space has been given in the railway and daily 
papers to the strikes upon our system during the last ten 
months that a summary of the principal events connected 
with them may be of interest. 

The Amalgamated Association of Street Railway Em- 
ployes was organized in the city of Louisville on or about 
Jan. 10, 1907. The agitators at once began to work up 
dissatisfaction among the employees of the Louisville Rail- 
way Company, especially the motormen and conductors, 
and succeeded in ordering a strike on about March 12. 
This strike lasted five days, at the end of which time a 
contract was entered into between the railway company's 
officials and members of the Amalgamated Association — a 
contract which never was carried out by the members of 
the association, and caused dissatisfaction from the date 
of its adoption. 

The second strike was ordered on Nov. 15, 1907, and 
lasted for twelve days. During this time there was a good 
deal of rioting, but the excellent police force of this city 
performed its duty so well that but little damage was done 
to persons or property. This can be accomplished by any 
police force that will take an impartial stand as did the 
authorities of this city, because all that this or any railway 
company needs or wants is that protection which is guar- 
anteed it under the law. The strike breakers which unfor- 
tunately it is necessary to employ on such occasions, under 
the guidance of Mr. Reed, of Chicago, performed every 
duty which they were called upon to do, and behaved them- 
selves in every particular. Owing to the fact, however, 
that about one-third of the operators on the cars remained 
loyal the services of the strike breakers were needed only 
in the capacity of assisting in the operation of cars. From 
the very first, cars were run and each day showed an in- 
crease in number operated. Finally on the twelfth day, 
when the collapse came, the union surrendered uncondi- 
tionally and the company once more was allowed to manage 
its property as it had done up to the time of the organiza- 
tion of the union. 

It is just one month since the strike ended and there are 
as many cars running in the city of Louisville to-day as 
before the strike, with a force larger than when the strike 
began. 



About 50 per cent of the old men were taken back, all 
promising to drop the union and have nothing further to do 
with such organizations. The other 50 per cent are now 
hunting places of employment, and seventeen are held over 
to appear before the grand jury of Jefferson County. 

Too much credit cannot be given the good people of this 
•community, who lost no opportunity to patronize the cars 
while they were running. This had a very depressing 
effect upon the agitators. Although many of the unions 
boycotted the cars the people rode when they were given, 
an opportunity. 

There is only one way to handle a strike, and that is ta 
fight until victory is won. To concede anything to such, 
organizations will lend encouragement to their cause ancJ 
bring renewed trouble. It is either run your own business 
or turn it over to the amalgamated union. 

Too much credit cannot be given to the loyal men who sa 
nobly stood by the company. From all appearances now it 
will be very many years before there will be another strike 
in the city of Louisville. At best strikes are bad things 
and should be avoided as long as possible, but when one is 
forced there should be no let up on the part of the com- 
pany until the enemy is routed and the fight completely 
won. 

I desire to acknowledge the many words of kindness ex- 
pressed by a large number of the railway officials through- 
out the country, and sincerely hope that none will be called 
upon to combat two strikes in one year, as the Louisville 
Railway Company has been compelled to do. 

.e.^.c 

SINGLE -PHASE TO BE ADOPTED ON THE NEW CANAAK 
BRANCH 

The New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad Com- 
pany has decided to change the equipment of its New 
Canaan branch from 600-volt direct current to 11,000-volt 
single-phase. This branch is about seven and one-half 
miles in length and extends from Stamford, Conn., on the 
main line, to New Canaan. It was equipped with direct 
current about seven years ago. The service will be con- 
ducted by two motor trains, each consisting of a 60-tort 
motor car and a 30-ton trail car. The motor car will be 
the standard 78,000-lb. coach of the New Haven Company, 
reinforced to carry the electrical apparatus which is at- 
tached to the car body, and equipped with four No. 603. 
GE-A motors of 125-hp nominal capacity. No provisiort 
is being made for operating these motors on a direct-cur- 
rent circuit, so that the equipment will be purely single- 
phase. The company is changing over the overhead con- 
struction on the line to a 11,000-volt single catenary, which 
will be used instead of the double catenary employed on tht 
main line. 



The Compania Electrica y de Ferrocarriles de Chihua- 
hua, the merger corporation that takes over the properties 
of the Ferrocarril Mineral de Chihuahua — the steam rail- 
road to Santa Eulalia and the concession for aerial tram- 
ways in that town connecting the railroad and mines — the 
Cia. de Ferrocarriles Urbanos de Chihuahua, the present 
street railway system which is being equipped with elec- 
tricity, and the electrical department of Cia. Industrial 
Mexicana, which supplies electric lights and power in the 
city, will take charge Jan. I. A. C. Nash, now generaf 
manager of the Mineral Railroad and the street railway- 
company, will occupy the same position with the new cor- 
poration. 



- January 4, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



21 



CORRESPONDENCE 
TURBINE ECONOMIES 



Schenectady, N. Y., Dec. 24, 1907. 
Editors Street Railway Journal: 

My attention has been called to a letter of Mr. J. R. 
Bibbins, published in your issue of Dec. 14, in which com- 
parison is drawn between reported performances of 7500- 
kw Parsons turbines in New York and 8ooo-kw Curtis tur- 



17 



12 



1 

B 


liiS. 


I*iirsoiis 


riirbi iiG, 


iMuIiUilt 


tun Stiit 


on, N.Y, 
































B 







(r~~~~ 


- 


1 

A. 700 


)-K\V. Pa 


■sons, N.\ 
X 


. Edison 










CC; 


UOO-KW. 


:iutis, cii 




C 






All rec 
I 

t 


uced to f< 
'ressure, 
/■acuum, 
laperlieat 


llowmg c 
77 lbs. gas 
7.3 inches 


5nditions; 

;e 







































5001) liUUO 7000 80UU UUOO 10000 IIOIJO 12OO0 

IStrce' Itailwa^ Juurnul Load K \\ . 

FIG. I. 



Point A. — Test of N. \. Eilison Parsons turbine as taken. See Elec- 
TPiCAL World, Oct. 12, 1907. 

Curve BB. — Is derived from tests published in tlie Electric Journal of 
July, 1907, results being reduced to conditions of N. Y. Edison tests by 
constants published in connection with the test in Electrical World, 
Oct. 12, 1907. 

Curve CC. — Taken from test curves made by Prof. Storm Bull and 
Frof. L. P. Breckenridge in February, 1907. 

bines in Chicago. In reducing the reported results to the 
same conditions Mr. Bibbins applies certain corrections in 
the case of the Curtis machine which he says are advocated 
by its builders. The correction thus arrived at is not cor- 
rect and I desire to put this comparison in correct form on 
the basis of existing published data. 

In the case of the Curtis machine tested in Chicago it is 
necessary to make no assumption concerning correction 
factors. This machine was tested daily for nearly a month 
by Prof. L. P. Breckenridge, of the University of Illinois, 
and Prof. Storm Bull, of the University of Wisconsin, and 
during this time all conditions of load, initial pressure 
vacuum and superheat were thoroughly investigated and 
•curves were drawn from which results for almost any con 
dition can be taken without appreciable correction. 

The accompanying curve sheets show load water rate 
curves of this 8ooo-kw machine taken from the curves in 
this report, and in comparison show, first, the results of the 
New York Edison test reduced to similar conditions, and 
second, the results of the test of a similar Parsons machine 
made in the Manhattan station of the Interborough Rapid 
Transit Company and published in the Electric Journal for 
July, 1907. 

The report of the New York Edison test in question was 
published in the Electrical World of Oct. 12, 1907, and in 
this report rates of correction were given for variations of 
vacuum, initial pressure and superheat. These rates I have 



used in making the comparisons shown by the accompany- 
ing curves. 

Fig. I shows the actual result reported in the New York 
test of the 7500-kw Parsons turbine and above it the re- 
sults of the test of the Parsons turbine in the Manhattan 
station reduced to the same conditions by the constants 
mentioned above, and in comparison with this it shows the 
performance of the Curtis turbine in Chicago under the 
same conditions, taken from test reports without appreci- 
able correction. 

Fig. 2 shows the same performance of the Parsons tur- 
bines reduced by the constants above mentioned to condi- 
tions which fairly represent the average of daily service 
under which the Chicago machine operates. In this case 
also the performance of the Curtis machine is taken from 
actual test reports without the necessity of appreciable cor- 
rection. 

This latter comparison illustrates very clearly the su- 
periority of the Curtis turbine under conditions of high 
vacuum and shows also the large gains which good vacuum 
affords in a machine designed to use it. 

There is good reason to believe that these comparisons 
do more than justice to the Parsons machines, first, because 
the corrections made give credit for considerable improve- 
ments on account of increase of initial pressure, while such 
improvement cannot be appreciable in a inachine which gov- 
erns by virtual throttling, and second, because the rate of 
improvement for vacuum, while probably correct for a 
range between 27 and 28 ins., is presumably too large for 
correction to 29 ins. 

The reason for the large difference in the performances 
of these two Parsons machines has not been explained and 
it has been generally understood that the turbine parts of 
the two machines arc practically identical. It would seem 



j BB. Pa 


I'sons Tt 


rbine, 3*1 


aiiliattai 


1 station 


, N.Y. 
























"■^^ 
















A. 7:uc-K 


W . Parso 


is,N.V. E 


'.Uson 




" li 
A 




C 




CC 


. SOiO-KW 


. Curtis, C 


hicago 









Al 


1 reduccil 
1 
■\ 
t 


'c Cliicag 
*red3afs, 
'acuuiii, 2 
lUPBVheat 


J Oyji atii 
9 iiicl'.ss 

12; r. 


g coniiti 


jns: 





















S<,UO Oo^O 'lM<J 3U0U OJOO IJJJJ ilOUO IJ'jJJ 

Street Iluilwaa .Journal Luad" 1-C 'A'. 



FIG. 2. 

Point A.— Result N. Y. Edison test corrected to regular operating con- 
ditions of Chicago turbines by constants given in the test report, Elec- 
trical World, Oct. 12, 1907. 

Curve BB. — Test of Parsons turbine in Manhattan Station of the In- 
terborough Rapid Transit Company, New York, published in the Electric 
Journal of July, 1907, results coi reeled to Chicago operating conditions 
by the same constants as point A. 

Curve CC. — Taken from test curves made by Prof. Storm Bull and 
Prof. E. P. Breckenridge in February, 1907. 

probable that one of the test.= is incorrect or else that the 
New York Edison test was run with a closer adjustment of 
leakage clearance around balancing rings. 

In the end of his letter Mr. Bibbins deprecates the culti- 
\'ation of extreme operating conditions in turbine plants 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. i. 



and in this presvunably refers to the u; e of high vacuum. 
Increased vacuum affords very great increase of available 
energy and with a turbine which does not leak air, involves 
in most cases little additional expense. Since a properly 
designed Curtis turbine afYords high efficiency to extreme 
vacuum ranges, it is folly to use low vacuum where high 
vacuum can be produced. In many large plants where Cur- 
tis turbines are used vacuum of 29 ins. or over is carried 
almost throughout the year. In the Chicago plant where 
the above mentioned test was made, vacuum generally ex- 
ceeds 29 ins. and sometimes reaches 29^ ins. The auxil- 
iaries in this station involve a loss of 0.7 per cent. 

The greatest advantage of the turbine over the recipro- 
cating engine lies in the fact that it is efficient in the lower 
ranges. In reciprocating engines we gain only about 20 
per cent by condensing as compared with non-condensing 
conditions, while in a properly designed turbine we gain 
100 per cent. It is certainly not good engineering to throw 
away these advantages by binding ourselves to vacuum 
conditions which have prevailed in reciprocating engine 
practice where increase of vacuum affords no important 
improvement. W. L. R. Emmet. 



LABOR UNIONS AND MUNICIPAL OWNERSHIP 



Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, Nov. 27, 1907. 
Editors Street Railway Journal : 

I was much interested in reading the editorial entitled 
"Labor Under Municipal Ownership," on page 121 of the 
Street Railway Journal for July 17, but from one of 
your conclusions I most strongly dissent. You say "So far 
as labor unions are concerned they must, from necessity, 
stand with the great bulk of the citizens against municipal 
ownership." Australia is known the world over for its 
socialistic tendencies and so-called advanced legislation. 
The rallying cry of the labor unions from one end to an- 
other of Australia and New Zealand is "Socialism in our 
time," and they are most strongly in favor of governmental 
or municipal ownership of all public utilities. It is a great 
pity that some members of the municipal ownership com- 
mittee of the National Civic Federation did not visit Aus- 
tralia, for I am sure a careful study of conditions here 
would have modified some of their views. 

An American in Australia. 



AN AUTOMOBILE TROUBLE WAGON 



In many respects the automobile principle is almost in- 
valuable for repair and trouble wagons. The machine can 
be kept in the car house or inspection shed for any length 
of time, but always ready for operation. It takes but a mo- 
ment to start the motive power and the speed of which the 
machine is capable enables it to reach the locality where 
its services are needed in the shortest possible time. It does 
not have to travel on rails and be subject to blockades like 
the electric emergency car, and is much more rapid in its 
movement than the trouble wagon drawn by horses. 

For several months the United Railways Company, of 
St. Louis, has had in operation an automobile trouble wagon 
which has proved so well adapted to the service that a 
larger and heavier machine of 40 hp is being built in the 
shops of the company. The old car is a Buick two-cylinder 
opposed 22-hp machine built to the order of the railroad 
company, and with a heavier frame than the ordinary type 
of car. It is kept at Eighteenth and Pine streets, in what 
might be termed the downtown district, and takes the place 
of two-horse drawn trouble wagons. During its first month 



of operation an odometer showed there was not a day that 
it did not make fifteen miles. During this period the re- 
pairs amounted to $1.50. 

The automobile 
has been found to 
be especially 
adapted for use in 
repairing o v e r- 
head construction 
during periods of 
heavy traffic. As 
it is built to run 
backward as well 
as forward and to 
make exceedingly 
short turns, it can 
move out immedi- 
ately in front of 
a n approaching 
car and then make 
a short turn and 
follow the car in- 
to position again. 
The tower is 22 ft. 
high when ex- 
tended and II ft. 6 
ins. when down, 
and the machine 
loaded with tools 
and materials for 
general repairs 
weighs 4850 lbs. 
The tires are 32 in. 
X 3J^in. solid rub- 
ber, but those on 
the new car will 

be 32 in. x 5 in. it will be speeded to 20 m. p. h. In build- 
ing the new car advantage will be taken of the experience 




.\UTUM01!ILE WITH TOU KK UP 




SIDE VIEW OF AUTOMOBILE WAGON 

gained with the old one. As a result the new car 
much heavier, sufficiently so it is proposed to be 
pulling overloaded wagons off the tracks. 



will be 
used in 



January 4, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



23 



COMPENSATING T RUCK U SED IN ENGLAND 

The United Electric Car Company, Ltd., of Preston, 
Eng., has an electric railway truck known as the Preston 
compensating truck. The object in this design is to over- 
come oscillation and obtain easy riding, either when heavily 
or lightly loaded. With the heavy loads often carried, and 
more especially in England, where top covers are becoming 
universal, it appears necessary that some arrangement, 




COMPENSATING TRUCK 



Other than that hitherto in use for lighter work, should be 
found whereby the body may be relieved of the severe 
shock and strain under heavy loading and its life pro- 
longed. The spring arrangement in the trucks at present 
in use is such that all the springs are in action at all times, 
whether the truck is heavily or lightly loaded. The most im- 
portant points in a truck, as far as springing is concerned, 
are at the journal box and at the extension ends; at the 
former to obtain easy riding by absorbing shock and re- 
ducing oscillation, and at the latter to give support to the 
ends of the body and prevent dropping of the platforms. 
In this truck the spring arrangement is such that some of 
the springs are in action all the time, and others only when 
the load increases beyond a certain limit. It is believed 
that this arrangement will make the truck eminently suited 
for the heavy rolling stock conditions prevalent in England. 

The springs at the journal box are elliptical, and are two 
in number, the top one to carry a light load, and the bottom 
to come into action as the load increases. At the extreme 
end a new type of spring is used, both ends extending 
toward the extremity of the body and arranged with two 
steps ; the forward end is under ordinary compression when 
light, and the rear end becomes compressed as the load in- 
creases, as at the journal boxes. 

Some of the advantages claimed for this truck are : 
Easy riding either with light or heavy load; the weight 
being carried directly over and under the journal boxes, 
steady and easy running is obtained; it will carry a longer 
body than usual without oscillation; the journal box, hav- 
ing a divided oil well, allows a distance piece to be placed 
between the horn plates, thus preventing the horn plates 
from binding the journal box and causing unnecessary 
wear ; relief from shock when the car is heavily loaded, as 
elliptical springs are easier and absorb shocks more readily 
than spiral springs. 



A STORAGE BATTERY AUTO-TRUCK FOR INDUSTRIAL 
RAILWAYS 

The Westinghouse Machine Company, convinced by the 
results obtained during several years of continuous service 
at its own works of their fitness for industrial railway 
purpose, has put the storage battery auto-trucks on the 
market and is prepared to furnish them in capacities of 
from ten to forty tons. The trucks, though of extremely 
simple construction, are very substantially made of the best 
materials. A steel frame, thoroughly braced, is carried on 
four wheels, the journals of which run in roller bearings. 



The driving axle or axles, as the case may be, carry the 
motor, or motors, as in street railway practice. The 
motor is spring suspended from the frame at one end and 
connected to driving axle by suitable reduction gearing. A 
spring suspended cradle of angle iron carries the battery 
trays. 

At the operating end of the truck are mounted the con- 
troller, brake, charging receptacle, cut-out switch and volt- 
ammeter. A convenient step and draw bar head are pro- 
vided at each end. All the machinery is below the top of 
the frame and is covered by a heavy wooden deck for 
carrying the load. This deck is made in sections, so that 
any part of the mechanism is readily accessible. The 
motor is of the well known Westinghouse vehicle type, 
capable of standing heavy overloads. The controller is 
also of the Westinghouse vehicle type, giving four speeds 
in either direction. It is provided with operating and re- 
verse levers, which are interlocking to prevent premature 
reversal, thus protecting the motor and the batteries. 

The battery is contained in two or more trays of cells 
and is designed to operate at high rates of charge and 
discharge. A battery of smaller ampere hour capacity than 
is customary in similar work is employed on the truck, as it 
has been found that the time available for charging during 
the working hours is usually thrice the period of time that 
the truck is actually running. Charging is made so simple 
that the truck can easily be charged during these idle 
periods. 

During a six months' test of the standard ten-ton truck 
herewith illustrated, the power required to charge the bat- 
tery in regular and heavy shop service was accurately 
metered. It averaged 63 kw hours per month. At the 
high figures of 5 cents per kw hour the cost for the current 
would be only $3.15. The work done was recorded and 
averaged practically 700 ton miles per month, the loads run- 
ning from a few hundred jjounds to fifteen tons. 




.STOK.\(.K LiATTKRV TRL'CK W ITH CELLS EXPOSED 



These trucks used as locomotives on a level track and 
without any weight to secure adhesion can haul, on suitable 
cars, from one-half to their full rated capacity as a truck, 
depending upon the condition of the track and kind of 
bearings on the cars hauled. By placing sufficient weight 
over the drivers to secure adhesion, they are capable of 
handling from one to two times their capacity as a truck 
for a continuous period of not more than five minutes. 

Standard trucks are made for six different gages, namely : 
18, 21^, 24, 30 and 36 inches, and 4 feet 8j/^ inches. For 
track systems provided with turn tables they are made with 
rigid trucks. Where tracks are installed with curves the 
trucks for all gages up to 36 inches are provided with 
swivelled front axle, permitting free operation on curves 
as low as 12 feet in radius. 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. i. 



AUSTRIAN RAILWAY STATISTICS FOR 1905 

Figures just published by the government of Austria 
show the total length of all electric railways in that coun- 
try is 472-km. (292.6 miles), of which 70 per cent is stand- 
ard gage and the balance narrow gage. About 30 per cent 
of this mileage is double track, due to the fact that prac- 
tically all of the electric lines are operated in cities. How- 
ever, only 7.3 per cent of the light steam railroads (corre- 
sponding to the service of American interurban lines) are 
double track. Passenger service only was given on 91.6 
per cent of the electric railways, mixed service on 7.85 
per cent and freight service only on .53 per cent. The 
rolling stock of the electric railways consisted of 5 loco- 
motives, 172 snow plows, 1624 motor cars, 1248 trailers and 
49 freight cars. The total seating capacity of all passen- 
ger cars was 106,170. The average annual train-km. was 
124,453 psi" km. of track; average passenger-km., 1,891,029; 
average ton-km., 12,603. The average gross earnings per 
km. were 81,755 crowns ($31,720 per mile) ; average oper- 
ating expenses, 51,956 crowns ($20,158 per mile) ; average 
interest on investment, 7.22 per cent. There were 22.7 
employees per km. (36.3 per mile) of track. 



A NEW LAMP TESTING METER 

A new type of direct current lamp testing meter has just 
heen placed on the market by the H. W. Johns-Manville 
Company, of New York. The movements are built on the 
familiar d'Arsonval pattern and so placed with reference 
to each other and the scale as to render the energy con- 
sumnticn direct'v readable at the intersection of the volt 
and ampere indicator needles. The special feature is that 
the operator is enabled to read at one glance the pressure, 
current and wattage on any lamp which may be inserted in 
a socket inmiediately above the meter. The instrument is 
equipped with three self-contained shunts, one of 150 capa- 
city, having conveniently arranged binding posts, and a 1.5 
and .75 ampere shunt, which are so connected within the 
base of the meter as to be readily thrown in circuit at will. 
In order to test a lamp it is only necessary to connect the 
attachment plug and cord to any lamp circuit, insert the 
lamp and read volts, amperes and watts without computa- 
tion. The different shunts may be easily placed in circuit 
by the adjustment of a small screw-plug at the top and 
right of the instrument. The two smaller shunts have uni- 
versal connections. The voltmeter may have either 150 or 
300 volt scale or both. Another valuable feature of the 
instrument besides the multiple readings is the fact that ac- 
curate wattage measurement may be taken on a fluctuating 
load, it being required to observe only a single point for 
such readings. The instrument is self-contained and 
weighs less than fifteen pounds complete. 



The Boston Elevated Railway Company is distributing 
$60,000 in gold among its employes. Nearly 4000 men will 
each receive $15. Payment will be made by giving a $5 
and a $10 gold piece to each person entitled to a reward. 
Every employe who has been in the service for six months 
or longer, and who has rendered continuous and satisfac- 
tory service throughout the year will receive a reward. 
This is the fifth distribution of this nature that has been 
made by the company. The payment of this vear's re- 
wards will bring the total sum of money paid, in addition to 
regular wages, in recognition of faithful service up to 
nearly $300,000. 



CATENARY CONSTRUCTION 

A paper on "Overhead Construction for High-Tension 
Electric Traction or Transmission" is to be presented by 
K. D. Coombs, at a meeting of the American Society of 
Civil Engineers, Feb. 5, 1908. The paper is published on 
page 1 136 of Vol. XXXIII of the proceedings of the so- 
ciety. The author discusses the question of span and sag 
in catenaries and presents the diagram shown herewith, 
giving the normal sag required for catenary spans. This 
diagram is based on a maximum tension of one-third of the 
ultimate strength of the wire, the load being the dead-load 
weight of the material, an ice load or film of ice >4 in. thick 
all around the exposed members, and the wind load. The 
latter is based on 15 lbs. per sq. ft., which would correspond 
to an indicated velocity of 100 m. p. h. or an actual velocity 
of 76.2 m. p. h. The construction on various recent foreign 
roads inclines to the use of bracket supports with a working 
conductor attached by loops to a secondary messenger so 
as to secure vertical flexibility. With this construction a 
bow pressure of 12 lbs. is used. The writer presents pro- 
posed specifications for a catenary construction with spans 
of 300 ft. He then compares the relative advantages of 
(i) the double catenary construction; (2) the simple cate- 
nary in which no messenger wire is used but which can be 
employed with the Mayer saddle suspension; (3) the single 
catenary, and (4) the single catenary with secondary mes- 
senger. He considers the last three superior to the first,, 
Init experience has not yet indicated which of the three is 
preferable. 

In the same copy of the Proceedings, on page 1070, Jo- 



20 



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OKMAL <;a 


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m 11)0 120 HO iW 180 200 2iO 260 280 300 S20 340 SKI 380 400 



Span, in FeeL. 

DIAGRAM SHOVi-'ING NORMAL SAG REQUIRED FOR 
CATENARY SPANS 

seph Mayer has a paper entitled "A New Suspension for 
the Contact Wires of Electric Railways Using Sliding 
Bows." This paper is also to be discussed at the meeting 
on Feb. 5. Mr. Mayer has made some improvements in his 
saddle suspender and describes them in his paper. He has 
also devised a strain adjuster for reducing the maximum 
tension in the contact wires. The adjuster permits longer 
spans than would otherwise be possible and can be set in 
the fall and spring. Mr. Mayer also discusses his panto- 
graph collector which was described in this paper for Nov. 
9, and appends a mathematical consideration of the subject 
of sliding bows and trolley wire suspension. 



The Sao Paulo Tramway, Light, Heat & Power Com- 
pany will ask shareholders for permission to increase the 
capital from $3,500,000 to $ro, 000,000. 



January 4, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



25 



A NEW TYPE OF FARE REGISTER TO BE USED ON THE 
NEW YORK PAY-AS-YOU-ENTER CAR 



The pay-as-you-enter cars to be installed on the New 
York City lines are to be equipped with an entirely new 
device for collecting and registering the fares. This ma- 
chine is known as the "T. E. C. Registering Fare Box" and 




THE REGISTER AS IT APPEARS READY FOR INSTALLATION, 
SHOWING THE NICHE AT THE SIDE FOR EXPOSING 
THE REGISTER NUMERALS AND THE LEVER 
FOR HAND REGISTRATION 

presents several interesting features particularly desirable 
for prepayment cars. The chief object attained is that the 
conductor does not have access to the money until it has 
been registered, but immediately upon its registration he 
can take all he needs to make it available for change. This 
eliminates the use of the old-time fare boxes in which the 
money dropped by the passengers was unavailable for use 
as change by the conductor. 

The fare is dropped into a slot at the top of the box, as 
shown in the illustration, and is instantaneously registered 
and exposed to the conductor's view, which of course en- 
ables him to detect bad coins and see who put them in. 
The last three or four nickels registered always remain in 
sight so that it is possible for the conductor to detect the 
bad coin not only upon its registration, but even after the 
two or three following passengers have dropped nickels 
into the box. The coins thus exposed for inspection are 
pushed one at a time into the top drawer to which the con- 
ductor has access in making change. 

The mechanism for registering, exposing and placing the 
coin in the cash drawer is very simple. When the coin is 
dropped into the slot it falls to the bottom of the tube to 
liridgc a gap in an electric circuit. The closing of this cir- 
cuit operates a lever which pulls the register mechanism 
and actuates the device at the bottom of the tube to permit 
the coin to be exposed. This mechanism is very simple, 
the only part that might require renewal after extended 



use being the dry batteries operating the mechanism, 
which are placed in a drawer below the cash box. It has 
been found that over 175,000 registrations can be made 
without exhausting the batteries. The same number of 
registrations has also shown no appreciable wear of the 
fare registering mechanism. 

An important feature of this register is that it can be 
used to collect fares even if the registering apparatus should 
get out of order for one reason or another. In that case, 
the money dropped in the slot does not follow the route al- 
ready described, but falls down a side chute into a locked 
receptacle to which the inspector only has access. For this 
reason, if the register apparatus should fail to work there is 
no necessity for taking nickels directly from the passengers. 
On the other hand, if money is found in this drawer it indi- 
cates that the automatic registering apparatus is out of 
order, or has been during the previous trip. It should 
be mentioned, however, that in case anything happens to 
the automatic registration the conductor can still register 
the coins by unlocking the cash drawer and pulling out the 
rod shown projecting from the side of the register. Since 
only the conductor has the key to this change drawer no 
one else can work the register mechanism in this manner, 
thus preventing mischief makers from ringing up false 
fares. 

The New York City Railway Company has ordered 325 
of these machines, one of which will be placed on each 




INTERIOR OF REGISTER, SHOWING ELECTRICAL MECHANISM, 
THE SIDE CHUTE TO THE LOCKED DRAWER AND THE 
PLACE WHERE THE COINS DROP BEFORE 
GOING INTO THE CASH DR,\WER 

platform of the new pay-as-you-enter cars, to be put in 
service on Madison Avenue. The register will be located 
just inside the railing in front of the conductor, who will 
be ready to make change for any one who is not pre- 
pared with his nickel fare. The device is encased in quar- 
tered oak and is made by the Device Transportation Equip- 
ment Company, of New York. 



26 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. i. 



A SANDER FOR CONTINUOUS AND INTERMITTENT FLOW 



CHILDREN'S ENTERTAINMENT AT CINCINNATI 



When operating on a slippery track it is desirable that 
the motorman should be able to confine all his attention to 
the power and braking apparatus, and not be obliged to 
jump on the sand plunger all the time to get continuous 
sanding. This trouble is eliminated by the United Electric 




SANDER ARRANGED TO BE OPERATED INTERMITTENTLY OR 



Car Company, of Preston, Eng., in its new sander, which 
is arranged to sand intermittently through a foot plunger 
and continuously through a platform lever and chain con- 
nected to the sander. The sanding mechanism is built to be 
capable of working any kind of sand, and is also said to be 
waterproof. 

Under ordinary conditions the sander is operated as 
follows : The platform plunger is pressed down, causing a 
sand thrower to move in one direction to push sand off the 
shelf at the bottom of the hopper. When the plunger is 
released from pressure, it returns to its normal position 
and again forces sand off the shelf, thus giving two throws 
with one foot movement. In this case the shelf does not 
move, but the sand is discharged by the sand thrower, which 
moves over the shelf. 

When a continuous flow is needed, as in emergencies, the 
motorman pulls the platform lever over to a notch in a 



Officials of the Cincinnati Traction Company, Cincinnati, 
Ohio, have decided not to give the children of the em- 
ployees an entertainment in the music hall, as has been the 
custom for the past several years during the holiday time. 
Vice-President Foraker stated that the number has grown 
so large from year to year that the offi- 
cers dreaded the responsibility of having 
them gather in the building for even the 
time required to give the programme. 
Last year the number reached 3700 and 
it was necessary to have two perform- 
ances. Instead of this feature the com- 
pany will have the little folks as guests 
at the Zoo some time during the summer. 
There they will have plenty of room and 
no danger from fire or other mishap, as 
might occur at the music hall. It was 
stated that this decision had been ar- 
rived at soon after the entertainment a 
CONTINUOUSLY year ago. 



NEW ROLLING STOCK FOR LACKAWANNA & WYOMING 
VALLEY RAILWAY 



The car shown in the accompanying illustration is the 
latest type to be adopted by the Lackawanna & Wyoming 
Valley Railroad Company, which has its headquarters at 
Scranton and operates the property of the Lackawanna & 
Wyoming Valley Rapid Transit Company, connecting 
Wilkes-Barre, Pittston and Scranton. The car is of the 
combination passenger and smoking type, the length of the 
compartment for smokers being 18 ft. i in. The seats are 
all transverse, even to the seats next to the bulkheads, fol- 
lowing steam practice. The inside finish is of mahogany 
and the ceilings of 5-ply poplar veneer. Some of the di- 
mensions are as follows : Length over end panels, 42 ft. 3^ 
ins.; over crown pieces, 51 ft. 2 ins.; width over sills, in- 




EXTERIOR OF .NEW CAR FOR THE LACKAWANNA & WYOMING VALLEY COMPANY 



special casting. This makes the connecting chain bring the 
pull rod over so much further than when the plunger is 
used that the sand shelf is caused to tip slightly, thus per- 
mitting sand to flow as long as the motorman keeps the 
chain under tension. The emergency mechanism, of course, 
can De placed wherever it is convenient to grasp the lever, 
since the main point is to secure the extra travel of the 
pull rod for any desiicd time. 



eluding sheathing, 8 ft. 10 ins. ; height from floor to ceiling, 
8 ft. 5 ins.; from under side of sills over trolley board, 9 ft. 
6^ ins. ; size of side rails, y^s ins. x 7 ins. ; end sills are 
composed of two 5-in. channels, sill plates of 6-in. channels. 
The car was built at the works of the John Stephenson 
Company, Elizabeth, N. J., and is shown without motors. 
It will be equipped for third-rail operation, like the other 
cars used on this line. 



January 4, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



27 



LONDON LETTER 

(From Our Regular Correspondent.) 

The annual dinner of the Tramways & Light Railway Asso- 
ciation was held during the past month at Princes' Restaurant, 
London, the chair being occupied on that occasion by the Duke 
of Argyll, who was supported by the Earl of Kerry, Lord 
Vaux of Harrowden, the Hon. Arthur Stanley and many others 
interested in electric traction matters. In proposing the toast 
"The Tramway Industry," the Duke of Argyll, who is now the 
honorary president of the association, stated that there were 
more than 300 tramway and light railway undertakings in 
Great Britain, the total capital of which amounted to £60,000,000, 
the total mileage open for trafific being more than 2200 miles, 
served by more than 11,000 cars. The total number of passen- 
gers carried last year was 2236 millions or more than 6,000,000 
per day, and the total receipts on the whole of the undertakings 
amounted to more than £10,500,000. The duke went on to refer 
to the great benefit that tramways were to large cities, such as 
Glasgow, with which he was very familiar, and mentioned the 
fact that one could now take a car in that city and go as far 
as the beautiful shores of Loch Lomond, some twenty miles 
away. In closing his subject, he proposed the toast of "The 
Tramway Industry" coupled with the name of E. Garcke. Mr. 
Garcke, in his reply, referred to the lessening rivalry that now 
existed between municipalities and companies, and stated that it 
was now possible for members of a municipality to meet and 
discuss difficulties in a friendly spirit with company managers, 
and in many cases agree on mutually useful arrangements. 
He naturally made a special plea for more lenient legislation 
with regard to tramways in the more sparsely populated por- 
tions of the country, and stated that some of the conditions im- 
posed upon them were too onerous. Other speeches were made 
by Sir Alexander Kennedy, Ralph Littler, Stephen Sellon and 
the Hon. Arthur Stanley, all of whom spoke encouragingly of 
the good work being done by the association. In the afternoon, 
members, at the invitation of A. L. C. Fell, were conveyed to 
Greenwich by special car to inspect the new power house of the 
London County Council, and were there met by J. H. Rider, 
electrical engineer of the Council, who showed them over the 
power station, including the additions now in progress of 
erection. 

Two important extensions of the Edinburgh cable car system 
are being carried out at present, one being the cabling of the 
Gilmore Place route, where, until recently, the antiquated horse- 
drawn cars formed the means of conveyance, and the other the 
laying out of a new route in the Broughton district. Both con- 
tracts are in the hands of Dick, Kerr & Company, and it is ex- 
pected that the track at Gilmore Place will be completely formed 
by January. The route is over level streets, and the track will 
be double throughout, with interlacings where the narrowness 
of the streets makes this necessary.. The cars on the new route 
will travel at the usual eight to ten miles an hour, and once the 
service is in working order the residents in Craiglockhart and 
Merchiston districts will find it is a great boon. Satisfactory 
progress is also being made wnth the other route. 

The Draft Order embodying the York Corporation's scheme 
for a system of electric tramways has been deposited with the 
Light Railway Commissioners of the Board of Trade. It sets 
out the routes which the proposed tramway is to cover, and 
states that if the whole of the railway is not completed within 
five years from the commencement of the Order the powers of 
the corporation shall cease. There is, however, a provision that 
the Board of Trade may allow an extension of time. The cor- 
poration is required to submit plans of the railways, before be- 
ginning the construction, to the Board of Trade, and also per- 
mit the plans to be inspected, if required, by owners or occu- 
piers of land and buildings along the routes. 

A peculiar accident occurred recently in connection with the 
Belfast Tramways, which very fortunately had no serious re- 
sult. A car from Cliftonville on one of the steepest grades in 
the city had been stopped, the motorman and the conductor hav- 
ing left the car, which contained no passengers and which had a 
few minutes to spare. It seems that a boy about ten years 
old, in a spirit of mischief, it is presumed, climbed onto the 
front platform and released the brake. The car ran down 
the gradient, successfully negotiated a sharp bend at St. James' 
Church, and finally dashed down the hill and ran into another 
car at the bottom of Donegal Street. Some of the passengers 
in this car were slightly injured, but they were all able to pro- 
ceed to their homes. The boy was charged at the police court 



with having wilfully and maliciously let go the brake to the 
danger of the public. The corporation solicitor stated that the 
car ran a distance of almost two miles at a terrific rate and 
that it was a miracle that a disaster had not occurred. At the 
present writing the result of the enquiry is not known. 

We referred last month to the serious accident which oc- 
curred on the Halifax system of tramways, and we have now to 
report that the resignation has been proffered and accepted by the 
tramway committee of the general manager, F. Spencer, and of 
the superintendent of rolling stock, C. H. Spencer. It is now 
intended to combine the position of tramway manager and elec- 
trical engineer, and Mr. Rogerson has been, or shortly will be, 
appointed to the combined position. It has also been decided 
to instruct the tramways manager to place an additional em- 
ploye on each car on about half a dozen of the various steep 
routes in the city, this employe to have charge of the brakes 
while the car is on these dangerous down-grades. 

It would appear that another attempt is to be made to provide 
electrical energy in bulk for London. We have referred from 
time to time as to the fate of past schemes, which have all 
failed to pass through Parliament, and notice has now been 
given of another bill which is to be promoted ne.xt session for 
the incorporation of an electrical supply company, which is in- 
tended to carry on operations not only in the county of Lon- 
don, but in the neighboring counties. Powers are to be sought 
to enable the company to supply energy in bulk or otherwise 
to any local authority or distributing company and to railways, 
tramways and other public works, and for all public and private 
purposes. It will also be endeavored to secure powers to author- 
ize the company to buy out other authorized distributors by the 
transfer of the whole of its undertakings and rights to the pro- 
posed company. It is proposed to establish a large generating 
station at Barking, on the Thames side, and necessarily the 
company will apply for rights for the opening of streets for the 
laying down of the necessary electric conduits and cables. 

At the annual social gathering of the employes of the Glas- 
gow Corporation Tramways Department, the Lord Provost 
stated that at the present time there were 180 miles of single 
track in Glasgow and a staff of more than 5000 persons in de- 
partment, serving with these facilities a population of no less 
than 1,000,000 people. So much of the debt had already been 
paid off that there is now only $1,500,000 owing on the tram- 
way work, and before very long there will probably be no debt 
at all, if the department continued as now without additional 
capital expenditures and left fares as they are. He also desired 
to see other tramway routes across the river before long, and 
with continued prosperity hoped that the department would in 
time accumulate sufficient funds to be able to build these bridges 
when required. He concluded by stating that the financial 
aspect of the tramway department was one of the most pleas- 
ing with which those who were associated with municipal 
enterprises in Glasgow had to do. 

After years of negotiations betwen the Richmond Town 
Council and the London United Tramways Company, the com- 
pany has succeeded in overcoming the objections of the council 
and its cars will, when the lines are completed, run over Kew 
Bridge, so that the public in their visits to Kew Gardens by 
means of the tramcars of this company will not have to dis- 
mount on the Middlesex side of the river, but will be able to 
continue their journey across the river to any of the gates of 
the famous gardens, and so on to Richmond. The Richmond 
Town Council has now decided formally to ask the tramways 
company to promote a bill in Parliament next session seeking 
powers to construct tramways across Kew Bridge, one of the 
features of the agreement being that the horse tramway line in 
Kew Road shall also be electrified on the underground system. 

The Leeds City Council has voted to combine in future the 
tramways committee and the electricity committee. It is only 
recently that the Council passed a resolution appointing an 
electricity committee, and this resolution has now been rescinded 
and the appointment of the new committee, which will be 
termed in the future the tramways and electricity committee, 
duly passed. It is explained that there is no desire to set up 
any friction, but the object of the present resolution is to co- 
ordinate two great departments and to work them for the com- 
mon good of the citizens. There is a good deal of discussion 
relating to the matter. Both the tramway manager and the 
electrical engineer are men of the highest capabilities, and how 
far they will interfere with one another's work remains to be seen. 

We have referred in this colunm several times to the fact 
that none of the transportation companies in London are at 



28 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL, 



XXXL No. r. 



present in a paying condition, and that some dras:ic action 
woidd sooner or later have to be taken to bring them to their 
old state of prosperity. Conferences have been held between 
the various 'bus companies, tube companies and railway 
companies, and various suggestions have been made and 
concessions granted on both sides. Action by the 'bus 
companies has now been taken and a very substantial 
increase in the fares has been made. The 'bus com- 
panies, however, do not wish it to be understood that the 
fares have been increased, but rather that a general shortening 
of the fare stages has been decided upon. Whether this will be 
successful or not remains to be seen, as from all accounts the 
work does not appear to have been particularly well done, and 
some of the stages shortened are arousing an immense amount 
of indignation on the part of passengers. For a great many 
3rears now such a stage as that between Charing Cross and the 
Bank has been one penny, and now, that passengers are de- 
manded twopence for it, naturallj' an indignant protest is made. 
In the meantime, the London County Council holds absolutely 
aloof from any of these arrangements and pursues its own path 
in the matter of fares with apparent success. 

The O-xford City Council has again taken up the matter of 
the electrification of its tramways, and recently paid a visit to 
Hastings, where the Dolter system has been in operation for 
some six months, successfully, it is claimed by the Dolter Com- 
pany. If the committee is satisfied with the inspection at 
Hastings, it is to be supposed that the members will then permit 
the National Electric Construction Company to proceed with the 
work on this system as already arranged. There still is doubt, 
however, as to what the Council will actually do in the matter, 
! hough some decision is expected before very long. 

It is gratifying to know that the dispute between the London 
CoL ii.y Loincii ::nii i.s irrinivvay cmp.' yes over il:e c|ues,im of 
medical e.Kamination is practically settled, both sides having 
adopted a conciliatory attitude. A modified form of examina- 
tion has been decided upon and has been accepted by the 
Society of Employes, and the tramways committee has also 
promised that any man who fails to pass the required medical 
tests, so far as driving is concerned, shall be given suitable oc- 
cupation at not less than the minimum rate of pay in some 
other department. It has been decided by the Council to pur- 
chase that portion of the Paddington & Harrow Road Tramway 
which lies within the county, this being one of the last tram- 
ways in London owned by a company. The newly electrified 
line from Holborn, down Gray's Inn Road, to King's Cross is 
now in operation, and is much appreciated, though at present 
passengers for all parts of north London have to change cars 
at King's Cross. The new tramway route on the south side 
from Newland, via Peckham Rye, to East Dulwich Green has 
also been opened, and the new connection to the West End by 
way of the bridges is much appreciated by these populous dis- 
tricts. Permission is to be sought from Parliament for the 
construction of several new lines, the most important of which 
will be the electrification on the conduit system of the tramways 
from Finsbury Park to the Nag's Head, Holloway Road, and 
from King's Cross via Caledonian Road to Holloway Road, this 
latter section connecting with the Gray's Inn Road portion men- 
tioned above as having recently been put in operation. A num- 
ber of other shorter lines of more or less importance as con- 
necting lines will also be applied for, but it is unnecessary to 
elaborate upon these. An interesting feature of the King's 
Cross to Holloway Road section relates to the schemes to be 
submitted for the construction of a new bridge 60 ft. wide 
across the Metropolitan Railway at King's Cross, so that direct 
connection can be had between Gray's Inn Road and Caledonian 
Road without having to negotiate the awkward corner at 
Kings' Cross Station. This bridge will have to be constructed 
with the sanction of the Metropolitan Railway, as it will pass 
exactly through the King's Cross Station of that railway com- 
pany if constructed. A. C. S. 


SINGLE-PHASE DISCUSSION BY A. I. E. E. 



At the meeting of the American Institute of Electrical Engi- 
neers which is scheduled for Jan. 10, 1908, a paper will be pre- 
sented on single-phase distribution by W. S. Murray, electrical 
engineer of New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, and 
a paper on "A New Single-Phase Railway Motor," by Ernst 
Alexanderson, electrical engineer, General Electric Company, 
Schenectady. 



THE CLEVELAND SITUATION 



At the meeting of the city and traction representatives Fri- 
day, it developed that City Engineer Hoffman and C. H. Clark 
are still at work on the track valuations, although it was sup- 
posed that they had been superseded the preceding week hy 
Messrs. Bunning and Ross. These gentlemen have been acting- 
as a sub-committee instead. They decided on a basis of valua- 
tion for excavating and on some other points upon which the 
original members could not agree. The figures agreed upon 
were as follows : Excavating without encountering concrete,, 
$1,681,82 per mile; with concrete foundation, $2,217.52; with 
crushed stone under ties and concrete foundation, $3,157.77- 
Under instructions from the Mayor, Messrs. Hoffman and' 
Clark will use these figures, providing President Andrews- 
agrees. Mr. Goff made this a condition, as he is taking every- 
thing into consideration before agreeing to figures of any kind.. 
Mayor Johnson said he thought if they would use them, they 
would come within $150,000 or $200,000 of an agreement and 
that he and Mr. Goff could settle the matter if they got within 
that limit. 

There was also some discussion as to the values to be placed 
upon rails used for various lengths of time. Mr. Clark still 
adheres to his original statement that good rails will last 
twenty years, but the Mayor repeated his assertion, made sev- 
eral weeks ago, that there was not a rail in Cleveland that had 
been in service twenty years. Mr. Hoffman figures that fifteen 
years is the life of a rail, although Mr. Clark stated that some 
of the rails on Payne Avenue had been in use seventeen years- 
Some discussion also resulted from the prices of scrap that 
were quoted. Mr. Clark wanted to put the price at $13, say- 
ing that his company in Buffalo had received that figure only 
a few days ago for quite an amount of old rails. Mr. Hoff- 
man said he had been quoted $11 within the last week by three- 
different dealers. A compromise price of $12 was agreed upon. 
In regard to information relating, to the dates of laying rails- 
on different lines. Secretary Davies wrote the Mayor that Mr. 
Clark had secured all his information from the company's- 
books, and he stated further that he would have this, informa- 
tion put- in shape for the representatives of the two interests. 
Upon this will depend, to some extent at least, the valuation of 
the tracks. Scrap, other than rails, will be estimated at 60 per 
cent of the original weight of the iron. 

At the meeting on Tuesday morning of last week, the list in 
schedule M, which includes many miscellaneous items not cov- 
ered by the other schedules, was taken up for consideration. 
.A.mong other things, it showed sixteen shares of Forest City 
Railway stock, rights of way on boulevards, leases in various- 
amusement parks and the contract for street car advertising. 
The Mayor gave this schedule close attention to ascertain, if 
possible, whether it contained any items that were covered in 
the other schedules. In the first place, he suggested that the 
rights of way on boulevards might be considered a liability 
instead of an asset, but the officials of the company insisted 
that they are assets and should be so considered. He also 
argued at first that the company's interest in the Electric 
Package Company is a franchise value, but afterward 
changed his views on the matter. President Andrews said that; 
the property is not large but that the business is, and that sev- 
eral express companies have been anxious to secure it. 

Paving of the devil strip on the Broadway line was included 
as an asset. This is now in litigation, it was stated, and the 
decision will show whether the company or the city will pay 
for the work. An item of $2,000 as a contribution to the shelter 
house on the Public Square was looked upon as belonging to the 
legitimate expense account rather than an asset by both the 
Mayor and Mr. Goff. Many small items are also included in 
this list, such as conductors' uniforms and badges, interest,, 
insurance, water rent and prepaid car licenses. 

Mayor Johnson mentioned some claims against the Forest 
City Railway Company and was informed that they had beem 
placed among the accounts receivable. Mr. Goff thanked the 
Mayor for having called attention to anything that had been 
seemingly overlooked. It was suggested that a date for de- 
termining the value of the stock should be fixed, and the Mayor 
stated that Jan. i, 1908, would be a good date to reckon from 
as nearly as possible. 

Overhead charges, such as engineering, work of architects 
and other things of this kind were included in schedule N, 
which was taken up for consideration. This also contained an 
item of contractors' profits. The Mayor objected to this in all 



January 4. 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



29 



cases where work was done by direct labor, and Mr. Goff 
stated that he and the Mayor were agreed that such profits 
should not be computed unless the labor was done under con- 
tract. President Andrews was not ready to give an opinion on 
this point when asked by the negotiators. In regard to the in- 
corporation fee, Mayor Johnson held that the charge might be 
less than the $23,000 listed, as the property could be repro- 
duced for less than $23,000,000, the capital stock of the old 
•company. The principle of making a charge is right, he said, 
but the amount might be less. The whole cost of incorporating 
might exceed the amount charged up for fees, he admitted. 
Mr. Gofif thought that he and the Mayor could agree on this 
point without trouble. 

Mayor Johnson objected to a charge for attorneys' fees for 
•drafting ordinances and legal expenses in securing consents and 
franchises. He said these items always follow litigation, and 
all reference to fights should be eliminated from consideration 
in these negotiations. The figures were not put in the report 
and the items were passed for the present. An item for the 
expense of an expert accountant was eliminated by the Mayor 
and Mr. Goff. The committee that handled this matter in- 
cluded almost everything that had value, as should be done, but 
there will probably be some differences of opinion over some 
■of them, as they were passed for further consideration. 

Mr. Goff, in an indirect way, mentioned the price of 60 for 
the Cleveland Electric stock at one of the meetings and some 
of the local papers took the matter up, but it is believed that he 
had no intention of committing himself on this matter, but 
merely took this as an illustration in discussing another point. 
Mayor Johnson did not take the matter up at all, as he would 
have done had he thought that Mr. Goff was paving the way 
to naming a leasing figure. 

The Municipal Traction Company has had a large force of 
men at work for several days getting the West Sixty-Fifth 
Street line in shape to connect with the Cleveland Electric 
tracks on the West Side, as per agreement between the Mayor 
and Mr. Goff several days ago. The tracks were almost ready 
for regular operation Saturday. Only a single track will be 
operated on Si.xty-Fifth Street at first. 

The holidays interfered to some extent with the negotiations. 
Mr. Goff and some of the other men wanted to be absent 
from the city the entire week, but on objection from Mayor 
Johnson they gave up and spent most of their time in hard 
work. City Solicitor Baker was away the greater part of the 
time and the consideration of the date of the e.xpiration of 
franchises was delayed quite a little, since some of the briefs 
had been filed and Attorney Tolles was ready to go ahead with 
the work. 

William Barclay Parsons, chosen as an expert by Mr. Goff, 
had a private audience with Mayor Johnson last week. The 
Mayor objected to this, as he had promised that everything 
should be public, and said he miglit give the newspapers the sub- 
stance of what was said at the meeting. 

The committee named to decide on the time of the expiration 
of the various franchises has held one or two meetings, at- 
torneys being present for both the old and the new companies. 
The Cleveland Electric attorneys brought up the point that the 
grants to the crosstown lines, with transfer requirements to 
other lines, operate to extend the grants on the latter notwith- 
standing the decision of Judge Taylor, of the United States 
Court. The attorneys argued that the United States Supreme 
Court, in its decision on the Central Avenue and Quincy Street 
grants, did not sustain the reasoning advanced by Judge Taylor 
in his decision. The attorneys for both sides were directed to 
prepare briefs, both on this decision and that of Judge Chap- 
man. This they promised to do. It is altogether probable that 
the work in this line will be difficult and that the committee wiU 
take sufficient time to arrive at a proper conclusion of the fran- 
chises of all the lines. 

At a public meeting held Monday afternoon Mr. GofT brought 
up the subject of financing a street railway project on the basis 
proposed by Mayor Johnson, by stating that a holding company 
to take over the properties of the Cleveland Electric must be 
able to give them proper attention and extend the lines where 
they are needed. The Mayor explained the plan he had of rais- 
ing money among the people of Cleveland through popular sub- 
scription, and slated that the Forest City Railway Company 
would be able to secure enough that way to carry out its plans. 
Mr. Goff asserted that the Mayor could not raise $200,000 in the 
entire United States on his plan for the Forest City Railway 
•Company at this time. He suggested that bankers be called in 



and consulted, as they are the men who know the conditions 
and have some idea of how difficult it is to do these things. 

Mayor Johnson, however, insisted that it would not be a big 
task to secure $10,000,000 or $12,000,000 now in the savings 
banks for the stock of the company. He said that there is 
$177,000,000 in the banks drawing 4 per cent interest, and he 
believed that the people would prefer to have it making them 
6 per cent. The Municipal Traction Company, he said, is mak- 
ing about 9 per cent now, and he could not see why a holding 
company with the entire system would not do very much better 
than the one line that is now in operation on the West Side. 

Mr. Goff again suggested that the security franchise should 
provide for six tickets for a quarter in order to make it easier 
to get money at a low rate, in case it became necessary to 
finance any improvements. He said that the stronger the fran- 
chise, the easier it would be to secure money cheaply when 
needed. Upon this depends to a great extent the success of the 
holding company plan on the low fare that is proposed. The 
Mayor mentioned Columbus as a city where the system is 
operated at seven tickets for a quarter, with profit. Mr. Goff 
told him that the lines were very much shorter, but the Mayor 
insisted that this would be made up by the denser population of 
Cleveland. 

J. J. Stanley and W. T. Cook made their report on the valu- 
ation of the rolling stock. The total showed 848 cars, and for 
valuation purposes they were divided into thirty-two groups. 
The aggregate value placed upon the whole number is $2,634,- 
563.23, or $330,507.17 less than the valuation made by Mr. 
DuPont more than a year ago. A second report included the 
rolling stock which is not used for profit. This was placed at 
$154,764.71, or $70,404.71 more than the former valuation. 
This makes eight of the fourteen schedules that have been re- 
ported upon up to Monday evening. All the reports, with one or 
two exceptions, show a decrease over the former valuations. The 
total values agreed upon by the committees so far amount to 
$8,386,048. F"ranchise and other values will bring this amount 
up to a much larger sum. Mayor Johnson said that the remain- 
ing six schedules last year showed a valuation of $4,740,000. 
This would make a little more than $13,000,000 on the same 
plan that was followed at that time. 

The street railway meeting Monday morning was short and 
related largely to the track valuations in the hands of Messrs. 
Clark and Hoffman. In one place there was an item of 5 cents a 
foot or $250 a mile charged by the city for cleaning the streets 
after track laying had been completed. The Mayor wanted to 
know what had been charged for sweeping alone. Mr. Clark 
in reply said he thought that tlie charge made was $100 a 
mile. 



EXPERIMENT IN FARE COLLECTION IN PITTSBURG 

An experiment of the pay-as-you-enter principle of fare col- 
lection was tried Dec. 30 in Pittsburg on the ordinary cars 
without the regular platform equipment or the necessary exit 
and entrance doors. The result was that on the morning of the 
test a great deal of difficulty was experienced in putting the 
system in force, especially as the cars in Pittsburg do not have 
long rear platforms, and most of them have no forward exit. 
After a few hours the order was rescinded and the conductors 
were authorized to collect fares in the former way. The ex- 
periment indicated that the pay-as-you-enter system cannot 
operate successfully without the properly equipped pay-as-you- 
enter car. 



LAST CHAPTER OF THE CHICAGO TRACTION TROUBLES 



The different interests in the Chicago Union Traction reor- 
ganization have come to an agreement, and under "legal notices" 
the Chicago daily papers print one page advertisements describ- 
ing the property of the company and annnouncing the sale of 
the properties to the highest bidder Jan. 25, 1908. As a result 
of the settlement orders and decrees as follows were entered 
by Judge Grosscup : 

That all of the present ITnion Traction properties be put on 
the auction block and sold, under foreclosure, to the highest 
bidder. 

That pending and in aid of this sale the receivers of the 
properties execute a lease of them to the Chicago Railways 
Company, turning the properties over to it. 

These orders were issued with the expectation of bringing 
about the following results : 



30 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. i. 



Within a few days the Union Traction Company is to pass 
out of existence and the Chicago Railways Company take its 
place. 

The railways company will accept the ordinance of Feb. ii, 
1907, allowing it to operate on the north and west sides. 

It will raise $12,000,000 with which to rehabilitate the present 
Union Traction lines, in accordance with the demands of that 
ordinance. 

Out of the $61,000,000 concerned only one claimant for $10,000 
objected to the settlement. This was Attorney Henry Craw- 
ford, who held receivers' certificates. He was told that if he 
could make good his contention his claim would be settled. 

Judge Grosscup on being asked what the settlement means 
replied : 

"What the entry of these orders means is that 2,000,000 
people, constituting the city of Chicago, at last have come to an 
understanding with some 20,000 people, constituting the credit- 
ors, bondholders and stockholders of the old Union Traction Sys- 
tem, whereby, as nearly as human judgment can reach such 
results, the 2,000,000 get what is due to them as a community ; 
the twenty odd thousand get what is due to them as a body, and 
each of the 20,000 gets what is due to him as an individual. 

"A settlement on so large a scale, involving so much feeling, 
is always difficult. It was the ordinance of February last that 
made such settlement possible. The extension ordinance of 
last September saved it from disaster. The agreement to-day 
practically closes it. 

"And when we remember what just complaint the 2,000,000 
had ; when we remember that nearly every one of the twenty 
odd thousand was himself the victim of the same wrong; when 
we remember that among these 20,000 there were more than a 
score of direct conflicting interests, each in itself a lawsuit in- 
volving millions ; when we remember how easy and quickly done 
it might have looked to have wiped the slate of the whole diffi- 
culty by simply giving the new franchise to some outside people 
or to some syndicate of big men in the old companies — selling 
to them the tangible property of the old company at what it 
might bring at public sale — the dominant feeling that possesses 
to-day is one of thankfulness — sincere thankfulness — that held 
to sober second thought the American people can be trusted to 
deal with each other in an enlightened spirit of fair play. 

"Mistakes have been made — I can put my finger on dozens of 
my own. But the central idea has been carried out." 

The consent of practically all the bondholders was neces- 
sary to make the reorganization plan secure. This was the 
holding of the United States Court of Appeals. At the set- 
tlement it was shown that of the $25,699,000 of outstanding 
bonds $22,461,500 had been deposited in aid of the plan and no 
objections had been heard from any of the holders of the re- 
maining $3,237,500. Consent to the settlement was obtained 
from 80 to 90 per cent of the stockholders. 

The formalities remaining to be carried out are : The receiv- 
ers of the Union Traction Company must execute a lease of 
these properties to the Chicago Railways Company, which in 
turn must be accepted by the officials of the railways company. 
When the lease is properly signed the railways company can 
take possession of the lines, accept the city ordinance and pro- 
ceed to operate the present Union Traction System. Tho rental 
to be paid is nominal — $1,000 a year. 

The advertisements previously referred to under the law 
must run for thirty days. When the thirty days have expired 
Master in Chancery Bishop is to sell the properties to the high- 
est bidder from the steps of the government building. Only one 
bidder is expected — the Chicago Railways Company. It will 
bid the amount of the bonds it represents, or $25,699,000, and 
as any other bidder would have to put up cash none is looked 
for. Then the master is to issue a mortgage foreclosure deed 
to the Chicago Railways Company and it will have the legal 
title to the properties as well as actual possession under the 
lease from the receivers. 

The Chicago Railways Company has only a nominal capital 
of $100,000. It is organized simply as an operating corporation. 
Its officers are ; Frederick H. Rawson, president : W. N. Eisen- 
drath, secretary; Albert S. Sprague, Charles G. Dawes, Chaun- 
cey Keep, A. C. Bartlett, Charles H. Hulburd, directors. 

As a result of the settlement the board of supervising en- 
gineers has begun active work on plans for establishing the 
twenty-one through routes between the north and west and the 
south side systems, as provided for in the traction ordinance. 

Bion J. Arnold, president of the board, in speaking of the 
settlement said : "We are much pleased that the troubles of the 



Union Traction Company have been settled at last, and we feel 
greatly encouraged now as regards the north and west side 
lines. We will soon be making as good progress over there as 
on the south side. We are already getting into shape to start 
a few through routes as soon as possible after the Chicago 
Railways Company takes possession. We are doing as much as 
we can in advance and believe some of the routes will be estab- 
lished in February. In every case there will have to be some 
slight deviation from the through routes as laid down in the 
ordinances and we are considering now just what these should 
be. The reason is that owing to the narrowness or weakness 
of bridges or inadequate curves the big double truck cars could 
not be run over the prescribed routes from one* end to the other. 
These details we are deciding on now as nearly as possible, so 
that there will be little delay when the new company takes 
hold." 

The rehabilitation of the north and west side systems, it 
is estimated, will within the next three years cost $25,000,000. 
Ninety miles of track must be reconstructed, forty-eight miles 
of old cable track must be rebuilt and about 800 additional 
double truck cars will be required to comply with the ordinance. 
New car barns, power stations and sub-stations will probably 
be built and feeder and transmission systems installed. 

Henry A. Blair, one of the receivers of the Union Traction 
Company, is reported to have stated that two syndicates had 
agreed to advance $17,000,000 in cash. One known as the re- 
habilitation syndicate will furnish $12,000,000 on first mortgage 
bonds as security. A reorganization syndicate has agreed to 
furnish $5,000,000 to be secured on 6 per cent collateral notes. 
The board of directors of the new railways company has ap- 
proved the plan, but details are withheld for the present. If 
rehabilitation costs up to $25,000,000, as is possible, additional 
moneys must be obtained. No serious difficulty under this head 
is anticipated by Mr. Blair. 

NEW SUBWAY APPROVED FOR NEW YORK 

The Public Service Commission of the first district of New 
York, at a public meeting Tuesday, Dec. 31, approved the route 
for a new $60,000,000 subway in Manhattan, and authorized the 
engineer and counsel to take the necessary steps preliminary to 
presenting the plans to the Board of Estimate. It is probable 
that the plans will be ready for advertising about March, though 
whether they will be advertised or not may depend on whether 
the Elsberg law has been amended by then. The new subway, 
if it is built, will follow the lines of parts of five of the routes 
laid out by the old Rapid Transit Commission. It is the most 
direct route ever planned. The general route is given in the 
resolutions adopted by the commission, which were as follows : 

Whereas, In the opinion of the commission, a rapid transit system in 
the Boroughs of Manhattan and the Bronx should be laid out and offered 
for bids; and, 

Whereas, The rapid transit system which, in the opinion of the com- 
mission, seems best to meet the requirements of the people of the City 
of New York is one described as beginning at a point under Battery Park, 
running thence northerly through and under Greenwich Street, Trinity 
Place and Church Street to Vesey Street, thence easterly through Vesey 
Street to Broadway, thence northerly along and under Broadway to Canal 
Street, where connection will be made with a crosstown line hereinafter 
described; thence northerly to a point near East Tenth Street, where the 
line curves generally in a northeasterly direction and under private 
property and across East Eleventh Street to Fourth Avenue, East Twelfth 
Street, East Thirteenth Street, and East Fourteenth Street to Irving 
Place; thence northerly along and under Irving Place to Gramercy Park; 
thence northerly under Gramercy Park to Lexington Avenue; thence 
northerly under Lexington Avenue to the Harlem River and under the 
Harlem River to a point near the intersection of Park Avenue and East 
J 38th Street, where the lines will diverge, the easterly line continuing 
east along East 138th Street to the Southern Boulevard; thence in a 
generally northerly direction along the Southern Boulevard to West- 
chester Avenue; thence in a generally northeasterly direction along 
Westchester Avenue to the Eastern Boulevard or Pelham Bay Park; 
the westerly line to begin at a point near the intersection of Park Avenue 
and East 138th Street and running northerly along Mott Avenue to 151st 
Street; thence northwesterly along 151st Street to Gerard Avenue; thence 
northerly along Gerard Avenue to the intersection of Gerard Avenue and 
Jerome Avenue near Clark Place, from which the line is to extend north- 
erly along and under Jerome Avenue to Woodlawn Cemetery. Also a 
crosstown line on Canal Street, connecting at Broadway with the other 
parts of this system, and beginning at the intersection of Canal Street 
and West Street, and thence running easterly under Canal Street and, 
with proper connections at Broadway to the Manhattan Bridge approach, 
where connection can be made with the Fourth Avenue route in Brooklyn 
already authorized; and, 



JANUARY 4, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



31 



Whereas, Portions of this system have been laid out as separate routes 
by the former Board of Rapid Transit Railroad Commissioners and ap- 
proved by the Board of Estimate and Apportionment and the Mayor and 
consented to by a majority in value of the owners of abutting property 
or by the Appellate Division of the Supreme Court, in lieu thereof; and. 

Whereas, The construction of such a system will require the modifica- 
tion of certain of the said routes. 

Now, therefore, be it resolved. That the question of the legality and 
feasibility of such a system be referred to the counsel and chief engineer 
to the commission for a report and to prepare the necessary plans and 
papers for submission to the commission. 

The line would be wholly independent of the present subway. 
It would pass underneath it in the neighborhood of Twelfth 
Street. The route calls for its passing under private property 
about there, which would greatly aid in keeping the line straight. 
There would be four tracks to the Harlem River and three be- 
yond, at least on the westerly branch. Downtown the line would 
avoid the present subway in lower Broadway below the post- 
office by swinging round into Vesey Street and going beneath 
Church Street. It would pass the terminal of the McAdoo 
lower tunnels, and at Ninth Street it would touch another ter- 
minal of the McAdoo system. 

In a report on the route the special committee on additional 
subways, consisting of Commissioners Eustis and Maltbie, says 
in part : 

The line thus planned could be connected with the New York Central 
Railroad at the Mott Haven station, at 138th Street, and at Forty-second 
Street, and suburban trains could be run through to the Battery via 
Broadway — a more direct route to downtown Manhattan than by the 
present subway. At this very moment, before the Grand Central Station 
has been reconstructed and while traffic is being so seriously interfered 
with by this reconstruction, that the number of persons using the Grand 
Central Station is very much less than it will be when the station has 
been rebuilt and the trains are again running upon schedule time, the 
present subway is congested by New York Central traffic. The proposed 
line would relieve this congestion and help handle the additional traffic 
that will come when the New York Central has completed its work of 
reconstruction and its lines have been electrified. 

The proposed line will aiso run close to the Steinway tunnel at Forty- 
second Street and the Blackwell's Island Bridge at Fifty-ninth Street, so 
that a connection may be made with the crosstown subway under Fifty- 
ninth Street, planned by the Rapid Transit Commission. By either route 
the residents of Queens will be able to reach the lower portion of Man- 
hattan much more expeditiously than at present. 

The crosstown spur through Canal Street would connect with 
the Manhattan Bridge, and there would be a turnout from the 
main north and south line, so that trains from the Bronx could 
be run over the bridge and the Fourth Avenue subway in 
Brooklyn, which the commission has already approved. 



GOV. HUGHES RECOMMENDS RAILWAY LEGISLATION 



Recommendations for amendments to the laws governing 
banks and trust companies, largely along the lines suggested by 
the Hepburn Commission ; radical election reforms, including 
the adoption of the Massachusetts ballot and a law making di- 
rect nominations at primaries permissive ; for the repeal of the 
Percy-Gray anti-betting law and the substitution of a law mak- 
ing betting at race tracks a prison offense, and amendments to 
the Public Service Commissions act, which will bring telegraph 
and telephone companies under its control, are the most striking 
features of Governor Hughes' annual message, which was re- 
ceived and read in both houses of the Legislature at the opening 
session Jan. i. In many instances his recommendations are for 
legislation which was defeated at the last session despite the 
fact that it had been urged not only in his annual message last 
year, but in messages subsequently sent to the two branches of 
the Legislature. In regard to the Public Service Commission 
and the need for subways in New York the Governor said : 

"The Public Service Commissions law has provided for the 
investigation and redress of grievances in connection with the 
operation of railroad, gas and electrical corporations. The 
necessity of having such an administrative board with adequate 
powers so that complaints may be heard and determined upon 
their merits, and that there may be suitable machinery for en- 
forcing the rules of law requiring impartial and proper service 
upon reasonable terms, according to the exigencies of each par- 
ticular case, cannot be gainsaid. No change is suggested in 
policy or structure, but such amendments as experience may 
show to be advisable to improve the text, to facilitate adminis- 
tration or more fully to carry out the intent of the act, should 
be supplied. 



'T recommend, however, an enlargement of the scope of the 
act. In view of the tasks to be assumed with respect to cor- 
porations already under supervision, it was not thought best at 
the outset to extend the act to other corporations. It should 
now be extended to telephone and telegraph companies, and they 
should be brought under appropriate regulation as to rates, 
service and other matters, similar to that which obtains in the 
case of the corporations at present subject to the law. 

"It is not advisable that separate commissions should be 
created ; efficiency and economy will be promoted by concentra- 
tion of supervisory powers. The increased labors of the public 
service commissions may be met by suitable departmental organ- 
ization. But to avoid the overburdening of the commissions 
when organization is being perfected and precedents in various 
classes of cases are being established, I recommend that this 
e-xtension of jurisdiction shall take effect on Oct. i, 1908. 

"Through the work of the Public Service Commission of the 
First District existing facilities will be availed of to their utmost 
capacity to improve conditions of transit. But the natural in- 
crease in the demands for service, which is incident to the rapid 
growth of the city, necessarily outstrips any possible improve- 
ment in the facilities at present available. 

"The construction of new lines, particularly of new subway 
lines, is imperatively demanded. With respect to this matter 
the Public Service Commission is subject to the provisions of 
the Rapid Transit act. By the referendum of 1894 the plan 
of municipal construction of rapid transit lines was decided 
upon, and there is no provision for building such lines with pri- 
vate capital except in the case of certain extensions of, and 
additions to, existing lines. 

"It is urged, however, that the city's indebtedness has reached 
such an amount that there is not a sufficient margin available 
to enable the city to provide for the construction of needed 
subways. The Charter Revision Commission recommends that 
the constitution should be so amended as to exclude from the 
computation of the city's debt limit all bonds or evidences of 
indebtedness issued for purposes which produce revenues in ex- 
cess of their maintenance charges. I concur in this recommen- 
dation, and I present it to you for appropriate action, looking 
to the submission to the people of the proposed amendment in 
suitable form. 

"In the meantime the question whether any changes in the 
Rapid Transit act should be made in order to facilitate subway 
construction should receive your most serious consideration." 



MEETING OF THE PENNSYLVANIA STREET RAILWAY 
ASSOCIATION 



A meeting of the executive committee of the Pennsylvania 
Street Railway Association was held in Philadelphia recently to 
organize for active work during the coming year. The associa- 
tion is one of the oldest of the state bodies, but has been rather 
inactive since 1904 until last winter, when the street railway 
companies of Pennsylvania decided that considerable mutual 
benefit could be secured by more active co-operation. At the 
meeting in Philadelphia R. P. Stevens, of Allentown, was 
elected vice-president of the association to succeed E. E. Young, 
of Johnstown, and Charles O. Kruger, general manager of the 
Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company, was elected a member of 
the executive committee in place of William B. Given, who has 
recently moved from Columbia to Chicago. The other officers 
of the association are F. B. Musser, of Harrisburg, president ; 
Charles H. Smith, secretary, and Capt. W. H. Lanius, treasurer. 
The executive committee consists of the president, secretary 
and John A. Rigg, E. H. Davis and C. O. Kruger. 

About eighteen street railway companies were represented at 
the Philadelphia meeting of the association, and it is proposed 
to hold another meeting of the executive committee in Philadel- 
phia this week to see whether all of the electric railway com- 
panies of the state cannot be enrolled in the association. One of 
the subjects to be taken up by the association early next year 
will be to meet the railway connnission of Pennsylvania, which 
will go into office Jan. i, 1908, and discuss the question of a 
standard classification of operating accounts. 



President Mellen, of the New York, New Haven & Hartford 
Railroad, says the delay in building the New York & Port- 
chester Railroad through the Bronx and into Connecticut is 
due primarily to the opposition of taxpayers along the route. 
The line is to be operated by the third-rail. 



32 



STRF.irr RAILWAY JOURXAI. 



[VcL. XXXI. No. I. 



NEW PUBLICATIONS 



The Car Wheel: Giving the Results of a Series of Investi- 
gations OF the Physical and Other Qualities of Steel 
and Cast Iron Wheels. By George L. Fowler. Pub- 
lished for private distribution by the Schoen Steel Wheel 
Company, Pittsburg, Pa., 1907. Boards, 6 in. x 19 in., 161 
pages. 

About three years ago, before the manufacture of Schoen 
solid rolled and forged steel wheels was begun on a commercial 
scale, Mr. Fowler undertook to make some tests to determine 
the relative physical and chemical qualities of these wheels as 
compared with standard brands of steel-tired and cast-iron 
wheels then in use. This investigation, started with the sole 
object of finding what standards of quality and service would 
have to be met by the new product, developed later into an 
elaborate series of experiments involving not only a study of 
the qualities of the various wheels to resist wear and breakage 
in service, but also to determine what stresses the wheels were 
actually subjected to. The results of all of these investigations are 
here collected and made public, primarily, of course, as an ex- 
position of the many superior qualities claimed for the solid- 
steel wheel. Nevertheless, many interesting and valuable data 
having little or no direct bearing on the relative merits of the 
wheels tested, are presented. 

From the standpoint of the electric railway man, perhaps the 
most interesting chapters are those on the coefficients of friction 
between wheel and rail when spinning and skidding, and on the 
areas of contact between wheel and rail. The tests to determine 
the relative coefficients of friction of steel and cast iron wheels 
were made in the laboratory under conditions approaching as 
nearly as possible those of actual service, and these were later 
checked by experiments made with a loaded car running on a 
track. Tests were conducted under loads varying from 2000 lbs. 
to 30,000 lbs. for both skidding and spinning. The steel wheel 
had a greater resistance to both motions under all loads ; at 
30,000 lbs. load it was 10 per cent higher for spinning than that 
of the cast-iron wheel under the same load and about 9 per cent 
higher for skidding. The higher resistance to spinning is ex- 
plained by the fact that with the steel wheel there is mutual 
compression in both the rail load and the wheel. In spinning 
this compression is progressively continuous around the wheel 
whereas with the hard and almost incompressible chilled cast- 
iron wheel no such continuous compression takes place, the only 
resistance being that due to abrasion. The higher coefficient of 
friction for skidding than for spinning in all cases is explained 
on a similar hypothesis — that in skiding a progressive wave of 
compression in the rail head must be set up. The tests with a 
loaded car indicate that in skidding a short distance at low speed 
the cast-iron wheel is more apt to develop a flat spot than is a 
steel wheel. However, if the skidding continues for some dis- 
tance at a high speed, the wheel becomes heated and then the 
steel wheel is the first to yield, unless the hard surface chill of 
the cast-iron wheel has been worn through. An explanation of 
these facts is afforded by the relative rate of abrasion of chilled 
cast-iron wheels and steel wheels. Contrary to common as- 
sumption the hard cast-iron wheel can be ground away nearly 
five times as fast as the steel wheel, if both are kept cool. 

The area of contact between wheel and rail was the subject 
of an elaborate series of tests. The results are interesting, as 
having a possible bearing on the cause of corrugated rails. 
Under any load above 20,000 lbs. a permanent set took place in 
the rail, but no permanent set was observed in either cast iron 
or steel wheels under loads as high as 150,000 lbs. The maxi- 
mum intensity of pressure at the center of the area of contact 
is calculated to be nearly 170,000 lbs. under a load of 20,000 lbs. 
The effect of difference of diameter of wheels of the same mate- 
rial on the area of contact is negligible within the limits of 
practice. The tests indicate that in service the hard unyielding 
cast-iron wheel inflicts more measurable damage on the rail 
than the more elastic steel wheel, and that the cast-iron wheel 
under the shoeless to which it is subjected, will disintegrate and 
fail sooner. 

Some interesting records of the wear of Schoen solid steel 
wheels in service on the lines of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit 
Company are given in the last chapter. From 8500 to 9750 miles 
were obtained per 1/16 in. of wear under motor passenger cars 
on the surface lines, and 10,850 miles per 1/16 in. of wear under 
elevated motor cars. Wheels are still in service with tread and 
flange in good condition after having worn down ^ in. and 
more without turning. 



BOOKS RECEIVED 



Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers. By R. C. 
Beardsley, Louis Bell, H. M. Hobart, Otis Allen Kenyon, 
Edward Lyndon, A. S. McAllister, Kempster B. Miller, William 
H. Onken, E. F. Roeber, George Shaad. Twenty sections : 
Units, circuits, instruments and measurements, materials, mag- 
nets, transformers, generators, motors, batteries, central sta- 
tions, transmission and distribution, illumination, electric trac- 
tion, electrochemistry, telephony, telegraphy, miscellaneous ap- 
plications of electricity, wiring, standardization rules, tables 
and statistics. Bound in flexible morocco; handy pocket size; 
1300 pages and 1300 illustrations. Price, $4 net, postpaid. 
New York : McGraw Publishing Company. 

STREET RAILWAY PATENTS 

UNITED STATES PATENTS, ISSUED DEC. 17, 1907. 

[This department is conducted by Rosenbaum & Stockbridge, 
patent attorneys, 140 Nassau Street, New York.] 

873,703. Electrically Propelled Car or Locomotive : Edward 
H. Anderson, Sclienectady, N. Y. App. filed April 5, 1906. An 
electric railway in which the current is supplied to the loco- 
motive at high-voltage alternating current, during normal run- 
ning, and at low-voltage direct current while in the city limits. 
Relates to controller circuits. 

873.705. Insulating Covering or Sheathing for Contact Rail 
Conductors : William H. Baker, Lockport, N. Y. App. filed 
Oct. 19, 1905. An insulating sheath adapted to embrace the rail 
and having a locking piece or key serving to keep the sheath 
in place on the rail. 

873.706. Motor Truck ; Asa F. Batchelder, Schenectady, 
N. Y. App. filed May 28, 1906. The electrical and mechanical 
features co-operate to produce a truck which is simple, durable 
and has a maximum electrical and mechanical capacity. 

873,720. Switch Stand ; Arthur D. Cloud, Chicago, HI. App. 
filed Sept. 27, 1906. Provides means for locking open an auto- 
matically closing switch and a magnet circuit having opening 
and closing devices for releasing said locking means and con- 
trolled by the passage of a train from a sidetrack upon the 
main track. 

873,761. Railway Switch Structure; Henry R. Luther, New- 
ton, and Frederic F. Stockwell, Jr., Somerville, Mass. App. 
filed April 20, 1906. The object of this invention is to so form 
and arrange the various parts of the switch structure that they 
may be assembled with little or no machining. 

873,805. Controller; Emmett W. Stull, Norwood, Ohio. 
App. filed March 31, 1906. Means for preventing the sparking 
or destructive arcing which occurs between the fingers of the 
controller. 

873,821. Insulated Rail Joint; Benjamin Wolhaupter, New 
York, N. Y. App. filed Aug. 7, 1906. A joint supporting base 
adapted to be engaged by the rails, and means for yieldingly 
maintaining a separation of the rails from the base. 

873,839. Automatic Signaling Device ; Louis Caputo, East 
Boston, Mass. App. filed Aug. 23, 1907. Signal circuits are 
completed through conductors between the track rails engaged 
by trolley wheels depending from the train. 

873,912. Railway Track Structure; Frederic F. Stockwell, 
Jr., Somerville, and Henry R. Luther, Newton Center, Mass. 
App. filed Nov. II, 1903. Relates to a process of casting cross- 
ing plates, switch-frogs, etc. 

873.955. Trolley Head ; Charles C. McCIintock, Englewood, 
Col. App. filed June 25, 1907. The trolley harp is swivelled 
on a vertical axis and prongs or deflectors are provided con- 
stituting a wire guard. 

874,042. Block Signaling Apparatus; John D. Taylor, Edge- 
wood Park, Pa. App. filed Aug. 24, 1907. Provides block sig- 
naling apparatus having a transformer especially designed for 
supplying alternating current to the track circuit of the system 
in a quantity to suit the requirements of the particular track 
section with which it is connected. 

874,054. Air-Brake System ; Frank H. Dukesmith, Mead- 
ville, Pa. App. filed May 6, 1905. Provides a system wherein 
the engineer may control the locomotive driver and tender 
brakes separately from the train brakes or in unison therewith 
as may be desired. 



January 4, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



33 



874,085. Rail-Bond for Rail-Joint Circuits; William E. 
Karns, Parkers Landing, Pa. App. filed Jan. 29, 1907. Spring 
plates fitting between the abutting ends of the rail. 

874,186. Magnetic Brake; Frederick G. Haldy, Stamford, 
Conn. App. filed June 17, 1907. A magnetic clutch having a 
pair of discs with intermediate bar electromagnets having their 
opposite poles presented to their respective discs. 

874,196. Detector Bar; Casper Herringer, New York, N. Y. 
App. filed Aug. 13, 1907. A detector bar designed and adapted 
to move into two detecting positions, one position being against 
the tread of a wheel and another position being against the side 
face of a wheel. Means for guiding the bar in said movement. 

874,219. Brake for Power-Driven Vehicles ; Joseph N. 
Mahoney, Brooklyn, N. Y. App, filed Oct. 30, 1905. An elec- 
trical vehicle brake having a spring normally under tension by 
reason of a gear connection from the operating motor. Has 
hand-controlled devices by which the spring is released to apply 
the brake. 

874,229. Controlling Mechanism ; John J. Nef, Chicago, 111. 
App. filed Sept. 15, 1905. A governor for fiuid pressure brake 
systems. Designed to open the circuit of the pumping motor 
abruptly when a certain pressure is attained. Has a piston 
acting on spring cam mechanism. 

874,345. Trolley; George Keresztes, Pittsburg, Pa. App. 
filed Sept. 6, 1907. The trolley wheel consists of a long spirally 
grooved roller, the spirals converging toward the center where 
a groove of deeper cross-section is provided. 

874,372. Electrical Signaling Device; James P. Williams, 
Latonia, Ky. App. filed June 6, 1907. Special trolley conduc- 
tors between and beside the usual track rails and which are en- 
gaged by depending brushes on the train. 



PERSONAL MENTION 



MR. JACK ABBOTT, of Jackson, Tenn., has been appointed 
general manager of the Jackson Electric Railway, Light & 
Power Company, to succeed Mr. F. G. Proutt, resigned. 

MR. S. NEWTON SMPrH, of New York, well known in 
that city because of his active financial interest in the Kings 
County Elevated Railroad, now part of the Brooklyn Rapid 
Transit Company's system, is dead. 

MR. T. R. GABEL, general manager, and Mr. C. A. Allison, 
chief engineer, of the Los Angeles-Pacific Railway Company, 
of Los Angeles, Cal., have resigned from the company and will 
engage in private enterprises. Their successors have not yet 
been appointed. 

MR. CHAS. F. TURNER has been appointed superintendent 
of motive power of the Columbus, Delaware & Marion Rail- 
way Company, of Columbus, Ohio., and as such will have 
supervision over power houses, sub-stations and all rolling 
stock of the company. 

MR. J. J. DOYLE has resigned as general superintendent of 
the Eastern Ohio Traction Company to become superintendent 
of maintenance and overhead systems of the Washington, Balti- 
more & Annapolis Electric Railway. Mr. Joseph Emory suc- 
ceeds Mr. Doyle with the Eastern Ohio. 

MR. E. V. McGRATH, who has been in the service of the 
Rockford & Interurban Railway Company, of Rockford, III, 
lias accepted the position of chief clerk to Mr. J. E. Broyles, 
joint freight agent at the Columbus, Ohio, interurban station. 
Mr. McGrath succeeds ]\Ir. E. C. Shilling, who resigned to enter 
other service. 

MR. LOUIS H. GUSHING, who has been superintendent 
of the Taunton & Pawtucket Street Railway Company for some 
lime past, has resigned from the company to become associated 
with the Dexter Machine Company, of Attleboro. Previous to 
coming to Attleboro Mr. Gushing was identified for seven years 
with several street railway companies operated by the Shaw 
interests of Boston. 

MR. CHARLES R. HANNAN, New England financial repre- 
sentative of Swift & Company, is dead. Mr. Hannan was born 
in Rochester, N. Y., in 1856, but had spent most of his life in 
the Middle West. He was prominent in many financial under- 
takings, liaving an interest in promofing a number of electric 



railway properties, among them the Detroit & Toledo Short 
Line. 

MR. JAMES McCREDIE has been appointed secretary and 
treasurer of the Hudson Valley Railway, and Mr. Arthur J. 
Gies, who has been auditor of the Hudson Valley, has been 
appointed as assistant secretary and treasurer. Mr. McCredie 
has been secretary and treasurer of the United Traction Com- 
pany for several years, and his election to the same office in 
the Hudson Valley Company brings the business of that depart- 
ment under one head. This is the policy of the Delaware & 
Hudson Company in regard to its subsidiary lines. In the 
past Mr. F. F. Pruyn, of Glens Falls, has served as treasurer 
of the Hudson Valley and Mr. H. J. Speck, of Troy, as 
secretary. 

DR. COLEMAN SELLERS, a distinguished engineer and 
scientist, formerly chief engineer of William Sellers & Com- 
pany, Inc., of Philadelphia, from which he retired in 1886, 
died at his home in Philadelphia, aged 81, on Dec. 28. Dr. 
Sellers represented y\merica on the international board of 
five engineers to consider the question of developing electricity 
at Niagara, of which board the late Lord Kelvin acted as 
chairman. Subsequently Dr. Sellers acted as consulting engineer 
of the Cataract Construction Company, chief engineer of the 
Niagara Falls Power Company, and chief mechanical engineer 
of the Canadian Niagara Power Company. He was a member 
of many of the principal engineering associations here and 
abroad. 

MR. PAUL H. EVANS, who for three years was chief en- 
gineer and purchasing agent of the Me.xico Electric Tramways, 
Ltd., and during the past year chief engineer only, has severed 
his connection with the company and will, after traveling 
abroad on the Continent for a few months' rest and recrea- 
tion, devote himself to his private interests in Me.xico City. Mr. 
Evans was, prior to his connection with -the Mexico Tram- 
ways, which he entered at the time Mr. W. W. Wheatly became 
president and general manager, chief engineer of the Mexican 
General Electric Company, which is the branch office of the 
General Electric Company, of Schenectady, N. Y. Mr. Evans 
was connected with this company for seven years. Prior to 
Mr. Evans' connection with the General Electric Company he 
was with the Atlanta Street Railways. 

MR. ARTHUR W. JORDAN, who has been connected with 
the traffic department of the Schoepf syndicate lines, since the 
syndicate came into possession of the old Appleyard lines, has 
accepted the position of general passenger agent of the Chicago 
& Joliet Railway, with headquarters at Joliet. The appoint- 
ment carries with it the management of Delwood Park, near 
Joliet, which is owned and operated by the company. Mr. Jor- 
dan will leave Columbus the first of the year to assume his 
new duties. Mr. Jordan came to Columbus from Grand 
Rapids, Mich., where he was connected with the management of 
the city railway company in a confidential capacity, to take 
charge of the traffic department of the old Appleyard lines. 
During the receivership of the lines he was general passenger 
and freight agent. After the lines passed into the hands of 
the Schoepf syndicate he was general passenger agent for a 
time, and was later appointed assistant general passenger and 
freight agent. This position he held until last November, when 
lie retired. 

MR. H. C. DONECKER has recently been appointed to the 
position of office manager of the American Street and Interur- 
ban Railway Association. Mr. Donecker has had a number of 
years practical experience in various lines of street railway 
work. He was first associated with the Lorain Steel Com- 
pany (then the Johnson Company), of Philadelphia and Johns- 
town, Pa., during the years 1890 to 1894. He then became con- 
nected with Hon. Tom L. Johnson and his brother, Mr. Albert L. 
Johnson, in the construction and operation of the Nassau Rail- 
road. Leaving there early in 1899, he went west with Mr. J. J. 
Colemaij) 'who at that time assumed the general managership of 
the newly formed St. Louis Transit Company. Mr. Donecker 
remained with that company until late in 1900, when he became 
connected with Col. Giles S. Allison, of the Security Register 
Company, of St^ Louis, and remained engaged in that work 
until the first of the year 1906, at which time he entered the ser- 
vices of Ford, Bacon & Davis, of New York City, where his 
work has been practically entirely of a statistical nature. Mr. 
Diinecker's experience and his training as a statistician will un- 
(hjnbtedly he of great value to the association. 



34 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXI. No. i. 



TABLE OF OPERATING STATISTICS 



Notice. — These statistics will be carefully revised ^from month to month, upon information received from the companies direct, or from official sources. The table 
should be used in connection with ot\r Financial Supplement, "American Street Railway Investments," which contains the annual operating reports to the ends of the 
various financial years. Similar statistics in regard to roads not reporting are solicited by the editors. * Including taxes. "f Deficit. J Including Rapid Railway system. Sand- 
wich, Windsor & Amherstburg Railway, and Detroit, Monroe & Toledo Short Line Railway. 



Company. 



AKRON, 0. 
Northern Ohio Tr.& 
Light^Co. 



CHAMPAIGN, ILL., 
Illinois Traction Co. 



CHARLESTON, S. C. 
Charleston Con.Ry., 
Gas & Elec. Co. 



CHICAGO, ILL. 
Aurora Elsin & Chi- 
cago Ry. Co. 



Chicago & Milwau" 
kee Elec. R.R. Co. 



CLEVELAND, O. 
Cleveland, Paines= 
ville & Eastern R.R. 
Co. 



Cleveland, S. W. & 
Columbus Ry. Co. 



Lake Shore Elec. Rv. 
Co. 



COLUMBUS, GA. 
Columbus Elec. Co. 



DETROIT, MICH. 
Detroit, Jackson & 
Chicago Ry. 

tDetroit United Rv. 
Co. 



DULUTH, MINN. 
DuluthSt. Ry. Co. 



E. ST. LOUIS, ILL. 
East St. Louis & 
Suburban Co. 



EL PASO, TEX. 
El Paso Cos. 



FT. WAYNE, IND. 
Ft. Wayne & Wa= 
bash Valley Tr. Co. 



FT. WORTH, TEX. 
Northern Texas Tr. 
Co. 



GALVESTON, TEX. 
Galveston=Houston 
Elec. Co. 



HOUGHTON, MICH. 
Houghton County 
St. Ry. Co. 



Period. 



o.E 



- r; tfl 
OW 



Im. 

1 " 
11 " 
11 " 



Im. 

1 " 
11 " 
11 " 



Im. 
1 ■■ 
9 '■ 
9 ■' 



Im. 

1 " 
5 " 
5 •■ 



Im. 

1 " 
11 " 
11 " 



Im. 

1 ■■ 
10 " 
10 " 



Im. 

1 '■ 
10 " 
10 " 



Nov. '07 

" '06 
'07 
'06 



Nov. '07 
'06 
'07 
'06 



Nov, '07 
'06 



Nov. '07 

'06 



'07 
'06 



Nov. '07 
'06 
'07 
'06 



Oct. '07 
'06 



Oct. '07 
'• '06 



Im., Oct. 

1 " 
10 " 
10 " 



Im., Oct. 



Im., Nov. 

10 ■■ '■ 



Im. 

1 " 
10 " 
10 " 

Im. 

1 '■ 
12 '• 
12 " 

Im. 

1 " 
12 '■ 
12 " 



Im. 

1 " 
12 " 
12 " 



'07 
'06 



Im., Nov. 

1 " 
11 ■' 
11 ■' 



Im., Nov. 

1 •■ 
11 " 
11 " 



Im., Nov. 

1 " 
11 " 
11 " 



Oct. 



Oct. 



Oct. 



Oct. 



Oct. 



146,123 
133, 38K 
1,761,198 
1,561,632 



• 335,889 
267,296 
3,427,210 
2,710,943 



62,55 1 
56,774 
545,212 
488,935 



108,653 
96,722 
673,627 
599,542 



87,982 
81,143 
972,7 12 
803,591 



24,858 
22,916 
246,940 
230,553 



65,793 
56,499 
634,684 
539,133 



78,460 
71,814 
799,848 
736,619 



30,634 
26,482 
330,158 



36,639 
360,108 



529,195 
484,055 
6,215,596 
5,590,982 



72,813 
65,393 
772,993 
702,285 



187,954 
169,816 
1,970,041 
1,766,358 



46,474 
34,630 
486,719 
367,993 



114,883 
93,359 
1,052,505 
898,284 

114,460 
93,458 
1,039,275 
831,467 

89,940 
76,013 
1,037,765 
885,980 



20,652 
19,353 
248,881 
222,794 



2 e 



88,180 
79,341 
1,013,469 
924,568 



*195,596 
*147,182 
1,928,521 
1,482,376 



40,543 
34,722 
344,998 
303,725 



63,192 
56,817 
351,453 
306,888 



38,356 
39,905 
406,027 
333,285 



*14,925 
*12,848 
*133,174 
*123,203 



38,296 
31,642 
365,075 
304,430 



*45,937 
*39,175 
*431,957 
*400,903 



*16,291 
*14,399 
*179,472 



*29,731 



*340,527 
*334,361 
3,836,748 
3,395,993 



41,015 
41,271 
392,099 
377,200 



97,863 
87,298 
1,026,183 
879,714 



*31,500 
*27,126 
*368,904 
*255,554 



63,872 
55,653 
620,884 
548,407 



*60,664 
*63,202 
*615,522 
4jf528,191 

*57,329 
*50,133 
*645,142 
*561,619 



*13,615 
*12,058 
*154,823 
*145,142 



57,943 
54,047 
747,730 
637,064 



140,294 
120,114 
1,498,689 
1,228,567 



22,007 
22,053 
200,213 
185,210 



45,461 
39,904 
322,174 
292,654 



49,627 
41,238 
566,686 
470,306 



9,933 
10,068 
113,767 
107,350 



27,497 
24,857 
269,609 
234,703 



32,523 
32,639 
367,891 
335,716 



14,343 
12,083 
150,687 



6,908 
71,420 



188,668 
149,694 
2,378,848 
2,194,989 



31,798 
24,122 
380,893 
325,085 



90,091 
82,518 
943,858 
886,644 



14,974 
7,504 
117,814 
112,439 



51,011 
37,705 
431,621 
349,878 

53,795 
30,256 
423,753 
303,276 



32,611 
25,880 
392,623 
324,361 



7,037 
7,295 
94,058 
77_j653 



o p 



-a a 
Q S 



43,351 
41,014 
469,880 
442,161 



^^^^ 

< 



14,591 
13,033 
277,849 
194,903 



13,493 
13,017 
121,627 
117,000 



29,058 
26,158 
135,282 
126,967 



6,796 
7.108 
70,460 
69,639 



25,188 
22,812 
243,430 
208,590 



10,478 
7,783 
120.003 



16,575 
156,375 



118,034 
105,862 
1,263,830 
1,136,296 



17,912 
17,851 
195,639 
194,345 



5,259 
3,932 
57,762 
46,588 



3,973 
3,916 
47,405 
46,649 



8,514 
9,036 
78,587 
68,210 



16,403 
13,746 
186,892 
165,687 



3,137 
2,960 
43,307 
37,711 



7,335 
9,827 
124,461 
127,126 



3,865 
4,300 
30,684 



t9,667 
t84,95S 



70,634 
43,832 
1,115,018 
1,058,693 



13,885 
6,271 
185,254 
130,740 



9,714 
3,572 
60,053 
65.85 



11,386 


42 


409 


9,942 


20 


314 


127,247 


296 


506 


119,292 


183 


984 


13,254 


'19 


357 


11,958 


13 


921 


150,634 


241 


988 


145,533 


178 


828 



3,064 
3,379 
46,653 
31,004 



Company. 



JACKSONVILLE, 
FLA., Jacksonville 
Elec. Co. 



m 

KANSAS CITY, MO. 
Kansas City Ry. & 
Lt. Co. 



LEXINGTON, KY. 
Lexington & Inter- 
urban Rys. Co. 



MILWAUKEE, WIS. 
Milwaukee Elec.Ry. 
& Lt. Co. 



Milwaukee Lt., Ht. & 
Tr. Co. 



MINNEAPOLIS, 
MINN. Twin City R. 
T. Co. 



MONTREAL, CAN. 
Montreal St. Ry. 



NORFOLK, VA. 
Norfolk & Ports= 
mouth Tr. Co. 



PEEKSKILL, N. Y. 
Peekskill Lt. & R.R, 
Co. 



PENSACOLA, FLA. 
Pensacola Elec. Co. 



PHILADELPHIA, 

American Rys.;.Co. 



PLYMOUTH, MASS. 
Brockton & Plym- 
outh St. Ry. Co. 



ST. LOUIS, MO. 
United Railways Co. 
of St. Louis. 



Period. 



Im. 

1 ■• 
12 '• 
12 ■' 



Im. 
1 " 
5 " 
5 " 



Oct. 



Oct. '07 
'06 
'■ '07 

■06 



S M 

o.s 



Im., Oct. '07 

1 06 

10 " " '07 
10 06 



im., Nov. '07 
1 06 
11 07 
11 06 



SAVANNAH, GA. 
Savannah Electric 
Co. 



SEATTLE, WASH. 
Seattle Elec. Co. 



SYRACUSE, N. Y. 
Syracuse, R. T. Co. 



TAMPA, FLA. 
Tampa Elec. Co. 



Im., 


Nov. 


'07 


64,009 


1 " 




'06 


54,330 


11 " 




■07 


767,268 


11 " 




'06 


646,602 


Im., 


Oct. 


■07 


'515,178 


1 " 




'06 


473,821 


10 " 




'07 


5,055,451 


10 " 




'06 


4,691,259 



Im., Nov. '07 

1 06 
2 07 
2 06 



Im. 

1 " 
10 " 
10 " 



Im. 
1 " 
11 " 

11 " 



Im. 

1 " 
12 " 



Im. 

1 " 
12 " 
12 " 



Im. 

1 " 
11 " 
11 " 



Im. 

1 '■ 
12 " 
12 " 



Im. 

1 " 
12 " 
12 " 



Im. 

1 " 
11 " 
11 " 



Im. 

1 " 
12 " 
12 " 



Oct. 



Nov. 



Oct. 



Nov. 



Oct. 



Nov. 



Oct. 



Oct. 



Nov. 



Oct. 



33,697 
26,844 
393,330 
307,159 



559,822 
531,672 
2,647,648 
2,406,770 



52,538 
46,663 
473,321 
441,432 



335,026 
308,753 
3,563,912 
3,244,223 



296,184 
263,260 
608,083 
545,083 



258,515 
142,152 
2,235,812 
1,417,906 



14,724 
12,236 
154,947 
133,199 



20,046 
11,195 
221,610 



231,359 
217,229 
1,339,902 
1,255,957 



9,057 
8,708 
118,071 
110,490 



871,075 
846,191 
9,958,735 
9,412,763 



51,313 
43,835 
591,417 
622,077 



358,685 
286,103 
3,827,828 
2,970,846 



107,362 
93,248 
1,150,150 
994,946 



45,572 
39,385 
519,503 
461,731 



OW 



*22,538 
*17,481 
*251,565 
*193,595 



11,159 
9,364 
141,765 
113,565 



271,191 288,632 

250,023 281,649 

1,344,188 1,303,460 

1,184,232 1,222,538 



SB 
•2 8 

o c 

3'"' 

•a c 
d2 



31,459 
28,640 
297,766 
288,377 



169,585 
144,065 
1,798,565 
1,576,645 



29,585 
23,352 
328,942 
252,381 



255,587 
226,436 
2,436,024 
2,177,485 



182,638 
174,933 
347,213 
331,174 



158,954 
92,451 
1,359,622 
926,282 



*7,996 
*6,S14 
*84,493 

*70,226 



*15,063 
*8,753 
*145,533 



*7,191 
*5,892 
*83,839 
*70,244 



579,509 
511,088 
6,485,975 
5,855,676 



*38,135 
*31,911 
*401,693 
*379,554 



*231,588 
*179,552 
2,574,822 
1,877,989 



65,315 
55,557 
655,078 
568,668 



*35,244 
*24,334 
*387,821 
*267,675 



21,079 
18,023 
175,555 
153,055 



165,441 
164,687 
1,765,347 
1,667,578 



34,423 
30,978 
438,326 
394,220 



259,590 
247,386 
2,619,427 
2,513,773 



113,547 
88,327 
260,870 
213,909 



99.561 
49,701 
876,190 
491,623 



6,728 
5,722 
70,454 
62,973 



4,983 
2,442 
76,077 



1,866 
2,816 
34,232 
40,246 



291,566 
335,103 
3,472,760 
3,557,087 



4,943 
3,404 
46,991 
40,469 



153,575 
150,244 
773,466 
724,194 



100,435 
92,272 
1,082,445 
976,641 



36,765 
28,797 
379,686 
296,298 



132,642 
114,758 
1,169,383 
1,118,911 



41,655 
39,276 
84,944 
79,886 



3,594 
3,157 
40,012 



1,775 
1,796 
21,425 
21,859 



231,314 
231,918 
2,546,529 
2,550,050 



13,178 12,284 
11,924 11,300 
189,725 141,966 



242,523 



127,097 
106,551 
1,253,006 
1,092,857 



42,047 
37,691 
495,072 
426,278 



10,328 
15,050 
131,682 
194,056 



133,920 



41,272 
27,807 
409,335 
316,760 



26,949 
24,243 
284,798 
255,557 



474 
182 
6,292 
3,138 



< 



6,216 
5,960 
94,774 
73,095 

nil 

135,057 
131,404 
529,994 
498,343 



65,005 
72,416 
682,902 
690,937 



t2,342 
2,181 
58,640 
97,922 



126,949 
•132,627 
450,043 
394,862 



71,892 
49,051 
175,926 
134,023 



1,389 
t71S 
36,064 



91 
1,020 
12,806 
18,388 

60,252 
103,185 
926,231 
007,037 



894 
624 
47,758 
108,603 



85,825 
78,744 
843,671 
776,097 



15,098 
13,448 
210,274 
170,721 



9,855 
14,868 
125,389 
190,918 



I 



Street F^ailway Journal 

Vol. XXXI. NEW YORK, SATURDAY, JANUARY 11, 1908. 



Published Every Saturday by the 

McGraw Publishing Company 

James H. McGraw, Pres. Curtis E. Whittlesey, Sec. & Treas. 

Main Office: 
NEW YORK, 239 West Thirty-ninth Street. 



Branch Offices: 
Cliicago: Old Colony Building. 

Philadelphia: Real Estate Trust Building. 
Cleveland: Schofield Building. 

San Francisco: Atlas Building. 

London: Hastings House, Norfolk St., Strand. 



Cable Address, "Stryjourn, New York"; "Stryjourn, London" — Lieber's 
Code used. 

Copyright, 1907, McGraw Publishing Company. 



TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION 

In the United States, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Philippines, Cuba, Mexico 
and the Canal Zone: 

Street Railway Journal (52 issues) $3.00 per annum 

Single copies 10 cents 

Combination Rate, with Electric Railway Directory and 

Buyer's Manual (3 issues — Feb., Aug. and Nov.) $4.00 per annum 

Both of the above, in connection with American Street 
Railway Investments (The "Red Book" — Published 
annually in May; regular price, $5.00 per copy) $6.50 per annum 



To Dominion of Canada: 

Street Railway Journal (52 issues), postage prepaid $4-50 per annum 

Single copies 10 cents 



To All Countries Other Than Those Mentioned Above: 

Street Railway Journal (52 issues), postage prepaid $6.00 

25 shillings. 25 marks. 31 francs. 

Single copies 20 cents 

Remittances for foreign subscriptions may be made through our 
European oHice. 



NOTICE TO SUBSCRIBERS. 

REMITTANCES.— Remittances should be made by check. New York 
draft, or money order, in favor of the Street Railway Journal. 

CHANGE OF ADDRESS. — The old address should be given, as well 
as the new, and notice should be received a week in advance of the 
desired change. 

BACK COPIES. — No copies of issues prior to September, 1904, are 
kept on sale, except in bound volumes. 

DATE ON WRAPPER shows the month at the end of which the 
subscription expires. The sending of remittances for renewal prior to 
that date will be much appreciated by the publishers. 

During 1907 the Street Railway Journal printed and cir- 
culated 427,250 copies, an average of 8216 copies per week. 
Of this issue 7500 copies are printed. 



Pay-As- You-Enter Cars and the Public 

The failure of the attempt in Pittsburg to use the pay- 
as-you-enter principle without the proper equipment was 
chronicled in our news columns last week. It seems to 
have attracted a great deal of attention in the daily press 
throughout the country on account of the statement sent 
from Pittsburg that the public united to defeat the project. 
To what extent opposition on the part of the public may 
have assisted in the failure of the experiment it is hard to 
say. But it is gratifying to note that any such alleged 
attempt has been heartily condemned by the leading papers 



of the country which have commented on the subject. One 
great object sought by railway companies in the use of the 
pay-as-you-enter car is the reduction of accidents by avoid- 
ing the necessity of making the conductor leave the back 
platform. The experience in Montreal has shown that this 
advantage is not theoretical merely, so that the public 
should be as greatly interested in the proposed change as the 
company. If the passengers were required to assist the 
latter in an unreasonable way the conditions might be 
different. But the prepayment rule of the pay-as-you- 
enter car is not unreasonable. It is in force on all sub- 
way and elevated railways and on steam railroads. It is 
easy to conceive how traffic could be delayed on any of 
these lines if a very large number of passengers in- 
sisted upon being given change for a dollar or a two-dollar 
bill, as the reports from Pittsburg stated was the case in 
that city. It is always well to bear in mind, however, that 
the habits of the general public, formed after many years of 
travel under certain conditions, cannot be changed imme- 
diately, but if brought to understand the advantages of any 
proposed improvement their co-operation can usually be 
secured. 

Rolling Stock Distribution on Large Systems 

Close analysis of traffic conditions on large street railway 
systems tends to bring out the need of an occasional dis- 
tribution change in car assignments at division headquar- 
ters and secondary operating centers. In the case of a 
road which uses open cars in summer and closed or con- 
vertible cars in the cooler season attention paid to the re- 
distribution of cars as traffic conditions change is particu- 
larly worth while. Next to keeping as large a percentage 
of the rolling stock as possible out of the repair shop the 
provision of the proper number of cars at each car house 
lo meet the general service conditions is one of the most 
important functions of the transportation department. 
Few systems are operated from year to year without shift- 
ing changes both in the types of cars in service and the 
schedule requirements in different parts of their territory. 
Strong as the tendency may be toward standardization of 
equipment, there is no escaping the gradual development of 
improved types of cars which render the old rolling stock 
more or less out of date. Everything conspires to require 
changes in distribution if the system is to be operated eco- 
nomically. 

On a large system recently visited the company had in 
service at the beginning of the winter season 663 cars of 
the closed type. The re-distribution was planned on the 
basis of centralizing similar equipment as far as possible 
in the same house, to facilitate keeping the rolling stock in 
service and to reduce the cost of minor repairs. Six car 
houses are in use on this road. The rolling stock consists 
of 519 double truck closed cars and 144 single truck cars, 



36 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. 2. 



the car bodies varying in length from 21 ft. to 32 ft. 
Twelve different styles of car were in service. A table of 
car re-assignments was made up by the company with the 
following general distribution: The largest house required 
196 cars and the five others required from 86 to 99 cars 
each. At the largest house the traffic conditions required 
the greatest variety of cars, so at this station nine types 
were assigned. This included all the cars of two types, 
and with one other house, all the cars of three more types. 
Thus nearly half the styles of cars in service were confined 
to two houses and both these houses are located in the same 
general section of the city. Only two types were assigned 
to all the car houses. Fifty new pay-as-you-enter cars 
were assigned to one house, no other cars of this type being 
in the system. In all but two houses only one style of 
single truck cars was assigned, and the company's standard 
32-ft. body car for double truck service was distributed 
through all the houses, about one-third of these, however, 
being assigned to one house. The company's main repair 
shop is located at the station housing the maximum num- 
ber of cars. By keeping down the varieties at each house 
the operating problem has been much simplified. 

The same method can of course be applied to other parts 
of the equipment, like the motors. It is convenient to keep 
in the car house a certain quantity of small repair parts, 
but if motors of many types are being operated from the 
same depot the number of parts required in stock is apt to 
be legion. Under these conditions the separation of the 
equipment among the various depots so that one type of 
motor and controller is operated from on£ car house and a 
different type from another reduces the variety of spare 
parts necessary to a reasonable figure. 

It is a mistake, however, to assume, especially so 
far as the rolling stock of the road is concerned, 
that a distribution once worked out will remain the 
most economical throughout the season. From time to 
time the daily records of car movement should be 
examined with reference to the number of cars as- 
signed to each house, the regular and extra service, hours 
of operation and reserve capacity, taking the system as a 
whole. Some idle mileage may be necessary in adjusting 
shortages, but it is better to run off a little of this than to 
have insufficient capacity at any given house. Considering 
the large proportion of operating cost due to car movement, 
including platform labor and interest on rolling stock, it 
pays to study the economies of car distribution quite as inti- 
mately as the expense of power generation and the cost of 
maintenance. 

Progress in Power Plant Auxiliary Equipment 

Recent power plant designs exhibit an interesting tend- 
ency toward the improvement of auxiliary equipment in 
the direction of a large flexibility of operation. • Experi- 
ence shows that this can be effected in a good many cases 
without much extra complication of the station layout. In 
some of the earlier stations using steam turbines the auxili- 
ary pumps and condensing equipment were installed with- 
out much regard to their convenience in operation, being 
scattered around the plant in odd corners wherever the 
space could be found for their erection. This was often 
an absolute necessity in plants which were being enlarged 



by the addition of steam turbines to a reciprocating engine 
layout, but there is less excuse for a scattered arrangement 
of auxiliaries in a new turbine plant designed without the 
restrictions which apply to most operating installations. 

It frequently happens that a central station design is 
suggestive to builders of railway power houses, and in con- 
nection with improved arrangements of auxiliary equip- 
ment a new lighting plant recently completed at Fall River, 
Mass., illustrates an advance in methods worth noting. This 
plant is a turbine installation of one 500-kw and two 1000- 
kw units, with immediate space for a third looo-kw ma- 
chine when the load demands the latter. The usual wet 
and dry vacuum pumps are omitted in this station. A 7 in. 
X 16 in. X 10 in. single air pump is installed in connection 
with the condenser of the 500-kw unit, while each looo-kw 
unit is provided with a duplex air pump of the same cylin- 
der dimensions. In this way the pump equipment is stand- 
ardized and the spare part storage is simplified. If trouble 
occurs on either pump there can be little delay in hunting 
up the proper fittings. Although the ratio of turbine sizes 
is unusually favorable to the use of standard pump cylin- 
ders for all units, it is worth considering in other plant 
designs if this simplicity of arrangement cannot be fol- 
lowed, by the use of different combinations of single, 
duplex or triplex cylinders. 

At Fall River the connections between the condensers 
and the air pump cylinders are arranged with a single pipe 
between the smaller units and with double pipes between 
each of the larger units. This gives a more even flow of 
the water of condensation, avoids the use of special three- 
way connections and presented great simplicity in erection. 
In case anything happens to either pump cylinder, or to 
either discharge line, the turbine can still be operated at a 
reduced output of condensation water. The circulating 
water arrangements are unique in the provision of a cross 
connection between the suction and discharge lines, two top 
inlets, and a central bottom discharge leading into the cross 
connection at each condenser. By this arrangement the 
suction and discharge lines at each condenser can be re- 
versed and circulating water fed through the condenser 
tubes in either direction for cleaning purposes. In this 
way eel grass and other small debris which cannot be kept 
out of the circulation system by the usual screens at the 
entrance of the intake can be flushed out at the condenser 
tubes with very little trouble and without shutting down 
the circulation for more than a moment or two. The cir- 
culating pumps are located beyond the condenser. 

In the absence of dry vacuum pumps each air pump dis- 
charge line is run directly to the hot "well tanks, two of 
these being provided in the boiler room basement. Inserted 
in each discharge line is a vertical riser terminating in an 
open head in the engine room. Atmospheric vapors en- 
trained in the discharge lines find an outlet through their 
corresponding riser at zero cost of operation. The tur- 
bines are of the Curtis type, but no accumulators are in- 
stalled to provide reserve step bearing pressure. Two 
steam driven step bearing pumps are installed, and in addi- 
tion to these an automatic motor-driven triplex pump built 
for 800 lbs. per square inch pressure is connected to the 
system in such a way that it starts as soon as the step bear- 
ing pressure falls below a certain point. 



January ii, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



37 



An unusually flexible arrangement of draft equipment 
is in service at the Fall River station. This includes a fuel 
economizer induced draft fan and a large brick chimney. 
Four difl'erent arrangements of flue gas discharge are pos- 
sible here : from the boilers direct to the stack, from the 
boilers to the fan* and stack and from the boilers to the 
economizer, fan and chimney. Some special iron work 
was required in the flue passages to handle these combina- 
tions, but they provide for all conditions which can be an- 
ticipated in the way of temperature, wind and barometer 
valves. All the principal moving auxiliary apparatus con- 
nected with the turbine installation is placed in the turbine 
room, where it will receive the necessary skilled attention. 
The compactness and flexibility outlined above are obtained 
with little complication in the piping, a point doubtless due 
in some measure to the low cost of land at the station site, 
which favored liberal spacing of equipment in the building. 

Car Intervals in Interurban Service 

There are few more important questions connected with 
the transportation side of interurban service than the ar- 
rangement of schedules to fit the traffic requirements. The 
problem resolves itself into determining the proper car in- 
tervals, assuming a fixed running time over the route from 
terminal to terminal. A very simple and convenient equa- 
tion connects the factors of car movement on any double 
track line : 

/X 60 
11 = 

V y, m 

where ni is the car headway in minutes, %• the schedule 
speed in miles per hour, / the length of single track figured 
in miles, and n the number of cars or trains in service. 
When dififerent values of these quantities are worked out 
and plotted in the form of curves for a given road the 
results become very interesting, for they enable a consider- 
able variety of questions to be answered at a glance. From 
some points of view such treatment of the schedule problem 
appears academic, but the values obtained by assuming 
variations in the different factors set the limits of the prob- 
lem of intervals, car numbers and speeds, and leave these 
to be modified by local conditions as the case may require. 

Facing concrete conditions the interurban car interval 
resolves itself, as a rule, into service every two hours, 
hourly, half-hourly or every fifteen minutes, )^ough other 
fractions of the hour may be used occasionally, and in 
special times of heavy travel cars may be run in one direc- 
tion as close together as the safety of the service and the 
capacity of the power system permit. Obviously the inter- 
vals best suited to each case must be determined on the spot, 
but there are certain aspects of the interval question worth 
considering by themselves in light of their influence upon 
public sentiment and convenience. It is primarily impor- 
tant for every manager to accustom his public to certain 
variations in the headway of cars, and, while it is true that 
some cars must be run at small profit, or even at a loss, on 
very large, as well as the smaller, systems, it is desirable 
to reduce this loss as much as possible when the traffic is 
light. The public becomes accustomed to a fixed interval 
in electric railway service, and unless timetables are dis- 
tributed as in steam practice curtailments are likely to 
cause not a little friction. No one objects seriously to a rea- 



sonable reduction in steam railroad train frequency in con- 
nection with outlying points in the winter season which are 
much busier centers in the summer, but when a trolley road 
lengthens its service from thirty-minute to sixty-minute in- 
tervals the public is not always as appreciative of the points 
at issue. A case in point occurred this week on the Hart- 
ford & Springfield line. The local authorities of the town 
of Suffield asked the Connecticut Railroad Commission to 
order the company to maintain a half-hourly schedule dur- 
ing the winter, in place of the usual hourly headway main- 
tained between November and April. The local authorities' 
claim was that an hourly interval is not a reasonable accom- 
modation, while the company argued that the service could' 
be run only at a loss. The commission decided in favor of 
the company and laid down the broad principle that the use 
which the public makes of any service is a sure indication 
of the public need of such service. If the cost of furnishing 
a service exceeds the income derived therefrom, the only 
ultimate outcome of such operation is a receivership. The 
importance of ascertaining what service pays and what 
does not can scarcely be exaggerated. 

Fixed intervals tend to establish routine conditions and 
habits of operation, but there is no reason why the interval 
should not be varied as traffic requires, through certain 
limits, on electric interurban lines, as well as on steam 
roads. The probabilities are that as interurban practice 
more and more approaches steam railroad standards of 
transportation handling fixed intervals will more and more 
give way to less regular headways, dependent upon more 
careful studies of the traffic requirements, but invariably 
scheduled on time tables freely distributed among the public 
and in places of general meeting and gathering of pros- 
pective patrons. The fixed interval has its place ; it is very 
convenient when the car or train is due at the even hour, 
half or quarter; but as this condition can apply to few 
points on the line, it is manifestly more desirable that 
actual times be specified. Extras can be sandwiched in 
without any detriment to the average patron, if the de- 
spatching methods are in harmony with the best practice. 
A graphical study of the traffic, made at regular intervals of 
a month or so, is of the greatest value in this connection. 
By plotting the number of passengers carried per car as 
ordinates and the number of cars as abcissae the need for 
extra cars at different hours or quarter hours of the day 
can be determined with ease. 

Sometimes it happens that public convenience would be 
greatly served by a comparatively slight change in inter- 
vals, as in the case of a line passing through a large manu- 
facturing district en route between inter'urban centers. A 
little planning will often enable the company to deliver a 
large traffic at such a district within five or ten minutes of 
the time when the mills begin work, whereas if the rigid 
half-hourly or hourly interval was maintained the service 
would not only be poorer but less profitable. An extra 
turnout may be necessary, but a little figuring" will soon 
show whether it is justified by the traffic conditions, of 
whether extra cars run on the regular interval will be the 
best all-around solution of the problem. Elasticity in in- 
tervals cannot be safely practiced, however, unless the dis-' 
cipline and operating qualities of the car service men are 
distinctly excellent and alert. 



38 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. 2. 



SINGLE-PHASE EQUIPMENT OF THE WINDSOR, ESSEX & 
LAKE SHORE RAPID RAILWAY 

BY S. C. DE WITT 
Electrical Engineer, Windsor, Essex & Lake Shore Rapid Railway. 



The first company to adopt single-phase railroad equip- 
ment in Canada is the Windsor, Essex & Lake Shore Rapid 
Railway, running at present between Windsor and Kings- 
ville, Ont., a distance of 28 miles. It is now being ex- 




E.XTKRIOR OF POWER STATION AND CAR INSPECTION SHED 



tended from Kingsville to Leamington, which will make a 
total line of 37 miles. This road runs through a very pros- 
perous district, and from the time the first car was run the 
patronage was much more than anticipated and has been 
steadily on the increase. 

The population, except in Kingsville, Essex, Windsor 
and Leamington, is mostly agricultural, and there is a good 
deal of through 
travel. In addition to 
the above places, the 
road passes through 
the following vil- 
lages: Pelton, Maid- 
stone, North Ridge, 
Cottarn, Albertville 
and Ruthven. At 
present the company 
is making five round 
trips a day with one 
extra on Wednesday, 
Saturday and Sunday. 

At Essex it was 
necessary to cross the 
tracks of the Michi- 
gan Central Railroad, 
which fought the idea 
of a grade crossing 
very strongly. The 
town of Essex very decidedly urged running the line 
through their main street, and they would not hear of 
an elevated track at this point on account of spoiling 
the street. A subway was impracticable, as there is no 
drainage in this part of the country, and, it being 
nearly flat, a pumping station would have to be kept 
going continually to keep the subway dry, besides the extra 



expense of having to pipe the discharge water for a num- 
ber of miles. 

When it is understood that the digging of cellars at 
Essex is considered impracticable on account of the water, 
it can readily be appreciated with what difficulties the 
company would have to contend in excavating for a sub- 
crossing. A decision was granted by the Railway Com- 
mission of Canada to permit a grade crossing at this point,, 
protected by interlocking switches and a signal station. The 
first car crossed these tracks on Sept. 
26, 1907. 

ROADWAY AND TRACK 

The country through which the road 
passes is level and the only grade ap- 
proaching 5 per cent is near Kings- 
ville. Only about seven miles of the 
road is on private right of way, the rest 
being alongside the highways. With 
the level tracks and almost absence of 
curves the conSitions are ideal for 
quick runs and easy line construction. 
No test runs for speed have yet been 
made, as the track is not considered in 
good enough shape to run at a very 
high rate of speed. 

In the construction between Windsor 
and Kingsville 80-lb. T-rails are used, 
but in the remaining nine miles 60-lb. 
steel is used. The bonds are soldered 
to the outside of the ball of the rail 
where the tracks are outside the towns p 
in the towns they are soldered under the rail joints. 
The bonds have a carrying capacity equal to No. 00 wire 
and were furnished by the Lord Electric Company, of New. 
York. The rails are fastened with Continuous rail joints. 

ROLLING STOCK 

The company plans handling freight, and is now carrying 




CAR, SHOWING PANTOGRAPH TROLLEY AND PECULIAR CONSTRUCTION THROUGHOUT 



express, as well as passengers. The cars are 
interurban traffic by the Ottawa Car Company, and are 
55 ft. in length, over all. At present the company has five 
cars equipped with four passenger trailers and two trailers 
for express. The trailers are not in regular use and not 
more than one is drawn by a single motor car. There are 
on each motor car two i6o-hp Westinghouse No. 132- 



built for 



January ii, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



39 



motors. These motors are provided with compensating field 
■coils, for neutralizing the armature reactance. 

The outside longitudinal sills of the cars are constructed 
■of 4^ in. X 6 in. and 2 in. x 6 in. oak, placed on edge and 
separated by a 6 in. x 5/2 in. steel plate running the entire 
(length of the car, and which is bolted to the oak. There 
are two other beams parallel to these, each composed of 
.two pieces of 2^4 i"- x 6 in. oak separated by a similar 
.plate as above, to which they are bolted. There are two 
■needle beams spaced 6 ft. 11^2 ins. apart, to the ends of 
which the struts for the truss rods are fastened. There 
•are two truss rods. The trucks are of Brill manufacture, 
rand the wheels are 6 ft. 6 ins. apart. The distance between 
centers of trucks is 31 ft. 4 ins. 

The whole interior of the car is finished in oak. The 
seats are of the walkover type and have a covering of 
rattan. The seats in the smoking compartments are 
pivoted chairs, with rattan bottoms, the pivot allowing the 
chairs to turn in any direction. There is a continuous 
basket rack on either side over the windows. Each car is 
equipped with a water closet and a smoking compartment 
'at either end, the one at the front end of the car to be 
used for smoking when going either way. 

The doors between the smoking rooms and main part 
of car are on hinges and the end doors are of the single 
sliding type. Each vestibule is fitted with a double-acting 
swinging door, to form when closed the motorman's cab. 
When open it folds closely against the side of the car. The 
regular Westinghouse pantograph is used on the cars. 

The pantograph is raised by tension springs and is pulled 
down by a trolley rope. This rope is run in fibre conduit 
on the top of the car and passes over two pulleys. 

A fender is used which is provided with two hinged 
leaves at the bottom and held up by chains : the leaves can 
be let down so as to act as snow plows 
in moderately deep snow. The snowfall 
in this part of the country is quite light. 
The flooring of the cars is double and is 
fitted with trap-doors over the motors. 

The air-brake equipment is of the S. 
M. E. type, furnished by the Westing- 
. house Air Brake Company. The fea- 
tures of this type are the three position 
brake valve with graduated release, and 
the automatic slack adjuster. The gage 
is illuminated. The compressor type Di 
. Eg is driven by a 3.3-hp, single-phase, 
lOO-volt motor. 

A complete diagram of the wiring of 
the cars is shown. It will be noticed that 
provisions have been made to take cur- 
rent from the wire both at iioo and 6600 
volts. The change-over switch is shown 
and is located at the bottom of the car. 
Only one of the voltages mentioned is 
used, however, although when the equip- 
ment was bought it was intended to use 
IIOO volts in the city of Windsor and to 
supply current at 6600 volts over the rest of the line. As 
permission was granted to run the higher voltage at Wind- 
sor, the change-over switch is no longer necessary and only 
one lead to the auto transformer is used. If the necessity 
should ever arise to use iioo volts at any point, it can be 
done without altering the car equipment. 

The connection from the pantograph to the circuit breaker 
is made with lead-sheathed, rubber-insulated cable. The 



resistance and reactance coils R and C are connected be- 
tween the controller segments and the armature to mini- 
mize sparking at the controller. The rating of the auto 
transformer is 100 kilowatts; there is one of the oil- 
insulated, self-cooling type to each car. 

LINE CONSTRUCTION 

The line is of catenary construction, with poles at 120 ft. 
apart on the tangents and as close as 80 ft. on the curvers. 
Bracket construction on the poles is used exclusively with 
the exception of where the line passes through towns. 

The trolley wire used iS No. 000 grooved, and the hang- 
ers from the messenger wire to the trolley wire are spaced 
10 ft. apart. Where the bracket construction is used the 
messenger wire rests in the grooves of the insulator 
fastened to the T-bracket arm. The hangers allow the 
trolley wire to hang below the arm, and no further insulat- 
ing devices are needed on these poles, except where there 
is a lateral strain on the wire. A steady strain device of 
the wooden-arm type is used on all curves where brackets 
exist. This is the standard wooden arm steady strain with 
skirt type insulator which the Westinghouse Company now 
furnishes for bracket catenary construction. 

The porcelain insulator holding the steady strain rod is 
carried in a malleable iron yoke adjustable on the bracket 
arm. The steady strain rod is made of a thoroughly im- 
pregnated wooden rod having malleable iron end lugs. 
This is used on account of the trolley wire being closer to 
the bracket arm than when the sleeve type insulator is used. 
In addition to using these on curves, one is put on in every 
twelve poles on the tangents. 

A sketch of the section break used is shown. Since the 
messenger and the trolley wire are both electrically con- 
nected, it is necessarv to break the current on both these 




: INTERIOR OF POWER STATION 

conductors. The messenger wire is cut at the point of the 
change of circuit and the ends are fastened to separate line 
insulators, the insulators being suspended from the hori- 
zontal arm of the bracket, as shown in sketch. 

To break the current upon the trolley wire a piece of 
second growth hickory, treated to make it moisture proof, 
is introduced into the line. The ends of this block are pro- 
vided with terminals into which the ends of the trolley 



40 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. 2. 



wire are fastened, the construction of the terminals and 
the shape of the wooden arm being such that the trolley 
passes smoothly from one circuit to the other across the 
intervening space without leaving the line. The arc is 
broken on the terminal casting. 

The line breaks used are at the sub-station and one at 
Kingsville near the power station and car shed. This 





SECTION BREAK 

allows all the wires in the yard to be cut out or in without 
interfering with the rest of the line. A separate switch 
for controlling the yard is installed in the power house, 
but is not shown on switchboard diagram. 

It is found that the men can work with perfect safety 
from the trolley tower, even when the current is on the line, 
by mounting a platform on four double-skirt insulators, 
such as are used on 
the poles for spare 
wire construction. 

At every thirty poles 
the line is anchored to 
prevent the messenger 
and trolley wires from 
pulling out of shape, 
except in the section 
where the break occurs. 

Anchoring is done by 
setting two extra poles 
opposite two adjacent 
bracket poles. These 
extra poles are on the 
opposite side of the 
track from the bracket 
poles. The guys are 
attached to the cate- 
nary structure mid- 
way between the two 
bracket poles, and the 
guys are then run to 
the two bracket poles 
and the two opposite 
poles in the shape of 
the letter X, the cate- 
nary structure being at 

the intersection of the guys. Where the guy^ are fas- 
tened to the poles, strain insulators are used in every 
case. 

The cross-span construction is of the steady strain cross- 
span, skirt type. In this style of construction the only 
insulators ordinarily used are those on the poles, leaving 
the span wires alive. This has the advantage of cheaper 
and lighter construction, but the disadvantage of having 
all the cross wires alive. The construction in this case 
has been modified by placing wood strain insulators 3 ft. 



from the catenary structure. This makes the span wires 
dead, except for 3 ft. on each side of the trolley wires. 

In Windsor all of the poles are made of reinforced con- 
crete and have been tested to stand a horizontal strain of 
1000 lbs. The poles on the rest of the line are of cedar. 

The catenary structure carries the whole current from 
the power house to the sub-station at Maidstone, a distance 
of eighteen miles, at 6600 volts. From this point to Wind- 
sor the line is taken care of by an auto transformer. A 
special transmission line is used from the power house 
to the sub-station carrying current at a voltage of 13,200. 
It is here stepped down to 6600, making the whole voltage 
the same. The 13,200-volt transmission line is carried on 
the same poles from which the catenary is carried, except 
in the town of Kingsville. Here the trees were so thick 
that it was found necessary to place the transmission poles 
on property lines and private right of way until the town 
limits were reached. 

POWER HOUSE 

The power house is located at Kingsville, by Lake Erie, 
from which the condensing water is pumped. The main 
part of the building, which is the engine room, is of brick 
and measures 106 ft. x 54 ft. The boiler room and division 
wall between boiler room and engine room are made of 
concrete blocks. The size of the boiler room is 88 ft. x 
50 ft. All the above are outside measurements. 

The chimney, built by the Alfons Custodis Chimney 
Company, is of radial brick and is 130 ft. high, supported 




DIAGRAM OF CONNECTIONS FOR TWO NO. 451 CONTROLLERS AND TWO A. C. MOTORS FOR TWO 

TROLLEY VOLTAGES 

on a concrete foundation 8 ft. deep. At the depth men- 
tioned there is good hard blue clay formation. 

There are two Goldie Corliss cross compound engines, 
20 ins. X 40 ins. x 36 ins., manufactured by the Goldie & 
McCulloch Company, of Gait, Ont. These are provided 
with steam actuated dash pots and have separate eccentrics 
for the steam and exhaust valves. The speed is 125 r.p.m. 
The governor is belted to a pulley on the main shaft and 
is similar to a flywheel type governor. 

The generators are 500-kw, 25-cycle, single-phase West- 



January ii, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



41 



inghouse machines, direct connected to the engines with 
belted 30-kw exciters. Space is left for one more complete 
unit, similar to the above, in the engine room. Piles were 
driven to the depth of 12 ft. under the engine foundations. 

The condensers, boilers and piping were made by the 
Canada Foundry Company. There is one jet condenser for 
each engine, size 16 ins. x 24 ins. x 24 ins. The injection 
water, as previously mentioned, is piped from Lake Erie 
through two lo-in. pipes. One condenser has a lift of 22 ft. 
and the other 19 ft. The distance from the power house to 
the end of the intake pipe is 500 ft. The end of the pipe 
is 100 ft. from the foot valve, and was extended this dis- 
tance to get into good clear water. The pipes were sup- 
ported to the side of a pier with bolts. To keep sticks and 
such matter from getting into the pipes an extra piece 3 ft. 
long with a cap was screwed on the end and perforated 
with yi-in. holes. The horizontal pipe from the foot valves 
to the end was set 2 ft. below the average level of the lake 
to insure getting water when the lake at this point became 
low, as is frequently the case during northwest winds. To 
get the pipe down to this depth it was necessary to dig a 
channel for about 75 ft. under water, as the water is very 
shallow near the shore. 

This work was done in the winter by using a scoop 




.SWITCHBOARD DIAGRAM 



SHOWING ALSO WIRING OF SUB-STATION 



scraper with long handles made of 13^-in. pipe and pulled 
by a team of horses, which were hitched to the scraper by 
a long rope. The men holding the scraper walked on the 
ice, which was then nearly a foot thick on the lake. The 
foot valve was kept down at the same depth as this pipe, 
thus insuring its always being under water. A manhole 
was built around the foot valve, from which the water can 
be pumped should any repairs here be required. 

The two condensers feed into a common hot well, the 
overflow from which discharges into a 14-in. pipe back 
to the lake. 

In the boiler room there are four Canada Foundry Com- 
pany water-tube boilers rated at 360 hp each, and there 
is room for two more. These boilers are the same type 



as the Atlas boilers and are manufactured exclusively in 
Canada by the Canada Foundry Company. There are two 
Cochrane heaters supplied by a lo-in. x 6-in. x lo-in. Blake 
duplex pump from the hot well, and these heaters are sup- 
plied with the automatic attachment for regulating the feed 
from the hot well by cutting this pump in and out of 
service as the hot water is needed. 

The boiler feed pump is a duplex, size 7^/^ in. x 4^^ in. 
X 10 in., built by the boiler maker. It is now beirig arranged 
to use natural gas, and under one battery of boilers are 
being installed twenty-six 5-in. Gwynne burners, manufac- 
tured by Reineke, Wilson & Company, Pittsburg. These 
are to be fed with a 6-in. supply pipe at a pressure of 10 oz. 
The other battery of two boilers will not be equipped until 
these prove satisfactory. The boilers have cyclone grates 
made by the Canadian Steam Boiler Equipment Company, 
Toronto. There is a gravity oiling system, with oil sepa- 
rator, filter and steam-operated pump purchased from the 
Pittsburg Oil Gauge & Supply Company. 

The plant was run for a little over a month and a half 
non-condensing, as this part of the work was not finished, 
and it may be interesting to give the comparative costs per 
horse-power running with and without the condenser. Up 
to the time the condenser was put on (Nov. 19, 1907) the 

average cost for running per 
horse-power per hour was 1.155 
cents. From Nov. 19 to Nov. 
30, with the condenser, the cost 
was .708 cents. These figures 
are given only to show a com- 
parison between running con- 
densing and non-condensing, 
and do not represent what will 
be done under better conditions. 
The steam pipes have not been 
covered, and the average load 
is a little under 50 per cent of 
full load rating of machines. 

A diagram of the switchboard 
layout is shown. There are 
three wires from the stationary 
armature of each generator — ^ 
one ground wire, one carrying 
current at 6600 volts and one at 
13,200 volts. Both the latter 
wires are lead-sheathed, rubber- 
insulated cables and are run to 
the switchboard in fiber conduit. 
This conduit is tested to stand 
over 34,000 volts on a puncture 
test. It will be noticed on the 
diagram that a Tirrell voltage 
regulator is used. The resistance coils and potential trans- 
formers are located in the basement of the building di- 
rectly below the switchboard apparatus. 

The feeder wires are brought into the building, each 
through two glass plates set in lo-in. glazed tile. Both out- 
side and inside the building the wires are fastened to in- 
sulators supported on a bracket structure made of 3-in. 
angle iron, bolted together. The lightning arresters, dis- 
connecting switches and auxiliary apparatus are mounted 
on an oak frame work well shellacked. 

SUB-STATION 

There is only one sub-station, located, as previously 
stated, eighteen miles from the power house. This steps 



42 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. 2. 



the voltage down from 13,200 to 6600 by a 300-kw, oil- 
insulated and self-cooled auto transformer. 

The building is made of concrete blocks and is 12 ft. 
square and 18 ft. high. The same lightning arrester ap- 
paratus with two line disconnecting switches is used as in 
the power house at Kingsville, and the same method of 
entrance wires has been adopted. 

CAR INSPECTION SHED 

The car inspection shed is on the west side of the power 
house and a little to the rear, as shown in the accompany- 
ing illustration. There are three tracks entering the build- 
ing, a repair pit 80 ft. in length, ^iVz ft- deep and 4 ft. 
wide, being built of concrete and under one track. 

The building is constructed of brick and is 133 ft. x 
50 ft. This building has a tar and gravel roof, which is 
supported in the center by posts set on concrete piers. 
No trolley wires enter the building. In the illustration 
it is seen that the yard is not wired up. All of the tracks 
will have trolley wire above them as far as the building. 
This is part of the construction not yet finished. 

The floor of the building is of clay, covered with cinders 
and packed down hard. The inspection building and power 
station are lighted with incandescent lamps, the leads for 
which are taken from the exciter busbars. 



NEW CAR OF THE UNITED RAILWAYS COMPANY. 
ST. LOUIS 



The United Railways Company, of St. Louis, is building 
its own cars. About fifteen have been erected and others 
will be built from time to time. The car being built is 
similar in general appearance to the type purchased prev- 



old and new cars are respectively 9 ft. i in. and 9 ft. ^4 
outside and 8 ft. in. and 8 ft. i in. inside, thus a gain of 
in. inside width was made with a decrease of ^ in. 
overall width. The overall length of the new car, 46 ft., 
is practically the same as the old one. The rear platform 
is 6 ft. 103^ ins. and the front one 5 ft. 7^ ins. 

STEEL FRAMING 

The bottom framing of the new car is shown in accom- 
panying reproductions. The side members are made of a 




GENERAL VIEW OF UNDERFRAMING 

3/16 in. X 28 in. steel plate stiffened by an 8 in. x 3J/2 in. 
angle at the bottom and by a 4-in. head and 5-in. stem 
T-iron. The T-iron is secured to the inside of the plate 
about 6 ins. from the bottom, being held away from it 
by malleable iron spacer castings placed at each post. All 
parts are hot riveted to the plate. Further stiffening efifect 
is obtained by ^-in. yellow pine furring secured with 
wagon box rivets to the outside of the plate. The outside 
sheathing is secured to this furring in the usual manner. 
Longitudinal support is aided by a ^ in. x 25^ in. inside 
truss of the usual type. 




I- J 



J t. ,^'/(...,^ 




PLAN AND SIDE ELEVATION OF ST. LOUIS CAR 



ious to the World's Fair, but differs radically in the con- 
struction of the bottom framing, which in the new car is 
entirely of steel. 

This steel framing was designed in the office of M. 
O'Brien, master mechanic of the system. It permits a 



The end sills are 8 in. x 3^ in. angles and are hot 
riveted to the angles of the same size that form the side 
sills. The cross sills are of 4-in. I-beams riveted to the 
spacer castings and to the 4 in. x 5 in. T-irons. In addi- 
tion to the cross sills there are two sets of diagonal braces. 



wider interior with a less overall width. The widths of the The bolsters extend under the side members and are riveted 



January ii, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



43 



to the bottom angles. This construction throws all the 
weight of the car on the side members. 

The platforms are supported on four 8 in. x 3^/^ in. angles 
placed in such a manner that the platform cannot be pulled 
out of square. The weight is distributed about equally be- 
tween all four members. The two on each side of the car 




JUNCTION BOX UNDER CONTROLLER 



are riveted one behind the other to the bottom angle of the 
side member. They then diverge and are secured to the 
end sill angle through malleable iron castings by i>^-in. 
bolts. At their outer end they are riveted to a 6-in. 
channel. 

One the rear end the two inner platform members are 
bridged by a 2^ in. x 10 in. channel bar, to which the draft 
rigging is attached. The drawbar has a cast steel head 
supported on an angle iron slide. No drawbar is provided 
on the front end, but a pocket is provided under the bumper 
iron. This iron is 6 in. x % in. steel and wood is filled in 
solid between it and the 6-in. channel which forms the 
front of the platform structure. The bumper is covered by 
a j4-in. steel plate. 




INTERIOR OF ST. LOUIS CAR 



The wood posts are fitted up against the inside of the 
steel side plate and over tongues on the spacer castings 
and are secured in position by two bolts which pass through 
the 3/16-in. plate, the posts and the tongue of the spacer 
casting, and also by wood screws which extend through the 
plate and into the posts. 

The corner posts fit inside of a }i-in. steel angle plate 
which is riveted to the end sill at the bottom and through 
malleable castings to the 3/16-in. plate. This corner plate 



forms the outside or corner of the car up to the height of 
the window openings. The 4J/2 in. x 7 in. post is secured 
to it by ^-in. bolts. The step angles are riveted direct to 
this corner casting and to the outside platform angles in 
such a manner that the step has a rigid support. 

WIRING 

All the wiring is in conduit. The light wires are in 
yi-'\n. conduit and are installed in sections so that in case 
of trouble any section may be pulled out. The conduit in 
the top of the car is laid between the rafters and the can- 
vas. The lights are controlled by two switcheis, the sign 
light and head light being on one switch. A "kick" coil is 
placed in the lamp conduit. The wiring under the car is 
in five groups of conduits, one for wires of motors No. i 
and 2, one for motors 3 and 4 and one for the resistance 
leads, and there are separate conduits for the control cir- 
cuit and for the main trolley. All of these conduits termi- 
nate in a special junction box under the controller bolted 
to the platform angle beams. The fuse box is located in 
the cab and is inclosed in a cast-iron box. The motor 
wires emerge from the conduit and enter junction boxes 
of special design through water loops and terminate in 
brass k'gs set in a maple block treated with paraffin. The 




MOTORMAN'S VESTIBULE, SHOWING ARRANGEMENT OF 
CONTROLLER AT THE SIDE 



leads from the motor are held in the lugs by screws. The 
maple block is contained in a cast-iron box bolted to a wood 
sill and fitted with a removable cover. 

The lightning arrester is protected by a 4-ampere fuse. 
The controller is of the K-28 J type with contactors under 
the car for making and breaking the main circuit. Motors 
are of the GE-80 type. The truck is the United Railways 
No. 25 built in the shops. It has 4^4 in. x 8 in. M. C. B. 



44 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[\'0L. XXXL No. 2. 



journal boxes adapted to the track and axles ins. in 
diameter at the gear and wheel seat. The truck centers 
are 22 ft. 3 ins. as against 20 ft. in the old car, with about 
the same length of body. The trucks are offset 2 ins., 
partly to give more room between cars and partly to bal- 
ance the weight of tlie controller and other heavy parts 
which are on one side. 



OCEAN SHORE RAILWAY 




ASSEMBLY OF CONNECTION BOX 

The forward vestibule contains a narrow front window 
ins. between posts and two windows on either side 
323/2 ins. wide. The controller, engineers" valve and other 
apparatus are so placed that the motorman is compelled to 
stand near the side of the platform opposite the door and 
out of the way of the passengers. Behind him is a sand- 
box containing a seat which may be pulled out and placed 
in position by raising the cover of the sandbox. The signal 
bell is inclosed in a wood box partly for appearance and 
partly to prevent the motorman deadening it with paper. 

The interior is finished in quarter sawn oak with a white 
enamel head lining. The wireless clusters for the lamps 
are inclosed in a casting which supports the bell cord. The 
casting is screwed into the car lines in such a manner that 
no strain is thrown on the cluster. The cars are being 




FRAMING OF FRONT PLATFORM 

built in a new shop recently erected, adjacent to the old one, 
at Park and Vandeventer avenues. 



The Ocean Shore Railway Company is steadily pushing 
its work of construction down the coast from San Francisco 
to an ultimate terminal at Santa Cruz. More than $3,500,- 
000 has already been expended on the work and the greater 
portion of the actual construction and nearly all the diffi- 
cult engineering features have been 
practically completed. 
^ ^ \ Skirting for miles overhanging cliffs 

like those on the electric railway round 
the bluffs to the old Cliff House, this 
Ocean Shore line is a scenic route. 
Along the first twenty miles of its com- 
pleted course a veritable necklace of lit- 
tle suburban residence sections has de- 
veloped, and already, in advance of the 
regular electric train service, thousands 
and thousands of lots have been sold. 

Starting at Eleventh and Mission 
Streets in San Francisco and running 
southward to Islais Creek, then directly across to the 
southwestward, past the vegetable country, the Ocean 
Shore suddenly emerges right over the edge of the 
Pacific and then goes down the coast. Naturally, the grade 
varies a great deal. In some places, for instance, the road 
runs 300 feet above the breakers, while at others it is almost 
level with the surf. The construction work on this line was 
preceded by a period of engineering daring, surveyors being 
lowered 300 feet over the precipices in rope slings to get 
the necessary preliminary bearings. 

In addition to the main line of 793^ miles, from Eleventh 
and Mission streets down the shore to Santa Cruz, the com- 
pany is to have three small branches. One will run north- 
ward from Ocean View, past Ingleside, round the beach 
end of Golden Gate Park and then to a terminal near the 
Chutes. This branch, including the terminal loop, will be 
9.7 miles. There will be another short branch from the 
Park line junction to the main line junction along Lake 




The Fort Wayne & Springfield Traction Company has 
inaugurated a new schedule which gives an hour-and-a-half 
service between Fort Wavne and Decatur. 



FRAMING OF REAR PLATFORM 

Merced, for a total length of 2.7 miles. Another branch, a 
mile in length, will skirt the north side of Islais Creek dis- 
trict and extend east to Illinois Street, near the Western 
Pacific's tracks and in the direction of the sugar refinery. 
So the total length of the Ocean Shore when completed will 
be 92.5 miles. 



January ii, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



45 



NEW CAR HOUSE AND CLUB ROOMS IN GRAND RAPIDS 



Like many other street railway companies that have gone 
in for clubs composed of employees, the Grand Rapids 
Railway Company has found that its efforts are appreci- 
ated and that the advantages which the club offers for good, 
wholesome entertainment and for social intercourse be- 
tween the men themselves tend greatly toward efficiency 




WKAI.IIIV AVENUE CAR llOrSE, GRAND RAPIDS 



in the individual employee and work to the advantage of 
both the company and the riding public. Thus when the 
company decided about a year and a half ago to build a 
new car house on Wealthy Avenue and make it the central 
car house of the system, one of the first questions that 
came up for solution was that of providing suitable accom- 
modations for the men. As a result of the deliberations. 



house is open at the front and contains seven tracks sepa- 
rated into two bays, one of five tracks and the other of 
two, by a fire wall. Of the barn proper an excellent idea 
is conveyed by the illustrations presented herewith of the 
general exterior and the track layout, which shows the 
arrangement of the pits, the location of the transfer table, 
etc. 

Coming to the club equipment, with which it is the pur- 
pose of this article 
to deal, it is only 
necessary casually 
to glance at the ac- 
companying pictures 
of the reading room, 
the pool room, the 
lunch room and the 
dormitory fully to 
appreciate how 
thoroughly the en- 
tire scheme has 
been carried out. 

Comparatively few 
companies have 
gone in for lunch 
rooms, but those 
that have, so far as 
it is on record, have 
found them to be a 
valuable asset. The 
idea at Grand Rap- 
ids has been not to 
provide a dining room, but rather t(j follow the lines along 
which the buffets in the large cities have been de- 
veloped. So in one of the rooms where the light 
was good a lunch counter was installed at which 
sandwiches, pies, beans and other edibles, and tea, coffee 
and milk are supplied to the men at all hours, approxi- 
mately at cost. One feature of the buffet idea has been 




THE LUNCH COUNTER 

Grand Rapids now possesses one of the best appointed club 
houses in the United States, the equipment including be- 
sides the usual reading and billiard rooms a dormitory and 
a lunch room. 

The car house proper is entirely of brick. At one end 
is the office structure, which contains the general office and 
the quarters of the receivers and dispatchers. The car 



THE READING ROOM 

eliminated, however. The men are not compelled to stand 
while eating, high wire stools being provided. The lunch 
counter is especially popular with the night men, who come 
in late and vyould find it difficult to obtain any lunch at that 
hour in the part of the city in which the barn is located. 
Those going out on the early runs are enabled to get break- 
fast at any hour, and the emergency men find it a great 



46 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. .• [Vol. XXXL No. 2. 



convenience. The regular men in many cases find it much 
more convenient than going several blocks to boarding 
houses and restaurants, and even those who have homes 
find it as cheap or cheaper than going home for their meals. 

The reading room is furnished in mission style with 
roomy tables and comfortable chairs, book cases and 
shelves, while on the walls are some tastefully framed pic- 



Other games, such as checkers, chess, etc., have also been 
provided. The scheme of decoration of the billiard room 
is well shown in the accompanying picture. Careful at- 





THE BILLIARD ROOM, SHOWING ARTISTIC SETTING 

lures, which harmonize well with the balance of the room. 
Many interesting books and all the latest magazines are 
found there. As the real benefit of this feature is realized 
the library will undoubtedly be greatly augmented by con- 
tributions from various sources. 



Second Story Plan over the Office 
Showing, Club, DormUorlfs auil Balli Rod: 



A ROOM OF THE DORMITORY 

tention has been given to the distribution of light, and in 
addition to the fixture directly over the table, there is a 
fixture at either end. The board wainscotting, about 4 ft. 
high, between which and the ceiling the wall is papered, 
harmonizes with the furniture and lends a pleasing effect. 




7 ^ 


/ 






w.c-^ 








w f?l 




3 


4 










51 1 ui. ' 









Tir 



A 




Rending 


Lunch 







PLAN OF THE WEALTHY AVENUE CAR HOUSE, GRAND RAPIDS 



For those who enjoy the lighter form' of amusements a 
billiard room has been fitted up in a manner that makes it 
very attractive. " A combination table of the most up-to- 
date type has been installed. This room is also finished in 
mission style and is well supplied with comfortable chairs 
for the players and those who are interested in the game. 



For the convenience of emergency men and those who 
have to start out on very early runs a dormitory or sleeping 
apartment has been fitted up with pretty white beds, dress- 
ers, rugs, pictures, etc., giving all the conveniences one 
would enjoy at home. This feature also has proved very 
popular with the men. 



January ii, iyo8.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



47 



PAY-AS-YOU-ENTER SERVICE IN BUFFALO 



A full pay-as-you-enter service was begun on Sunday, 
Jan. 5, by the International Traction Company of Buffalo 
on its Niagara Street line. For this purpose the company 
had secured fifty new cars of the pay-as-you-enter type 



fare is dropped is so constructed that the conductor can ex- 
amine the coins as they are deposited and by means of a 
trip consign them to the locker proper in the bottom of the 
box. 

The wise provision has been made for allowing passen- 
gers in emergencies to enter the car proper before paying 




PASSENGERS BOARDING .\ND LEAVING PAY-AS-YOU-ENTER CAR IN BUFFALO 

from the Cleveland works of the Brill Company. The cars the fare, the conductor being allowed to judge when the 

are very similar in general arrangement to those used in interests of the service will best be conserved by such 

Montreal and Chicago, but instead of the Montreal "coffee- procedure. In this event the conductor is to enter the car 

pot" fare box the company has adopted a rectangular safe us soon as possible and collect the fares as he formerly did 

with a receiver on top. The plan of fare collection pro- on the regular cars. In case it becomes necessary for the 




ILLUSTRATIONS USED IN BUFFALO CIRCULAR, 



SHOWING CORRECT METHOD OF ENTERING AND LEAVING CAR AND 
PAYING FARE 



vides that each passenger shall deposit his own fare in the 
box, the conductor to furnish change to the required 
amount. Transfers, however, are to be given to the con- 
ductor, who as formerly will examine them to see whether 
they are good for service. The receiver into which the 



conductor to leave the car the motorman is instructed to 
take his reverse handle and go to the rear platform and see 
that the fares are properly deposited during the absence of 
the conductor. 

In placing the new system in operation the International 



48 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. 2. 



Company followed the same general plan as that adopted 
by the Chicago City Railway Company for acquainting its 
employees with the details and of bringing the system to 
the attention of the public. To this end a booklet of special 
instructions was issued to the employees and a four-page 
folder was distributed among the company's patrons. Ad- 
vertisements were also inserted in the daily press. The in- 
structions to the employees described the purposes of the 
car and of the system of fare collection and gave instruc- 
tions as to making out the trip sheet and furnishing change, 
rules about smoking, manipulation of the heaters, procedure 
in case of blockades or when cars were turned short of 
their destination, what to do if it was necessary to leave 
the car and the proper way of handling the front exit door. 
Half-tone illustrations were printed to show the correct 
position of the conductor on the divided platform and a 
passenger depositing his fare, of the front exit and a pas- 
senger alighting from a car, of a car with passengers board- 
ing at "Entrance" and depositing fare before passing to the 
interior of the car, and of passengers leaving by the front 
"Exit." A plan of the car was also given, showing by 
means of arrows the course for passengers to take through 
the car. The illustrations used in the circular to passen- 
gers are presented herewith. 

In addressing the public the company said that the new 
car would tend to eliminate the jostling of passengers by 
conductor crowding through car to collect fares ; reduce the 
number of accidents; insure better ventilation, and give a 
warmer car in winter and a cooler car in summer. 

Patrons were requested to cooperate in making the use of 
this car a success by entering the car by the rear portion of 
the rear platform, back of dividing rail ; by having the exact 
fare (cash or ticket) ready before boarding the car; by 
depositing the fare in the receiver on the rear platform and 
passing at once to interior of car ; by presenting their trans- 
fers to the conductor and not depositing them in the re- 
ceiver, and by requesting transfers at time of paying fare. 
Finally, they were asked to alight from the car by the front 
exit only. 

To facilitate traffic the company erected at Shelton 
Square a kiosk, at which change is made and tickets sold. 
According to local estimates, fully 10,000 people were trans- 
ported in the new cars during rush hours between 5.30 and 
6.15 p. m. on Jan. 6. The cars were filled much more 
quickly than those of the old pattern running on the same 
tracks, and there was a noticeable improvement in the run- 
ning time. 



REPORT OF THE OHIO RAILROAD COMMISSION 

The report of the Railroad Commission of Ohio for the 
year 1907 has just been presented to the Governor. This 
is the second report under the organization of the Commis- 
sion and the fortieth of the series of annual reports of the 
Commissioner of Railroads and Telegrams, whose office was 
abolished on the creation of the Railroad Commission, Aug. 
I, 1906. The report covers the steam railroads and inter- 
urban electric railways in the State. 

The act under which the Commission was created says: 
"This act shall not apply to street and electric railways 
engaged solely in the transportation of passengers within 
the limits of cities, nor other private railroads not doing 
business as common carriers."' The interpretation of this 
paragraph has been of some concern to the Commission to 
determine whether a city line which operates interurban 
lines as a part of its system comes under the jurisdiction 
of the Commission, and if so whether the jurisdiction ex- 



tends to the entire system. The Commission suggests that 
the statute be amended to clearly indicate the purpose of 
the Legislature. 

A considerable portion of the report is given to a state- 
ment of the physical condition of the electric lines as re- 
ported by inspectors of the Commission. These reports are 
given under the names of the different companies and in 
some cases are quite voluminous and critical. Copies of 
these reports have also been furnished the traction com- 
panies and the Commission states that the improvements 
suggested have generally been met. 

Statistics are given of fifty-five of the interurban electric 
railways of the State, from which the. following figures are 
taken; Miles of track, main line, 1918; total, including 
branches, 2633; capital stock issued, $114,326,903; divi- 
dends paid, $628,570; funded debt issued, $91,988,800; 
amount outstanding, $82,920,000. 

The average cost per mile of road for all of the dififerent 
interurban lines was $52,532, the figures varying from $127,- 



312 to $15,934 for a completed road. 

The consolidated balance sheet follows: 

ASSETS. 

Cost of road $128,683,073 

Cost of equipment 846,066 

Stocks owned 6,718,129 

Bonds owned 8,055,000 

Other investments 5,738,503 

Lands owned 1,752,573 

Casli and current assets 2,539,562 

Materials and supplies 677,792 

Sinking fund 20,142 

Sundries 9,293,742 

Profit and loss. 1,383,812 



Total $165,706,611 

LIABILITIES. 

Capital stock $80,694,723 

Funded debt 70,451,800 

Curent liabilities 8,847,731 

Accrued interest, not yet payable 575i97i 

Miscellaneous 4,096,623 

Profit and loss 1,039,763 



Total $165,706,611 

The income account for the portions of the roads was : 

Receipts from passengers $10,533,964 

Receipts from mail 34,367 

Receipts from express 152,968 

Miscellaneous passenger and baggage receipts 199,614 

Receipts from freight 620,981 



Total income from traffic $11,541,893 

Other earnings 714,766 



Gross income $12,256,659 

Operating expenses 7,403,396 



Gross income, less operating expenses $4,853,263 

The division of operating expenses : 

Maintenance of way and structures $1,031,707 

Maintenance of equipment 950,221 

Conducting transportation 4,292,412 

General expenses 1,129,056 



Total $7,403,396 



Of the fifty-eight roads reporting to the Commission 
eight paid dividends. 

The total number of employees in Ohio was 6,952, with 
an annual compensation of $3,984,558. The following are 
some additional statistics : Average amount received from 
each passenger, $0,110; passenger earnings per mile of 
road, $4,538.80 ; gross earnings from operations per mile 
$4,631.90; operating expenses per mile $2,797.80. 



January ii, 1908.] 
FIRST TRAIN THROUGH THE HUDSON TUNNEL 

On Saturday, Jan. 4, the first electric train was run 
through the tunnel of the Hudson Companies connecting 
Hoboken, N. J., with Christopher Street, New York, and 
marked the completion of this important work. The first 
train carried a number of the officers of the company and 
newspaper men as guests. Some views are presented 
herewith of the tunnel before the final track was laid, 
the completed tunnel and a view of the station at Hobo- 




CURVE AT CORNER OF MORTON AND GREENWICH STREETS, 
• EAST BOUND TUNNEL 



ken, N. J., with a train in the station. As already an- 
nounced in this paper, it is expected that the line between 
Hoboken and New York will be in operation by March 7. 



49 



abandoned in 1880, after about 1200 ft. had been con- 
structed. In 1888 it was revived for a few years and some 
3000 ft. of brick lined tunnel were completed. In 1902 the 




INTERIOR OF TUNNEL. SHOWING BLOCK SIGNAL, THIRD- 
RAIL AND TRACK 



tunnel passed into the hands of the present owners, who 
projected the extensive system which has been described in 
this paper, with two pairs of tunnels, one pair between 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 




STATION AT HOBOKEN, WITH TRAIN 




The history of the enterprise dates back to 1874, when Hoboken and Morton Street, New York, and one pair be- 
an English company commenced the construction of a tun- tween Montgomery Street, Jersey City, and Cortlandt 
nel between Morton Street and Hoboken. The project was Street, New York. The northern tunnels, or those recently 



50 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[\'0L. XXXL No. 2. 



completed, are 5650 ft. in length with a maximum depth be- 
low the river of 97 ft. The southern tubes were begun in 
January, 1906, and will be 5976 ft. in length and 92 ft. below 
the river. Plans of several of the stations, including the 
Cortlandt Street Station, were published in the Street 
Railway Journal for March 9, 1907, and views of the 
cars to be employed on the system were published in the 
issue for June 8, 1907. 



MEETING OF THE SHOP FOREMEN'S ASSOCIATION 

On Thursday evening, Dec. 19, the regular monthly meet- 
ing of the Shop Foremen's Association was held in the din- 
ing room of the general repair shops of the Public Service 
Railway Company, Newark, N. J. Up to this time only 
two divisions of the above railway company were repre- 
sented, but at this meeting there were present the general 
manager, three division master mechanics and foremen 
from every division. As this was the date set for the regu- 
lar election of officers it was decided that as the present offi- 
cers had only served a term of about two months and had 
amply proved their efficiency they should all be re-elected. 
This was done except in the case of the secretary, J. R. 
Case, who thought he was unable to give the office the 
proper attention along with his own duties. His decision 
was accepted with regret and W. D. Bower was elected 
instead. After a short but interesting address by the presi- 
dent, R. E. Danforth, general manager of the Public Serv- 
ice Railway Company, made a very interesting address 
in which he complimented the men on the improvements 
made on the entire system and urged all to combine their 
efforts with his to make a still better showing in the coming 
year. To show that he was anxious and willing to do his 
part, Mr. Danforth said he would arrange to have the divi- 
sion master mechanics and their foremen visit some of the 
street railway shops in the neighboring cities, including 
Brooklyn and Philadelphia, to see how street railway work 
is carried on in other cities and thus better fit themselves 
for the advancement of their company's interests. He also 
suggested that a library of electric and mechanical books 
be installed in the association meeting rooms by which the 
members may advance themselves in their work. Mr. Dan- 
forth's offer to allow the shop foremen to make these tours 
of inspection was accepted, and a rising vote of thanks 
given him for the same. Among the other speakers were 
F. C. Rapp, general foreman of the Plank Road Repair 
Shops; P. Connors, master mechanic Hudson Division; 
J. G. Carroll, master mechanic Essex Division, who gave 
a short talk on the advancement and benefit of the associa- 
tion. It was decided that the topics of discussion at the 
next meeting would be lubrication and inspection. Every 
member was requested to come prepared to talk on these 
subjects. 

After the adjournment of the meeting Mr. Danforth 
conducted the foremen through the general repair shops 
and explained to them the advantages of the new type of 
cars which the company is having built, several of which 
will be put in service in the near future. 

The association would like it known that all general fore- 
men, master mechanics and shop foremen, no matter where 
situated, are cordially invited to send or apply personally 
for membership. Any desired information can be had by 
writing the secretary at the Elizabeth shop. Public Service 
Railway Company, Elizabeth, N. J. The officers elected 
were as follows: President, W. Ricker, foreman Central 
Av«nue shop, Newark, N. J. ; vice-president, H. Dupras, 
foreman Milltown shop, Milltown, N. J. ; treasurer, H. W. 



Wightman, clerk to division master mechanic, Newark, 
N. J.; secretary, W. D. Bower, clerk to division master 
mechanic, Elizabeth, N. J. 

■ 

OPENING OF THE BROOKLYN SUBWAY 

In accordance with the announcement made on Monday 
by the Interborough Rapid Transit Company regarding the 
opening of the tunnel under the East River from the Bat- 
tery, New York, to Borough Hall, Brooklyn, service was 
begun Thursday at i a. m. For the present all Lenox 
Avenue express trains will run to Brooklyn, the Lenox 
Avenue locals to be run through after the express service 
for the day has been stopped. Broadway locals and express 
trains will continue to be operated around the Battery loop. 
The traffic at the Borough Hall, Brooklyn, will be cared for 
by the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company's local Borough 
Hall service, which will be increased to meet the demands 
imposed upon the different lines. In the handling of this 
traffic the new Livingston Street line of the Brooklyn Rapid 
Transit Company, which was the subject of an article in 
the Street Railway Journal for Nov. 16, 1907, will play 
an important part. 

CORRESPONDENCE 
GAS ENGINE MAINTENANCE 

Niagara Falls South, Ontario, Jan. 2, 1908. 
Editors Street Railway Journal : 

I have read with a great deal of interest your very 
optimistic editorial on the gas engine papers, presented • 
at the recent meeting of the American Society of Me- 
chanical Engineers. It seems, however, that both in your 
editorial and in the papers themselves one very vital point 
in connection with the gas engine as it exists to-day has 
been overlooked. I refer to the question of maintenance. 
During the discussion of these papers in New York I 
sought to bring out this point as regards gas engine plants 
of reasonably large size operating on producer gas under 
American conditions and was unable to get more than a . 
very meager answer from one of the members present. Of 
what avail is it to have a prime mover .of the undoubted 
economy obtainable with the gas engine if this economy is 
to be more than offset by the very heavy charges for keep- 
ing the apparatus in repair? 

Two comparatively recent cases illustrate my point. The 
Lackawanna Steel Company has practically discarded its 
modern gas engine generating plant run on blast furnace 
gas in favor of electric power purchased and transmitted 
some 40 odd miles from Niagara Falls. While this was 
probably not entirely due to the heavy maintenance charges 
on the gas engine, as the company desired to use its blast 
furnace gas in other parts of its works, undoubtedly the 
cost of maintenance was a considerable inducement in 
making the decision. I was also interested to note recently 
in one of the technical journals^ that at the time of an in- 
terruption on the hydro-electric lines of the California Gas 
& Electric Company its much vaunted gas engine plant was 
not available as "unfortunately the three gas engines were 
dismantled for repairs." 

I am far from being a skeptic as regards the possibilities 
of the internal combustion engine, but it is only fair that 
both sides of the question should be clearly brought out, 
which has certainly not been done to the extent that would 
enable an intending purchaser to make a fair comparison 
between gas engines and other prime movers. 

W. N. Ryerson. 



January ii, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



AN HYDRAULIC CAR LIFT, EMPLOYING CABLES 



An hydraulic car lift of rather unusual design is in 
service in the shops of the West Penn Railways Company, 
Connellsville, Pa. A 14-in. cylinder is installed below the 
floor and near the side wall a few feet distant from the 
track. From the upward projecting piston two wire cables 
are carried to the roof trusses and over separate sheaves 
placed in such positions that the cables drop down on cither 



_Al)ont OXrt.. 



street Utittwnyy/uurnat 



GENERAL ARRANGEMENT OF HYDRAULIC CAR LIFT 

side of the car to be raised. The cables terminate in 
wrought iron links which support the cross bar under the 
car. Admitting water on top of the piston lowers it and 
raises the car under which the cross bar or rail has been 
placed. This hoist has several advantages over the direct 
acting type usually found in shops, as the pull is always 
equal on both ropes and the car body is raised without cross 
strains. The absence of pistons projecting out of the floor 
affords a free space to work, and as only two cylinders per 
car are required, the installation is cut almost half. 



REMEDYING DEFECTS IN PARALLEL OPERATION OF 
ALTERNATORS 



An instructive case in connection with difficulties in the 
parallel operation of similarly designed units is described 
at length by J. C. Woodsome, of the Houghton County 
Electric Light Company, in a recent number of the "Stone 
& Webster Public Service Journal." It is doubtful if the 
average manager has either the time or the mathematical 
dexterity that will enable him to work out on paper an 
intricate solution of a problem in governing or parallel 
operation and the use of the oscillograph in the study of 
electromotive force and current waves is beyond the scope 
of the small plant at present. It is sometimes possible, 



even in the small-capacity station, however, to eliminate 
various disturbing adjustments, and to note the effect of 
each change on the operation of the machinery. This was 
the method followed by Mr. Woodsome, who was troubled 
with an excessive cross current between a looo-kw, 60- 
cycle, 2300-volt, two-phase alternator, driven by a 1500-hp 
reciprocating engine, and a 6oo-kw alternator of the same 
make and similar design, driven by a looo-hp engine built 
by the same manufacturer as the first. Both units were 
direct-connected machines, but they could not be operated 
together on account of the cross current. 

This cross current was indicative of a changing phase 
relation between the currents in the two machines. It was 
at once concluded that, since the generators were of iden- 
tically the same design, if they were driven at a constant 
and rated speed their currents would always be in phase. 
In this case the only source of the current could be the dif- 
ference in voltage of the e. m. f. curves of the two machines. 
With different e. m. f. curves there would be two surges 
of the cross current per cycle. Actually, there were ob- 
served one and one-third surges per second, which showed 
that the trouble was not caused by any difference in 
wave forms. It was evident that there was a lack of uni- 
form angular advance in either one or both of the gen- 
erators during rotation, due either to a sympathetic period 
of oscillation between the engines and generators or to 
improper governing. 

It was reasoned that the former cause, if present, might 
be removed by changing the valve setting in such a way 
as not to alter the natural period of the engine by altering 
the force and time of the piston impulses. The valve set- 
tings were changed somewhat, without effect on the cross 
current trouble, and it was concluded that the trouble was 
probably due to the governing mechanism. In the case 
discussed by Mr. Woodsome, the valves were operated by 
the governor through long, knock-off rods, and the period 
of vibration of these rods was sympathetic with the throw 
of the valves when the engines were operating at normal 
speed. The resulting vibration of the rods interfered with 
the governor action. The source of trouble was removed 
by altering the throw of the valve arm and splitting the rods 
into two sections, working through a rocker connection, 
preventing any vibratory effect getting back to the gov- 
ernor. It was also found that the governors were a little 
too sensitive, and they were stiffened by thickening the oil 
in the dash pot and bridging the spring on the dash-pot 
piston rod with a solid clamp. These changes reduced the 
cross current to about 3 per cent during rated load, and the 
units now operate without bus-bar voltage disturbance. 
When only one machine is running, or when both machines 
are operating out of parallel, the bridge clamp is removed, 
restoring nearly the original sensitiveness of the governor. 

It is probable that the only instruments used in the above 
adjustment were a speed counter, ammeter in the leads 
or bus-bars between the two units, a watch and a voltmeter. 
Oscillographic studies of the e. m. f. curves would doubt- 
less have shown mechanical phase displacements caused by 
the speed irregularities, and the latter would have fur- 
nished some interesting diagrams if recorded on the oscillo- 
graph film. The effect of fly-wheel regulation would also 
have been perceptible if refined methods of measurement 
could have been used. The net result desired was solved, 
however, by straightforward adjustments of an engineering 
rather than a laboratory nature, and the use of such meth- 
ods of attack is certainly desirable in all similar practical 
problems of power-station operation. 



52 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[\oL. XXXI. No. 2. 



A LINE CAR WITH A PNEUMATIC HOIST 

The standard line car of the United Railways, St. Louis, 
is provided with an air hoist controlled from a valve on the 
tower. A 6-in. piston extends through the center of the 
tower. Compressed air is furnished by a Christensen com- 




LINE CAR FITTED WITH PNEUMATIC HOIST 



pressor. The tower is pro\ided with a swinging platform 
15 ft. long. The car body is 40 ft. long and about one mile 
of trolley wire is kept in each end of the car, so that wire 
may be strung in either direction with the least possible 
delay. The car is dri\'en bv four 50-hp niotors. 



PNEUMATIC PIPE BENDING MACHINE 

H. B. Underwood & Compan}', of Philadelphia. Pa., 
have placed on the market a pneumatic pipe bend- 
ing machine which should appeal to all who have 
pipe bending to do and have been compelled to do 
it by hand machine and by filling and heating. The 
new machine, illustrated herewith, has been in practical 
use for a number of months in a large railroad repair shop, 
where it has been employed for all the pipe bending re- 
quired in equipping locomotives and for air brake and regu- 
lar work as well. It will make a right angle bend in a 2-in. 
pipe in two minutes, and does not flatten or injure the pipe 
in any way. Dies are furnished of standard radius for 
locomotive work for i4-in. up to 2-in. pipe, and special dies 




PNEUMATIC PIPE BEXDIXG MACHINE 



of any required radius or shape are made to order. IT. B. 
Underwood & Company, the makers, have made a line of 
portable tools for many years that have become the stand- 
ard in a large number of the shops, and the new machine 
is a valuable addition to their already numerous high grade 
tools. 



SCHOOL TICKETS IN NEW JERSEY 

Beginning Jan. i the Public Service Corporation en- 
larged the scope of its plan to give school children cheap 
transportation to and from school. Under the new ar- 
rangement all school children enjoy the 3-cent fare. Chil- 
dren of the high school, grammar school, private and paro- 
chial schools are treated alike. It is necessary for the head 
of the school or some person in authority to send to M. R. 
Boylan, general auditor of the company, at Broad and Centre 
streets, Newark, for identification cards for each member 
of the school. These cards are issued to the pupils and 
upon presentation at the offices of the company they can 
purchase the 3-cent tickets. The tickets are good be- 
tween the hours of 8 and 4 o'clock on every school day, that 
is, every day except Saturday and Sunday, and may be 
bought in such quantities as are needed. The children 
using the 3-cent tickets must carry at all times their identifi- 
cation card about their person. 



MORE SEMI-CONVERTIBLE CARS FOR WINSTON-SALEM 



The J. G. Brill Company has just shipped two more of 
its patented semi-convertible single-truck cars to the Fries 
Manufacturing & Power Company, successors to the Wins- 
ton-Salem Railway & Electric Company. The entire roll- 
ing stock for the system has been supplied by The J. G. 
Brill Company and repeat orders have been filled for the 
type of car mentioned since it was first introduced in 1904. 




EXTERIOR WINSTON-.SALEM SEMI-CONVERTIBLE CAR 



It is probable that about three more cars will be needed this 
spring. On the arrival of the last two semi-convertibles 
the cpmpany started to run cars over that portion of the 
main division of the system which has lately been consid- 
erably extended. The new cars are almost exact duplicates 
of their predecessors and measure 20 ft. 8 ins. over the 
end panels and 30 ft. i in. over the vestibules ; width over 
sills, including panels, 7 ft. 8J^ ins. ; size of side sills, 5 ins. x 
3^ ins.; end sills, 3>^ ins. x 6^ ins. The No. 21-E truck 
is standard with the road and has wheel base of 6 ft. 6 ins. 
Two motors of 37 hp capacity each are employed. The 
seats are of Brill manufacture and several familiar special- 
ties of the builders' make, namely, angle iron bumpers, 
drawbars, folding gates, etc., completed the equipment. 



In connection with the article on the electric railway 
system of Buenos Ayres, Argentine, which appeared in 
the issue of the Street Railw.w Journal for Dec. 7, it is 
interesting to note that the air-brake apparatus with which 
the rolling stock of the Buenos Ayres-La Croze tramways 
is equipped was furnished by the National Brake & Elec- 
tric Company, of Milwaukee, Wis. The equipments fur- 
nished by this company are of the National straight air 
type, with A-i, 11 cu. ft. compressors and Type N oil- 
pneumatic governors. 



January ii, 1908.] 

HNANCIAL INTELLIGENCE 



Wall Street, Jan. 8, igo8. 

The Stock and Money Market 

The turn of the New Year has brought with it a very decided 
change in financial conditions, both as regards the money and 
stock markets.- In the latter there has of late been a pro- 
nounced upward tendency, with some very substantial, if not 
phenomenal, advances, which of course have been largely conse- 
quent upon the vastly improved monetary situation. Respecting 
the money market it is of the highest importance to note that 
during the current week not only have the rates for call loans 
eased off materially, but what is of even greater significance, 
quotations on time loans have fallen sharply ; in fact the current 
quotations are the lowest that have prevailed since before the 
recent panic. On good mixed Stock Exchange collateral 60 
to 90 day loans have been made at 6 per cent, and there has 
been a very pronounced disposition on the part of Stock 
Exchange borrowers to hold off for even lower rates, which 
they apparently have good reason to expect in the immediate 
future. This belief evidently is based not so much upon the fact 
that the local banks are gradually getting back to their normal 
position, as evidenced by the big cuts that have been reported 
the past few weeks in the existing unusual deficit of the 
Clearing House institutions, but more particularly upon the 
change in attitude on the part of the out-of-town banks, who 
are now disposed to release the enormous amount of funds 
they hoarded during the recent disturbances. Already currency 
is flowing from several interior centers in considerable volume, 
and it is the consensus of opinion among bankers and money 
lenders here that this movement will ere long assume much 
greater proportions. Another noteworthy incident in connection 
with the local monetary situation is the complete disappearance 
of the premium on currency, showing conclusively that the 
effects of the recent scare have entirely worn off. It is now 
expected that the next important announcement will be the 
retirement in full of all the New York Clearing House certifi- 
cates. As a matter of fact, considerable quantities of these 
certificates have already been retired. With the complete 
elimiation of these certificates, the last vestige of the great 
financial upheaval of 1907 will have been effectively removed. 

Besides the greatly improved local monetary condition, the 
situation abroad has been materially bettered, one illustration of 
which is afforded by the announced deduction in the Bank of 
England's discount rate from 7 to 6 per cent. This very 
naturally added to the more optimistic feeling engendered by 
factors above set forth and which created a more general 
public interest in the stock market than has been observed for 
a long time past. Conspicuous in the general upward movement 
in security values were the shares of anthracite coal roads, 
some of which scored sensational advances. This is accounted 
for partly by the fact that an impression has gained ground that 
Congress may relieve these roads from the necessity of comply- 
ing with the provisions of the Hepburn rate law. 

Practically the only discordant notes in the situation have been 
the appointment of receivers for the Seaboard Air Line Com- 
pany and the Chicago Great Western and reports from Wash- 
ington of the possibility of the Department of Justice instituting 
proceedings to disrupt the existing relations between the Union 
Pacific and Southern Pacific. Aside from creating some 
momentary weakness in the stocks chiefly interested and slight 
sympathetic recessions in other directions, these matters, how- 
ever, failed of any noteworthy influence. 

The local traction shares were by no means behind in the 
general enliancement in values. The appointment of a receiver 
for the Third Avenue Railroad Company had no apparent 
effect on these stocks, principally for the reason that such a 
development had been fully expected by all those in a position 
to know the true status of the property. A pronounced offset 
to this development was the announcement of the payment of 
January interest coupons by several of the Interborough subsi- 
diary companies and of even greater importance the opening 
of the tunnel under the East River, which event makes a distinct 



53 

epoch in the history of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit. This 
tunnel is destined to prove a great feeder to the lines of this 
company and in consequence sentiment in favor of its securi- 
ties is now very strong. 

Philadelphia 

Although the dealings in the local traction issues were upon 
a somewhat smaller scale, prices for nearly all the leading issues 
have shared in the general improvement which has taken place 
in the general securities market. Philadelphia Rapid Transit 
and Philadelphia Traction both scored substantial gains over 
the prices ruling at the close a week ago, the first named selling 
at 18^, while the latter brought 8454- Union Traction was 
sympathetically strong, the price rising to 51. Philadelphia 
Company's stocks were strong, the common moving up one-half 
point, on light trading to 36^2, while the preferred rose to 37. 
Consolidated Traction of New Jersey gained a point to 62^. 
American Railways sold at 43J4, and United Companies of New- 
Jersey at 230. 

Chicago 

Further progress has been made in carrying out the details 
of the Chicago Union Traction Company reorganization. The 
necessary funds for taking the company out of the hands of the 
receivers has been obtained in Chicago, and it is expected that 
the next important move will be to take the property from the 
receivers, which will be done within the next week or ten days. 
Trading in the local tractions was fairly active and prices gener- 
ally held firm. South Side Elevated sold at 65. Metropolitan 
Elevated common sold at 17, the preferred at 42, the extension 
4's at 80, and the gold 4's at 845^. City Railway stock brought 
148^, North Chicago receipts 45J-4 and West Chicago receipts 
at 32K- @ 32. 

Other Traction Securities 

There was a fairly active market for traction shares at 
Boston, the feature being Boston Elevated, which sold at 128 
@ 129; Massachusetts Electric brought 10 @ loyi and the 
preferred rose from 44 to 46. Boston & Worcester preferred 
sold at 56. West End rights were rather active at from 95 to 
80 cents. The common stock sold at 80 @ 78 and the preferred 
at 96. The Baltimore market was quiet and price changes were 
for the most part unimportant. United Railway 4's sold at 
8i5<2 @ 82; the incomes at 44^2 and the funding 5's at 70. 
Metropolitan Railway s's sold at 105J2. 

While the higher price of Cleveland Electric has lieen main- 
tained on the Stock Exchange at Cleveland the past week, the 
sales have been few. Buyers were willing to take the shares 
at 40 and 41, but owners held out for 43, which seemed a little 
too high. Aurora, Elgin & Chicago preferred held through the 
week at 68, while a few small blocks of the common sold around 
the usual price. Some trading was done in Northern Ohio 
Traction & Light at 20, while Washington, Baltimore & Ann- 
apolis pooling certificates changed hands at and around 9. 

Security Quotations 

The following table shows the present bid quotations for the 
leading traction stocks, and the active bonds, as compared 
with last week : 

Jan. 2. Jan. 8. 

American Railways 43 43 

Boston Elevated 126 129 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit 39 40 

Chicago City aiso ai50 

Cleveland Electric 41 54 41^ 

Consolidated Traction of New Tersev 60 61 

Detroit United — 37^ 

Interborough-Metropolitan y% 654 

Interborough-Metropolitan (preferred) iS'/i iS'A 

International Traction (con-imon) , 35 — 

International Traction (preferred) 4s 39 — 

Manhattan Railway 118 118 

Massachusetts Elec. Cos. (common) Syi lo'/i 

Massachusetts Elec. Cos. (preferred) iS'A — 

Metropolitan Elevated, Chicago (common) mS'A idVz 

Metropolitan Elevated, Chicago (preferred) 40 41 

Metropolitan Street — — 

North .American 42^ 5oJi 

Philadelphia Company (common) isVi 36 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit i7/4 i8}4 

Philadelphia Traction 82;/; — 

Public Service Corporation certificates 54 54 

Public Service Corporation, 5 per cent notes 85 85 

South Side Elevated (Chicago) 6254 64 

Twin City, Minneapolis (common) 84 85^2 

Union Traction (Philadelphia) 49/4 So'A 

■A Asked. 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



54 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. 2. 



Metals 

The Iron Age says: "To drop within less than three months 
from a rate of production of pig iron of 27,000,000 tons per 
annum to a rate of 12,000,000 tons on the first of January is 
what the industry has accomplished. The returns show that 
the production of coke and anthracite pig iron during Decem- 
ber was 1,234,279 gross tons, against 1,828,125 tons in November 
and 2,336,972 in October. The output of the steel companies, 
which was 1,514,521 tons in October, fell to 659,459 tons in 
December. The majority of pig iron makers have with- 
drawn the lowest quotations which they recently made and the 
markets are firmer. Reports from the finishing mills are rather 
discouraging." 

The copper metal market continues firm at unchanged prices. 
Lake, 135^ to I3^c. ; electrolytic, 13^ to I5%c., and castings 
at I3J4 to I3j^c. 



"L" TRAFFIC IN CHICAGO 

Traffic of the Chicago Elevated Railroads for December 
showed considerable gain in the case of the South Side Ele- 
vated and the Northwestern Elevated, the increase being largely 
due to the opening of new stations. The Metropolitan Elevated 
fell below last year, as it did in the month of November. The 
decrease in traffic is ascribed to the laying off of men in some 
large plants in the territory of the road. The figures follow : 



SOUTH SIDE ELEVATED. 

1907. 1906. Increase. P. ct. 

January 92,411 92,406 5 0.00 

February 96,094 95.077 1.017 0.00 

March 100,226 95,466 4,760 4-98 

April 103,152 95,756 7.396 2.72 

May 109.880 91.759 12,721 13.03 

June 115.686 101,770 19.986 13-67 

July 111,933 92,796 19,187 20.39 

August 113,847 88,539 25,308 28.58 

September 118,256 89,749 28,507 31-74 

October 126,670 93.577 33.093 35-36 

November 120.594 94.281 26,313 27.99 

Dtcember 119.788 95.212 24.576 25-81 

METROPOLITAN ELEVATED- 

January 150.165 129,720 20,445 15-76 

February 154,444 i35-57o 18,874 i3-9i 

March 154,790 138,169 16,621 12.02 

April 156,275 137.477 18,798 13.67 

May 151,423 136,735 14,688 10.72 

June 148,518 133,974 14,544 10.85 

July 135,779 123,370 12,409 10.37 

August 136.517 123,51-! 13,005 10.52 

September 140,979 126,975 14,004 11.02 

October 157,080 142,671 14,409 10.09 

November 151,518 150.565 *953 *o.63 

December 147,723 155,790 *8,o67 *5-i7 

NORTHWESTERN ELEVATED. 

January 88,632 81,204 7,428 9.15 

February 88,435 83,572 4,863 5.81 

March 89,344 85,154 4,190 4-92 

■April 99,134 84,244 5,800 6.99 

May 94,204 81,748 12,456 15-24 

June 99,051 80,165 18,886 23.56 

July 91.542 73,308 18,234 24.87 

August 93,174 73.170 19,998 27.32 

September 97.447 77. 508 '9,939 25.72 

October 108,806 88,344 20,462 23.16 

November 106,847 93,238 13.609 14-59 

December 105,958 94,904 11,054 11.64 



* Decrease. 



THE MASSACHUSETTS ELECTRIC COMPANIES 

Although railroad companies and industrial organizations all 
over the country have suffered materially as a result of the 
financial crisis which is now slowly passing away, a sanguine 
attitude is entertained by officials of many street railway prop- 
erties. One of these is the Massachusetts Electric Companies, 
at whose recent annual meeting President Abbott intimated 
that the prospects for the declaration of dividends on the 
preferred stock during the present fiscal year were not at all 
improbable. The only obstacle which seems to be in the way 
is the ability of the operating companies to sell bonds, and, as- 
suming that earnings will continue at the present rate, early 
in 1908 the holding company should be in a position to resume 
dividends on the senior issue.' Had there been any market for 
bonds last year, it is asserted, the probabilities are that there 
would have been a disbursement to the preferred shareholders 
of 2 per cent. 

The report of this corporation for the last fiscal year was 
published on page 11 53 of the Street Railway Journal for 
Dec. 14, and in view of the size of the company a brief analy- 
sis of the report for that period may not be out of place. The 
income account shows that the total earnings of the operating 



companies amounted to $7,758,511, w-hich was nearly $250,000 
more than in the previous year, and greater by over $1,000,000 
than in the fiscal period of 1905. Operating expenses, however, 
were only $117,000 more than in 1906, which left a gain in 
net earnings of some $123,000. As compared with 1905, the net 
increase of the last year was pretty close to half a million dol- 
lars. After the payment of fixed charges, including interest, 
taxes and rentals, aggregating $1,702,623, which were larger by 
$108,000 than in 1906, the net divisible income of the Massa- 
chusetts Electric Companies was $1,055,235, or $15,000 more 
than in the previous year. Dividends to the holding company 
aggregating $880,773, or $170,000 more than in the year previous, 
were paid, which left the surplus on Sept. 30 last at $174,462 
for appropriations. 

On Sept. 30 last the total mileage of main track was given 
in the annual report as 882 miles, which compares with 870 
miles in the year previous. Reducing the income account of 



the operating companies for 


the last 


fiscal year 


to a per mile 


basis, therefore, the comparison with 


the year 


previous is as 


follows : 










1907. 


1906. 


Changes. 


Gross 


$8,796 


$8,641 


Inc. $155 


Operating expenses 


• 5,669 


5,613 


Inc. 56 


Net 


• $3,127 


$3,028 


Inc. $99 


Interest, rentals and taxes.. 


• 1,930 


1,832 


Inc. 98 


Net dividend increase 


.$1,197 


$1,196 


Inc. $1 


Dividends 


. 098 


817 


Inc. 181 


Surplus 


. $199 


$379 


Dec. $180 



It will be recalled that a couple of years ago the manage- 
ment stated that it needed approximately $3,500,000 — to be 
exact, $3,555,044 — to bring the operating companies up to the 
proper standard of operating efficiency. During the past year 
$1,574,680 was expended for improvements and $1,540,999 in 
the previous year, making a total of $3,115,679 for the two 
years, all of which was charged to the operating expenses. 
It will, therefore, be noted that the balance required for im- 
provement purposes, according to the management's statements 
is less than $500,-000. Since the holding company assumed con- 
trol of the operating companies an aggregate of nearly $16,000,- 
000 has been expended for reconstruction operations. 

The surplus of the holding company for the last fiscal year 
after the deduction of all expenses, such as salaries, printing 
and stationery, interest on coupon notes, etc., was $788,711, 
which amount is equal to exactly 3.83 per cent on the preferred 
stock, as compared with 2.92 per cent in the year previous. It 
is apparent that, with the elimination of extensive improve- 
ment charges, the holding company will be in a strong position 
to resume dividend obligations on the preferred stock. 

The last annual report is all the more noteworthy when con- 
sideration is given of the fact that the winter of 1906 was one 
of the most severe in the history of the companies. The fact 
that the earnings of the last year were even on a parity with 
those of the previous fiscal period is, therefore, a reflection of 
the benefits that were derived from past liberal expenditures 
for improvements. 

To give a more lucid idea of the marked progress that has 
been made by the Massachusetts Electric Companies in the 
past four years, we compare the income account of the last 
fiscal period with that of 1903, which shows an expansion of 
over 22 per cent in gross earnings and a gain of about 26^^ 
per cent in net. It is a rather interesting fact, also, that the 
percentage of operating expenses to gross earnings for the late 
fiscal year was 64.44 Per cent, as compared with 65.60 per cent 
in 1903. The comparison follows : 



1907. Increase over 1903. P. C. Inc. 

Gross earnings $7,758,511 $1,424,601 22.49 

Operating expenses . - . 5,000,652 844,744 20.32 



Net earnings $2,757,859 $579,857 26.62 

Surplus 1,055,235 208,381 24.60 



After this year, it is estimated, the amount needed to com- 
plete the present reconstruction programme will not be in ex- 
cess of $100,000, or possibly $150,000. It is understood that 
the earnings thus far in the present fiscal year are larger than 
for the corresponding months of the year previous by approxi- 
mately 5 per cent, and in the neighborhood of twice that 
amount over the returns in 1905 for the like period. 



January ii, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



55 



REPORT OF THE MASSACHUSETTS RAILROAD COM- 
MISSIONERS 



According to the thirty-ninth annual report of the Massachu- 
setts Railroad Commissioners, which is for the year ended 
June 30, 1907, and which has just been submitted to the general 
court, there have been added during the last year to the mile- 
age of the Massachusetts companies 25.062 miles of street rail- 
way line and 7.500 miles of second track, making 32.562 miles 
of additional main track. There have also been added 4.515 
miles of side track, making a total addition of Zl-^ll niiles 
of track reckoned as single track. The Massachusetts com- 
panies now own 2233!i2i miles of street railway line, 427.624 
miles of second main track, and 157.130 miles of side track, 
making a total length of track reckoned as single track owned, 
2817.875 miles. This does not include the Woonsocket, which 
was in last year's return, which has 21.961 miles of main line, 
of which 3.195 miles is in Massachusetts and .863 of a mile of 
side track, of which .103 of a mile is in Massachusetts. All of 
the track owned is surface street railway track with the ex- 
ception of 8.660 miles of elevated line and 8.484 miles of ele- 
vated second track. Of the sidings all are surface track with 
the exception of 3.592 miles of elevated track. All the elevated 
track is located in Boston. The Old Colony leases and operates 
the Newport & Fall River, having a mileage of main and sec- 
ond track of 19.294 miles, located in Rhode Island ; and the 
Boston & Northern leases and operates the Nashua, having a 
mileage of main and -second track of 14.899 miles located in 
New Hampshire. Accordingly 34.193 miles of main and second 
track are operated outside of the state. The total miles of main 
track (including trackage rights) operated, is 2745.266 — an in- 
crease of 31.175 miles over the previous year. A table is given 
in the report which shows the length of railway line and track, 
and total reckoned as single track returned by the companies 
for the year ending Sept. 30, 1907, as compared with the 
previous year. 

The gross assets of the companies Sept. 30, 1907, were 
$161,297,913.49. The several classes of assets, and the increase 
in each class as compared with the same companies in 1906, 
are shown in detail in the following table : 

Gross Assets, Sept. 30, 1906, and 1907. 

Assets. 1906. 1907. Increase. 

Construction $76,376,521 $79,993,550 $3,617,029 

Equipment 26,930,391 28,738,946 1,808,555 

Land and buildings 34,347,591 36,941,286 2,593,695 

Other permanent property.. 1,721,789 1,808,000 86,211 

Cash and current assets.... 10,441,634 5,855,412 4,586,222* 

Miscellaneous assets 6,096,828 7,960,720 1,863,892 

Gross assets $155,914,754 $161,297,914 $5,383,160 

*Decrease. 

The gross liabilities at the same date, including capital stock 
(but not including sinking and other funds), were $153,847,- 
903.47. The several kinds of liabilities, and the amount of each 
as compared with the same companies in 1906, were as follows : 

Gross Liabilities, Sept. 30, 1906, and 1907: 

Liabilities. 1906. 1907. Increase. 

Capital stock $70,916,925 $73,280,155 $2,.363,230 

Funded debt 50,016,000 59,339,50O 1,323,500 

Real estate mortgages 74,400 84,800 10,400 

Current liabilities 15,977,380 17,166,056 1,188,676 

Accrued liabilities 4,073,990 3,977,393 96,597* 

Gross liabilities'^ $149,058,695 $153,847,904 $4,789,209 

Sinking and other special 

fund 2,204,503 2,413,354 208,851 

Surplus^ 4,651,556 5,036,656 385,100 

Totals $155,914,754 $161,297,914 $5,383,160 

^ Exclusive of sinking and other special funds. 
' Includes premium on sales of stock and bonds. 
* Decrease. 



It will be seen by comparing the last two tables that there 
was an increase in gross assets of $5,383,160, and there was an 
increase in gross liabilities of $4,789,209, thus increasing the 
aggregate surplus and sinking and other special funds of the 
companies by the amount of $593,951. 

The aggregate capital stock of the eighty-two companies, 
Sept. 30, 1907, was $73,280,155, a net increase of the same 
companies of $2,363,230 over the preceding year. The total 
amount of dividends declared last year was $3,721,388.24, an 
increase of $167,315 over the preceding year. Thirty-six out of 
the eighty-five companies paid dividends ranging from i to 10 
per cent, and forty-nine companies declared or paid no divi- 
dends. One company paid 10 per cent; six companies paid 8 
per cent; one paid 8 per cent on preferred and 7 per cent on 
common ; one paid 7.22 per cent ; one paid 7.20 per cent ; one 
paid 7 per cent ; eight paid 6 per cent ; one paid 5.5 per cent ; 
seven paid 5 per cent ; two paid 4 per cent ; one paid 3.75 per 
cent ; one paid 3 per cent ; one paid 2.5 per cent ; three paid 2 
per cent ; and one paid i per cent. 

Capital Stock, Net Income and Dividends, 1898-1907. 

Percentage 

Net divisable Dividends on total 

Years. Capital stock. income. declared, capital stock. 

1898 $38,933,917 $2,534,002 $2,076,233 5.33 

1899 41,380,143 2,502,942 2,318,398 5.60 

1900 48,971,168 3,037,502 2,409,874 4.92 

«90i 54,069,933 3,398,183 3,417,117 6.32 

1902 60,036,328 3,388,851 3,138,711 5-23 

1903 68,404,480 3,602,917 3,586,248 5.24 

1904 68,542,038 2,998,114 3,214,496 4.69 

1905 70,326,985 3,556,690 3,174,505 4-51 

1906 71,216,925 4,160,073 3,554,073 ■ 4-99 

1907 73,28o,i£5 4,125,185 3,721,388 5.08 

The aggregate funded debt of the companies, Sept. 30, 1907, 
was $59,339,500, an increase of $1,323,500 over the preceding 
year. The amount of real estate mortgages outstanding Sept. 
30, 1907, was $84,800, an increase of $10,400 over the preceding 
year. The total unfunded debt, including the above mortgages, 
was $21,228,249, an increase of $1,102,479. The gross debt, 
funded and unfunded, was $80,567,749, an increase of $2,425,979. 
The net debt (the gross debt less $5,855,412 of cash and cur- 
rent assets) was $74,712,337, an increase of $7,012,201. In 
computing the net debt the sum of $7,960,720 returned as "mis- 
cellaneous assets," covering materials and supplies on hand, etc., 
is not included with cash and current assets in the deduction 
from gross debt. The total capital investment (capital stock 
and net debt) of the street railway companies of the state on 
Sept. 30, 1907, was $147,992,492, an increase of $9,375,431 over 
the previous year. 

The average cost of the street railways of the State, per mile 
of main track (including the cost, but not the length of side 
track), as returned by the companies Sept. 30, 1907, was 
$30,064.34 for construction; $10,801.09 for equipment, and 
$14,563.32 for lands, buildings (including power plants) and 
other permanent property, making a total average cost of 
$55,428.75 per mile of main track. 

The total income of the companies from all sources, for the 
year ending Sept. 30, 1907, was $32,203,111.37, and the total ex- 
penditures (including dividends declared) were $31,799,314.56, 
making a net surplus of $403,796.81 to be added to the surplus 
of previous years. 

The gross earnings and expenses of operation the last year 
are classified and compared with those of the previous year, in 
the following table : 

Gross Earnings and Expenses of Operation, 1906 and 1907. 

Earnings and expenses. 1906. 1907. Increase. 

Revenue from passengers. . .$28,640,699 $29,714,698 $1,073,999 
from mails and 

merchandise .... 134,182 195,593 61,411 
from tolls and ad- 
vertising, etc 635,399 647,571 12,172 

Gross earnings from op- 
eration $29,410,280 $30,557,862 $1,147,582 

Operating expenses 19,825,841 20,689,668 863,827 

Net earnings from op- 
eration $9,584,439 $9,868,194 $283,755 



56 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. 2. 



The following table gives the total volume of traffic, itemized 
as above, for each of the last ten years : 

J'oliiinc of Traffic for Ten Yeais, 1898-1907. 

Total Passengers Average Number Total Car 



YEARS. Carried.* per Mile of Main Miles Run. 

Track Operated. 

1898, 3,30,889,629 207,982 68,206,418 

1899 356,7-24.213 205,098 73.367.23s 

1900... 395,027,198 200,262 81,750,768 

1901 433.526,935 195.683 93,005,225 

1902 465,474,382 188,787 100,280,687 

1903 504,662,243 192,548 107,506,812 

1904 520,056,511 195,917 107,897,456 

1905 532,731,017 199,637 109,258,739 

1906 581,450,906 212,514 114,312,626 

1907 600,695,816 217,042 117,719,203 



*Computcd on the basis of five cent fares collected. 

The following table gives the gross earnings from operation, 
the operating expenses, the ratio of operating expenses to gross 
earnings, and the net earnings for each of the last ten years: 

Percentage of Operating Expenses to Gross Earnings, 1898-1907. 
Gross Earn- Percentage 



ings from Operating of Expenses to Net 

YEARS. Operation. Expenses Earnings Earnings. 

1898 $16,915,405 $11,672,731 69.01 $5,242,674 

1899 18,151.550 12,378,488 68.20 5,773,062 

1900 19,999,640 13,159,947 65.80 6,839,693 

1901 21,766,340 14,565,141 66.92 7,201,199 

1902 23,486,474 15,912,852 67.75 7.573,622 

1903 • 25,540.811 17,519,367 68.59 8,021,444 

1904 26,207,247 18,397.291 70.20 7,809,956 

1905 27,041,291 18,269,259 67.56 8,772,032 

1906 29,563,892 19,954,000 67.49 9,609,892 

1907 30,557,862 20,689,668 67.71 9,868,194 



The following tables give, for each of the last ten years, the 
average gross earnings, operating expense's, and net earnings 
from operation, (T) per total mile of main track owned, (2) 
per car mile run and per passenger carried — thus showing more 
in detail the changes from year to year in tlie earnings, cost, 
and net results of operation. 

(rross and Net Earnings from Operation per Mile of Main 
Track Ozmed, 1898-1907. 

Average per Mile of Track Owned. 



Gross Expenses of Net 

YEARS. Earnings. Operation. Earnings. 

1898 $10,998 $7,589 $3,409 

1899 10.459 7.132 i.i^y 

1900 10,452 6,878 3,574 

1901 9.998 6,690 3,308 

1902 9.609 6,510 3,099 

1903 10,124 6,944 3.180 

1904 10,178 7,145 3,033 

1905 ., 10,300 6,959 3.341 

1906 11,156 7,529 3,627 

1907 11.485 7,776 3,709 



Gross and Net Earnings from Operation per Car Mile Run 
and per Passenger Carried, 1898-1907. 





Avera 


ge per Car 


Mile. 


Average perPassenger. 




Gross 


Expenses 


Net 


Gross 


Expenses 


Net 




Earn- 


of 


Earn- 


Earn- 


of 


Earn- 


YEARS. 


ings. 


Operation 


ings. 


ings. 


Operation 


ings. 


1898 


24.80 


17.11 


7.69 


5-II 


3-52 


1-59 


1899 


. ... 24.74 


16.87 


7-87 


5 09 


347 


1.62 


1900 


. . . . 24.46 


16.10 


8.36 


S-o6 


3-33 


1-73 


I9OI 


23.40 


15.66 


7.74 


5-02 


3-36 


1.66 


1902 


23.42 


15.87 


7.55 


5-05 


342 


1.63 


1903 


. . . . 23.76 


16.30 


7.46 


5.06 


347 


1-59 


1904 


. . . . 24.29 


17.05 


724 


5-04 


3-54 


1.50 


1905 


■ ■ • ■ 24.75 


16.72 


8.03 


5.08 


343 


1.65 


1906 


25.86 


17.46 


8.40 


5-08 


343 


1.65 


1907 


. ... 25.96 


17.58 


8.^8 


5.08 


3-44 


1.64 



GENERAL DISCUSSION. 

After careful inquiry and extended debates the Legislature 
of 1906 passed an act, chapter 516, authorizing a new type of 



transportation — electric railroads. Under the provisions of that 
act five diffierent companies in process of formation petitioned 
the Board for the issue of certificates that public convenience 
and necessity required the construction of their lines. One of 
these petitions is now pending, one was held to await further 
study and development, two were dismissed for sufficient 
reasons, and one certificate was issued. Under the authority 
so conferred that company is now endeavoring to obtain from 
the city of Boston and the boards of selectmen of the towns 
included in the route locations upon which to build its road. 

In rendering its decision the Board stated its views as 
follows : "The question to be decided under each petition is 
whether, upon the whole, the net results of the proposed under- 
taking promise public gain or public loss ;" and further, that 
"It surely cannot be said that public necessity and convenience 
require the building of an additional railroad if the effect upon 
existing railroads is so disastrous that the service as a whole 
is impaired rather than improved." 

Practical experience with the new law indicates the necessity 
of perfecting amendments in addition to those passed during 
the last session of the General Court. 

HEATING AND VENTILATING OF CARS. 

Upon this point the Board quotes its previous opinion, printed 
below, and states that it has nothing to add to the views there 
expressed. 

The Board has recently changed its requirement with reference to the 
point of outside temperature at and below which companies are called 
upon to heat street cars, making that point forty instead of fifty degrees 
above zero, tlie temperature to be then maintained to have a range that 
shall not be lower than forty nor higher than sixty degrees. In malcing 
this radical change and certain other changes the Board has had in 
view a rule that companies will find it possible to obey and that the dis- 
trict police can enforce under the statute which makes them responsible 
for its enforcement. 

It is notorious that opinions differ as to what the temperature o£ a 
room in a private house ought to be, and that the same person entertains 
different opinions at different times, according to condition of health 
or circulation of blood. Obviously, then, an attempt to always satisfy 
every occupant of a street car with the atmospheric conditions must be 
futile. Even if passengers were of the same mind, it is impracticable 
to constantly maintain air of a given quality and the temperature at a 
specific point in a car that is one moment nearly empty and the next 
crowded to the limit: now stationary, then in motion; with doors con- 
tinually opening and shutting, and with an outside temperature varying 
between zero and forty degrees above. 

Companies are not, however, relieved from the obligation to keep the 
air in cars reasonably warm and pure on account of the difficulties in the 
way of doing this to the satisfaction of every critic. In fulfilling their 
obligation both management and employee must expect to deal with the 
I. Id and young, with the robust and feeble, with those who thrive on 
firaughts of cold air and with those to whom such draughts are fatal; 
with those who are dyspeptic and nervously unsound, as well as with the 
sane and cheerful. 

The day of horse cars, with straw on the floor to keep the feet warm, 
and with no ventilation except that afforded through the doors, is within 
easy recollection. While to-day the electric heater exemplifies radical 
progress in heating, the ventilator commonly in use is about as crude as 
any device could be. It is true that a number of experiments have been 
made, that a ventilator of improved type is now found in the semi-con- 
vertible cars upon the Boston & Northern and upon the Boston Elevated 
lines, and that another device, which promises as good if not better re- 
sults, is found in cars of the elevated trains; but that there has been, 
however, a too general indifference on the subject of ventilation cannot 
admit of question. ^ 

After all is said, however, in support of theories and devices for heat- 
ing and ventilating cars, present discomfort is due fully as much to the 
failure to properly use means at hand for keeping the air pure and warm 
as to imperfection in apparatus. There is no reason why, for example, 
a movable ventilating window should be kept entirely open or entirely 
shut, or in any one position throughout a long journey, in total disregard 
of the temperature outside and of the changing conditions inside the car. 

It should be a part of the regular duty of those in charge of cars to 
regulate both heating and ventilating apparatus from time to time to meet 
varying needs. Admirable work of this kind is now done by individual 
conductors, and there is no reason why their success in caring for the 
public should not become a general feature of the service. Co-operation, 
too, between passengers and employees is of great benefit to both, and the 
privilege of making suggestions ought not to be monopolized by the 
chronic complainant. 

The Board must ask that companies adopt prompt measures for a larger 
experimental use of the more improved methods of ventilation, and mean- 
while enforce rules for adjusting all devices in use to existing conditions. 

STREET CAR FENDERS AND WHEELGUARDS. 

During the past year, street railway companies, at the sug- 
gestion of the Board, have installed for experimental use various 



January ii, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



57 



types of fenders and wheelgiiards on certain lines in different 
parts of the state. The etificiency of these devices can best 
be determined from the results of their use in actual tests in 
saving life and limb ; such tests have been too infrequent to 
enable the Board to reach any definite conclusion. One of 
the results of this investigation, however, has been to eliminate 
from the field many so-called fenders and wheelguards on ac- 
count of their absolute inefficiency. 

The Board deems it necessary to reiterate its views that no 
particular fender or wheelguard has yet been found the adop- 
tion of which can be recommended in preferece to all others, 
and that the greatest safeguard in street railway operation 
comes from having the cars at all times under such control 
as to avoid striking a person, rather than depending upon any 
device to save him from harm after having been struck by a 
moving car. 

The Board will continue to investigate and thoroughly test 
all meritorious fenders and wheelguards, and will insist upon 
the more general use of any device found to possess sufficient 
merit to warrant its adoption. 

To assist the Board in determining the efficiency of these 
devices, it is expected that companies will keep a record of all 
tests through their use. 

BLOCK SIGNALS. 

The Board, on page 65 of its annual report for 1906, said : 
■'We recommend legislation requiring railroad companies and 
such street railway companies as run cars under similar condi- 
tions, to equip, within a reasonable time, lines of the character 
above named with a clock signal of such type and installed in 
such manner as the Board may approve." 

The Legislature of that j'ear provided the necessary authority 
to enable the Board to carry out the recommendation. After 
thorough examination and consideration of signal systems then 
in use in this country and abroad, and being of the opinion 
that all lines of railroad should eventually be protected by 
some system of block signals, the following procedure for their 
installation was adopted : 

1. The ultimate end to be secured is the installation of some approved 
form of block signals upon all steam railroad lines within the State at as 
early a day as may be practicable. This means a substantial outlay by 
railroad companies in the immediate future. 

2. The order in which block signals should be installed must have 
reference to both amount of traffic and physical conditions. Of first im- 
portance is the equipment of lines of railroad embracing two or more 
tracks, or piesenting the conditions of a single track carrying a large 
amount of traffic and involving heavy grades and curves. Local conditions 
may, of course, demand at particular places early equipment out of the 
usual order. 

3. Companies are requested to submit to the Board on or before tlic 
fifteenth day of this month (December) a brief description of the block 
signals now in use upon their several lines within the State, together 
with an explanation of such action as has been taken in either actually 
equipping these lines or in making arrangement for their future equipment 
with block signals, since the first day of January, 1906. 



THE MUNCIE STRIKE 

The strike of the employees of the Indiana Union Traction 
Company at Muncie, Ind., of which mention was made in the 
last issue of the Street Railway Journal, took a rather 
serious turn the latter part of last week, and the state had to 
be called upon for protection. The vote to strike was taken 
Jan. I, and on Jan. 4 Gov. Hanly issued a proclamation de- 
claring martial law and placing Brig. Gen. ]McKee in command 
of the state troops ordered to the scene of the trouble. The 
Governor's action in sending troops, supplemented by the energy 
displayed by the authorities and citizens of Muncie, resulted 
in checking the mob spirit. Five hundred citizens, including 
some members of the Commercial Club of Muncie, were 
sworn in as special officers to preserve the peace, and Mayor 
Guthrie closed all saloons and ordered all women and children 
to keep off the streets except on errands of necessity. 

Upon receipt of the news that Gov. Hanly had ordered 
state troops to Muncie, the street cars began running on regular 
schedule. About half of the etnployees of the Indiana Union 
Traction Company at Marion struck Jan. 4, and only part of 
the local cars are running there, but there has been no serious 
trouble at Anderson, Alexandria and Elwood. 

On Jan. 6 the authorities in control of affairs at Muncie gave 
notice to A. L. Behner, first vice-president of the Amalgamated 
Association of Street & Electric Railway Employees, that he 
must leave Muncie. Car* on the local lines at Muncie began 
running without interference Jan. 6, on regular schedule, 



manned by local men and without guards. The twelve com- 
panies of infantry and one battery of the Indiana National 
Guard rested in quarters. The streets were patrolled by 
the business and professional men sworn in as deputies. 

The alleged cause of the strike is a refusal of the company 
to sign a contract with the executive committee of the Amalga- 
mated Association of Street & Electric Railway Employees 
providing for an increase in wages. The company had previ- 
ously signed a contract with the Brotherhood of Electric Train 
Men and persistently refused to recognize the Amalgamated 
Association. The members of the Brotherhood Union are still 
at work. The officials of the Amalgamated Association insist 
that the Brotherhood Union is a rival concern fostered by the 
Indiana Union Traction Company for the express purpose of 
disrupting the Amalgamated Association. 

A majority of the local employees of the company operating 
the city lines at Marion have also gone out, but the company 
has, with one or two exceptions, operated the cars with members 
of the Brotherhood and the men who refused to strike. 


POWER DEVELOPMENT IN THE INLAND EMPIRE 

Three million dollars were expended in the development of 
water power in the Spokane River for transportation and com- 
mercial purposes in 1907, thus adding nearly 25,000 to the 
output, placed at 46,000 horse-power, a total of 71,000 horse- 
power, and it is expected that 50,000 horse-power will be added 
this year, in various parts of the Inland Empire. The most 
pretentious work was the building of the $1,000,000 power plant 
for the Spokane & Inland Empire system at Nine Mile, 9 miles 
north of Spokane, wiiich will be in operation ne.xt April. 

To utilize the water of the river at that point a mammoth 
dam was necessary. The dam and buildings, in which the ma- 
chinery is now being installed, were completed last November. 
With the machinery constituting the initial installation the 
Nine Mile power plant will generate 20,000 hp. The current 
will provide the motive power for running all the trains of the 
Spokane & Inland Empire system, which has 149 miles of track. 

In the improvement of its power plant at Spokane Falls, 
Spokane and Post Falls, 24 miles east of Spokane, the Wash- 
ington Power Company made extensive additions. In the 
Spokane plant the company completed the installation of a 
1500-hp motor-generator in December. The company has placed 
an order for a 2000-hp rotary for converting the current gen- 
erated at Post Falls, where a 3200-hp turbo-generator was 
added last year. This plant now comprises four 3200-hp gen- 
erators, and the company has placed an order for one more 
turbo-generator of the same capacity, which will be installed in 
April. The Post Falls plant is developing 10,000 hp at Spo- 
kane Falls, and with the addition of the machiiK-ry contemplated 
it will deliver 13,000 hp in Spokane. 

The Washington Water Power Company has in preparation 
plans for increasing the generating capacity of the Spokane 
plant to 40,000 hp. The head of water from which the power 
is now derived is 78 ft. above the turbines, from which are de- 
veloped 15,000 hp. The plans provide for the extension of the 
flumes to the extreme high head of water, between Washington 
and Division Streets. By the extension a total fall of 134 ft. 
will be conducted through the flumes and provide nearly three 
times the power now developed. 

With the current generated at the Spokane and Post Falls 
plants, the company operates 90 miles of street railway in 
Spokane, electric lines to Medical Lake and Cheney, the Spokane 
electric lighting system, and furnishes electricity for lighting 
systems and power in Coeur d'Alene, Post Falls, Idaho: Col- 
fax, Palouse, Tekoa, Farmington, Garfield, Oakesdale, Rock- 
ford, Medical Lake and Cheney, in addition to that consumed in 
Spokane in the operation of mills and for general purposes. 

The Washington Water Power Company completed the 
Cheney suburban line during the year. It also completed a 
steam auxiliary station and strung a high-power line to the 
mines and the Coeur d'Alene district, 140 miles. 

The Spokane & Inland Empire Company completed extensions 
of the Spokane & Inland Electric Line from Waverly, 34 miles 
south of Spokane, to Spring Valley Junction, and from that 
point by two lines, the present terminals of which are Colfax 
and Palouse. The total length of the extensions, completed, is 
82 miles. The Coeur d'Alene & Spokane Electric line of the 
Inland Empire system was double-tracked from Greenacres to 
Spokane Bridge, 6 miles, and a branch, 2 miles in lengtii, was 
liuilt to Liberty Lake. 



58 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. 2. 



AFFAIRS IN NEW YORK 



Judge Lacombe, of the United States Circuit Court, an- 
nounced on Saturday that within a few days he would appoint 
a special master to consider the question of whether the receiv- 
ers of the New York City and Metropolitan Street Railway 
shall pay the January interest on the first mortgage and con- 
solidated mortgage bonds of the Third Avenue Railroad. Judge 
Lacombe observed that none of the counsel who appeared before 
him on Friday had offered any suggestions that appeared prac- 
tical as to how the receivers might raise the $875,000 necessary 
to pay this interest. He thus disposed of the suggestion made 
by Edward M. Shepard, counsel for the Third Avenue stock- 
holders, that receivers' certificates might be issued for this 
purpose. 

On Monday Judge Lacombe appointed Frederick W. Whit- 
ridge receiver for the Third Avenue Railroad upon application 
of the Central Trust Company and the committee representing 
the majority of the Third Avenue consolidated bonds, for 
which the Central Trust is trustee. This action is the result of 
the failure of the receivers of the New York City and Metro- 
politan Street Railways to pay the interest on the Third Avenue 
bonds falling due Jan. i. Its effect is to take the Third Avenue 
out of the Metropolitan system during the pendency of the 
receivership, since the Metropolitan having defaulted in the 
rental due under its lease of the Third Avenue to the stock- 
holders of that company in October, is now eliminated from the 
voting control as the holder of the majority stock in the subsidi- 
ary company by the court's order turning the Third Avenue 
over to its bondholders. The present receivership is temporary. 
What the eventual outcome will be, however, was forecast by 
the language of the decision that Judge Lacombe read in court 
yesterday when the argument had been concluded. He said : 
"The bondholders under this large Third Avenue mortgage arc 
entitled to the appointment of a temporary receiver, to be 
made permanent when the time comes to declare the principal 
due and proceed with the foreclosure." 

Telling the Public Service Commission that its orders were 
unreasonable, and that it did not state the facts as they were, 
the receivers for the New York City Railway, Adrian H. 
Joline and Douglas Robinson, nevertheless have signified their 
intention to comply with the two orders issued by the commis- 
sion recently which call for certain repairs to the rolling stock 
and to increase the service materially on the Eighth Avenue 
line. A separate reply was returned on each order. The first 
dealt with the order for the repairing of cars. It read, in part, 
as follows : 

We do not concede the correctness of the recital of fact contained in 
said order, to the effect that the equipment, appliances and devices in 
question are unsafe or improper, or that the repairs directed by said 
order ought reasonably to be made to promote the security of the public, 
or that the time given within which to make such repairs is reasonable. 

As stated in our letter to you cf Dec. .-jo, we have been engaged since 
out appointment in pushing as vigorously as possible, with all available 
means at our command, the work of repair and maintenance of the rolling 
stock operated by us .\lthough laboring under great disadvantages, 
we have made notable progress, so that by the early part of December 
the number of cars disabled on the road had been reduced to less than 
half the number disabled under similar conditions immediately prior tn 
the receivership. While admitting that, for causes entirely beyond our 
control, the rolling stock is in many respects inadequate, we take issue 
with the statement that it has been at any time during the receivership, 
or is now, unsafe either for the public or our employees. Our entire 
effort has been directed (and we think successfully) toward giving the 
best possible service to the public consistent with the physical facilities 
and money which we have had at our disposal. The equipment has been 
rehabilitated as rapidly as was possible with the circumstances, having 
due consideration to the necessities and convenience of the traveling 
public. We cannot promise or undertake, with the facilities and re- 
sources at our command, a full and literal compliance with the provisions 
of your order. We will, however, so far as means will allow, provide 
the inspection thereby required. 

We will further use our best endeavors to see that on and after the 
15th day of February, 1908, rot fewer than ten of said cars are turned 
out daily, not including Sundays and legal holidays, so overhauled and 
repaired. Referring again to our letter of Dec. 20. we once more suggest 
that the sending to the repair shops of ten cars a day for the thorough 
overhauling specified (which will require several days for each car), if 
begvn at a season of the year when it is not practicable to substitute open 
cars for those withdrawn, may reasonably be expected to result in a 
shortage of cars available for service. In that event, however, we shall 
endeavor so far as practicable to avoid any reduction of service on lines 
v/here you have already designated operating schedules. 

The .reply of the receivers on the question of the improve- 



ment of the Eighth Avenue service is almost identical in its 
tone. The receivers do not concede the correctness of the 
commission's recital of fact and believe that many of the in- 
creases ordered are unreasonable, especially that ordered for 
Sundays, with which many specified faults are found. Atten- 
tion is called to the fact that orders for increased service and 
for repairing all cars will necessarily take cars out of service, 
so that increasing the number on any line will be difficult. 
Nevertheless, the receivers say : 

"Although, for the reasons above suggested and others un- 
necessary to specify, we consider your order unreasonable, we ' 
are disposed to endeavor to meet your views, so far as may be 
practicable, and you are accordingly advised that on and after 
Jan. 15 service will be provided on the Eighth Avenue line in 
accordance with the terms of said order." 

Orders have been issued by the Public Service Commission 
of the First District of New York that certain changes be 
made in the operation of cars on the Richmond Light & Rail- 
road Company's property and the Staten Island Midland Rail- 
way Company's property. 

Formal announcement was made on Monday by the Inter- 
borough Rapid Transit Company that the Battery tunnel to 
Brooklyn would be opened for service on Thursday. The first 
train will leave the Bowling Green station at 12 143 o'clock on 
Thursday morning. The first train to leave Brooklyn will 
start from the Borough Hall station at 12:51. In announcing 
the opening of the tunnel the Interborough officials stated that 
all Leno.x Avenue e.xpresses would run through to Brooklyn 
Borough Hall between 6:44 a. m. and 12:52 a.» m. inclusive. 
During the interval between 12:53 and 644 a. m. all Lenox 
Avenue local trains will run through the tunnel to Brooklyn, 
and all Broadway trains will run round the South Ferry loop. 
This will necessitate the abandoning of the City Hall loop 
daily during the hours from 12:30 a. m. to 6:45 a. m., and on 
Sundays and holidays from 12:30 a. m. to 9:30 a. m. The 
company has posted notices in all the stations of the Subway 
requesting passengers on southbound local trains who desire 
to go to Brooklyn during the day, when all local trains stop 
at the City Hall, to change from the local trains at the Brooklyn 
Bridge to a Lenox Avenue express train. Passengers for 
South Ferry must change to a Broadway express. Passengers 
riding on Broadway expresses, southbound, desiring to go to 
Brooklyn, arc requested to change to Lenox Avenue expresses 
at the Bowling Green station. 

It is stated that the purchase by the city of the Belmont or 
Sleinway tunnel to Long Island City, is being seriously con- 
sidered by the municipality. According to one authority a 
proposition that the city should buy the tunnel has been made 
informally to members of tlie Board of Estimate by officials 
of the Interborough Rapid Transit Company. One point pretty 
well decided upon by both sides is the purchase price. Both 
agree that the verified cost of constructing the tunnel would 
be a fair price. The company, at the traction inquiry, asserted 
that this was about $8,000,000. The negotiations so far have 
left out of all consideration the Public Service Commission, 
which must give its consent before the line can be operated. 

At the meeting of the Public Service Commission Wednesday 
a report was received from the commission's counsel stating 
that the consents of the owners of the property affected had 
been obtained to the proposed changes in the subway at 
Ninety-Sixth Street. This will do away with the congestion 
of trains at that point by adding two additional tracks on the 
outside of the present lines so that it shall be unnecessary for 
the express trains to cross in front of locals, and vice versa. 
The tracks will extend to 103d Street and will cost approxi- 
mately $850,000, which the Board of Estimate has already ap- 
propriated. The work will consume about eighteen months. 

A report was received at the meeting on Wednesday by the 
commission on the accident to an experimental train in the 
Battery tunnel on Tuesday. No passenger trains were being 
run and no one was injured. The investigation showed that a 
fuse blew, and at the same time, through a coincidence, a 
short circuit occurred on the lighting circuit, which is entirely 
distinct from the power supply. Workmen on the train walked 
to the entrances, while others remained on the train and re- 
paired the damage. 

Frederick R. Coudert, counsel for Paul Fuller, J. Hampden 
Dougherty and Melville G. Palliser, the receivers for the 
Metropolitan and New York City Railways appointed by Justice 



January ii, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



59 



Seabury in the Supreme Court, filed in the United States Circuit 
yesterday a bill seeking the removal of the Federal receivers 
of the two corporations, Douglas Robinson and Adrian H. 
Joline. The bill alleges that the Federal receivership was 
collusive as between the petitioning creditors and the defendant 
corporations and a part of a plan to oust the State of New 
York from its jurisdiction over the traction companies, in 
violation of the Federal Constitution. Under these conditions, 
the Federal Court is held to have no jurisdiction in the matter. 



AN AUTHORITATIVE STATEMENT REGARDING THE 
PLANS FOR THE LINE BETWEEN NEW YORK 
AND PORT CHESTER 



President Charles T. Mellen of the New York, New Haven 
& Hartford Railroad Company, as briefly stated in the Street 
Railway Journal last week, says the intention is to merge the 
New York & Port Chester Railroad and the New York, West- 
chester & Boston Railroad, and build one new line between 
New York and Port Chester if arrangements can be made with 
the Board of Estimate. 

It seems that the New York, New Haven & Hartford Rail- 
road owns all the stock of the Millbrook Company, organized 
under the business corporation law of the State of New York, 
Nov. 5, 1906, with a total authorized issue of stock of 
$100,000, consisting of 1000 shares of the par value of 
$100 each. The Millbrook Company, in turn, since a date 
prior to July i, 1907, has owned and now owns 91,551 
shares of the stock of the New York & Port Chester Railroad 
Company, being all the stock of that company issued and out- 
standing, excepting that nine qualifying shares are held by the 
directors of the company. The New York & Port Chester 
Railroad Company since a date prior to July i, 1907, has owned 
and now owns the following securities of New York, West- 
chester & Boston Railroad Company : 

(a) 5,639 shares of the stock of New York, Westchester 
& Boston Railway Company, par value $100 a share; 

(b) The beneficial interest in 23,469!^ shares of stock of New 
York, Westchester & Boston Railway Company, evidenced by 
voting trust certificates ; 

(c) $13,490,000 out of $13,500,000 of a certain underwriting 
agreement calling upon the conditions therein stated for 
$15,000,000 of bonds and 45,000 shares of stock of New York, 
Westchester & Boston Railway Company, evidenced by voting- 
trust certificates now held by Knickerbocker Trust Company 
under the said syndicate agreement of underwriting. All of 
said underwriting interests, with the exception of $10,000, are 
now held by this company, but the same have not yet been paid 
in full. Upon completion of payments to said underwriting 
this company will be entitled to 44,967 shares of stock of New 
York, Westchester & Boston Railway Company, evidenced by 
voting trust certificates. 

It is the intention of the New York, New Haven & Hart- 
ford Railroad Company to construct a high-speed third-rail elec- 
tric railway from the Harlem River to Port Chester, consisting 
of two tracks from the Harlem River to 177th Street, four 
tracks from 177th Street to the city line, and two tracks from 
the city line to Port Chester, in compliance with the provisions 
of the franchises heretofore granted by the City of New York 
to the Port Chester Company and the Westchester Company. 
The plan under which this construction is to be made has not 
taken final form only because of the resistance by property 
owners disputing in the courts the validity of the charter of 
the New York, Westchester & Boston Railway Company. It 
was hoped that, pending a decision upon this charter, the work 
of construction might proceed, in so far as it covered that por- 
tion of the route from 177th Street to the city line, by the New 
York & Port Chester Company under an agreement with the 
New York, Westchester & Boston Railway Company. 

Since the filing of the application for change of route by 
the Port Chester Company, additional property has been pur- 
chased between 177th Street and the city line, and the com- 
pany has now bought, or arranged to buy, substantially all 
property between those two points, with the exception of a few 
pieces, which it is now proposed to condemn in order to com- 
plete the rights. Until either the Westchester Company, 
by reason of a final decision by the Court of Appeals sustaining 
the validity of its charter rights, is in a position to condemn. 



or the Port Chester, by reason of the consent of the Board 
to cross the streets on its amended route, is in like position, 
little progress can be made in this regard. 

On Dec. 27, 1907, Judge Charles F. Brown, the referee be- 
fore whom the proceedings to determine the validity of the 
Westchester charter were pending in the form of a condemna- 
tion proceeding to acquire property of Mrs. Arabella D. Hunt- 
ington, rendered an opinion sustaining the validity of the 
charter of that company. If this charter is finally sustained, it 
is the intention of the New York, New Haven & Hartford 
Company that the New York & Port Chester Railway Company 
and the New York, Westchester & Boston Railway Company 
shall be consolidated or merged so as to form one company. 
Should, however, the decision of Judge Brown be reversed, and 
the Court of Appeals adjudge the charter of the Westchester 
Company to be invalid, the construction of the road will be 
completed under the Port Chester charter. 



PROGRAM FOR THE ANNUAL MEETING OF THE CENTRAL 
ELECTRIC RAILWAY ASSOCIATION 

As already announced, the second annual meeting and banquet 
of the Central Electric Railway Association, will be held at 
the Algonquin Hotel, Dayton, Ohio, Thursday, Jan. 23, 1908. 
The business meeting will take place at the morning session, 
convening at 10:30, and the election of officers will take place 
at the afternoon session. The program follows : 

MORNING SESSION. 

President's annual address. 

Promotion of Traffic. Paper by Charles F. Price, G. P. A., 
Western Ohio Railway Company, Lima, Ohio. 

Telegraph Signal System. Paper by Chauncy P. Button, 
general manager. Telegraph Signal Company, Rochester, N. Y. 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

Can Electric Interurban Railroads Profitably Carry Passen- 
gers at the Present Rate of Fare? Paper by F .W. Coen, gen- 
eral manager, Lake Shore Electric Railway Compayn, Norwalk, 
Ohio. 

REPORTS OF COMMITTEES. 

Report of Standardization Committee on "Fundamental Brake 
Rigging," by R. C. Taylor, chairman. 

Report of Committee on Traffic Organization, by F. D. 
Norvel, Chairman. 

Election of Officers. 

An urgent request is made that all members be present as the 
meeting promises to be one of great importance to all operators 
of electric railways in Central territory. A cordial invitation 
has also been extended to all officers of interurban railway 
companies to bring their private cars to Dayton on this occasion 
and arrangements have been made through a special committee 
to take care of these cars. T. J. Ferneding, superintendent 
of the Dayton & Xenia Transit Company, is chairman of this 
committee. 

The after-dinner program will be made a special feature of 
entertainment. Many gentlemen of prominence in railway, 
municipal and state affairs have been invited. E. G. Spring, 
the first president of the association, will be toastmaster. The 
dinner will be served at 6:30, and tickets will be $2 each. 
Every member of the association can bring as many friends as 
he desires. 



EARNINGS OF THE UNITED RAILWAYS COMPANY OF 
ST. LOUIS FOR THE YEAR 



The United Railways Company of St. Louis carried appro.xi- 
mately 325,000 passengers on its lines during 1907, being an 
increase of 5 per cent over the previous year. The gross 
receipts for the year will, it is expected, approximate $10,600,000, 
a gain of 5 per cent. The receipts and traffic are the largest 
which the company ever has had. The exceptionally heavy 
business of the World's Fair year has been surpassed. The 
average number of passengers carried daily exceeds 890,000 
It was not unusual last summer for the road to carry an average 
of 100,000 each Saturday and Sunday. The most important 
development of the year was the acquisition of the Suburban 
and its affiliated lines by the United Railways. The compara- 
tive figures above stated • include the business of the Suburban 
lines both for 1907 and the previous year. 



6o 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. 2. 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE BOSTON ELEVATED RAILWAY 
COMPANY FOR YEAR ENDED SEPT. 30, 1907 



At the annual meeting of the Boston Elevated Railway Com- 
pany, held at Boston Monday, Jan. 6, only routine business was 
transacted. The retiring directors were re-elected. The 
vacancy in the board caused by the death of Walter S. Swan 
was not filled. In the course of his remarks. President Ban- 
croft said in part : 

"Concerning the capitalization of the properties owned and 
leased by the Boston Elevated Railway Company, the directors 
wish you to know that the capital stock of the West End Street 
Railway Company on Sept. 30, 1907, was as follows : Preferred, 
$6,400,000 ; common, $10,109,250; total, $16,509,250. 

"Of this capitalization the preferred stock was the amount 
authorized by the Legislature (Chapter 413, Acts of 1887) for 
the purchase of the horse railroads which made up the West 
End system, and was considered only the value of these 
properties. 

"Of the common stock, $7,150,000 was paid in in cash at par, 
and the balance was sold under orders of the Railroad Com- 
missioners for cash at prices ranging from 45 to 80 per cent in 
excess of the par value, realizing a premium of $1,696,656. 

"Of the $13,300,000 par value of the stock of the Boston 
Elevated Railway Company, the first $10,000,000 was paid in 
in cash at par, and the balance was sold under orders of the 
Railroad Commissioners for cash at a price 55 per cent in ex- 
cess of the par value, realizing a premium of $1,815,000 above 
the par value. The present capitalization of the two com- 
panies, therefore, represents an actual payment in cash of 
$3,511,656 above the par value of the outstanding stock. The 
amount of this cash premium has been invested in the proper- 
ties now owned by the companies. So there is not only no 
capital inflation of these properties, but much more has been 
paid in than is represented by the par value of the stocks. The 
dividends paid on the stocks and the interest paid on the bonds 
of the two companies make an average return to the capital 
invested of something less than 5.13 per cent per annum. It 
is not true, therefore, of these properties that 'excessive divi- 
dends are paid on watered stock.' 

"Besides its ordinary taxes the company's contribution to the 
public during the last fiscal year amounted to at least $489,- 
547.94, made up as follows : 

Compensation tax for the use of streets vinder the Act of 1S97 $123,275.92 
Interest at 4 per cent on $4,197,413, cost of paving laid in 



streets by company 167,896.52 

Cost of maintaining street paving by company 130,907.01 

Amount of subway rental devoted to sinking fund 47,468.49 

Moving snow removed from sidfewalks and roofs (estimated) 

not less than 20,000.00 



Total extraordinary paynvints to the public $489,547.94 

Add taxes assessed on real estate 265,500.70 

Add taxes assessed on capital stock 578,198.06 



Total $1,333,246.70 

To th-e above may be added tlie balance of the subway rental. . 159,805.00 
Also the rental of East Boston tunnel 51,371.09 



Grand total, which is nearly 11 per cent of the gross 

revenue of the company for the year $1,544,422.79 



"Since the last report the company has increased its power 
supply by building additions to three of its power stations, to 
wit : to the Lincoln station on Battery Street, in Boston : to the 
Charlestown station, and to the Harvard station, in Cambridge. 
Two 2700-kw generators have been installed in the Lincoln 
station, one of the same size in the Charlestown station, and a 
fourth in the Harvard station, making a total installation of 
10,800 kw — ^^an increase of about 27 per cent. 

"The forty-five 'easy access' elevated cars, spoken of in the 
last report, have been received and are in service. Only a por- 
tion of the last hundred of the 150 'easy access,' semi-con- 
vertible surface cars have been receivedj owing to the failure 
of the contracting builder to deliver as agreed. About sixty 
bodies are here, and thirty have been equipped and arc in 
service. 

"The company has maintained the excellent character of its 
surface tracks, $562,757.85 having been spent thereon during 
the year in renewals and repairs. The extent of additions to 
the surface tracks, including a new line to Linden, a section of 
the city of Maiden, is 5.807 miles. A lease has been taken of 
a short piece of track heretofore controlled by the Boston & 



Northern Street Railway Company at Orient Heights, East 
Boston. The total length of surface tracks controlled by the 
company, including these tracks, is now 445.897 miles. This, 
with the elevated mileage of 16.015 miles, makes a total mileage 
of 461.912. 

"The company has continued its liberal policy toward its em- 
ployees in respect to their wages, as well as in other matters. 
Compensation for learners during the year amounted to 
$27,670.18. There was paid during the year the sum of $42,821.77 
as a guaranteed minimum wage for new or extra men. There 
was also paid as increased compensation to long-service men 
the sum of $66,630.36. There was paid in pensions, under the 
provisions recited in former reports, the sum of $11,325.50. 
There was also paid in 'satisfactory service' inoney, in sums of 
$15 to each of the employees deemed worthy thereof, the sum 
of $55,320. The aggregate sum of increased payments to em- 
ployees, under the provisions adopted four years ago, amounted 
(luring the year to $203,767.81. The provisions of last year 
raising the rate of wages increase this amount by $97,726.35, 
making a total of $301,494.16. 

"The elevated structure to Forest Hills has been substantially 
completed with the exception of so much as is involved in the 
erection of a station at Forest Hills, final authority for which 
has been received so that this can now be done. 

"The construction of the Washington Street tunnel is so far 
advanced that the coinpany has begun to install its equipment, 
but at the date of this report much remains to be done, and, 
although the Transit Commission is steadily prosecuting its 
work, it is not now certain at what time during the year 1908 
the tunnel can be used for traffic. 

"The company has designed extensions of its elevated station 
platforms for the future operation of eight-car trains in place 
of five-var trains, the longest trains which it can now use. 
These extensions have been approved by the public authotities. 
and their construction is about to be undertaken. In connec- 
tion with the Washington Street tunnel, whose station platforms 
are also designed for the ultimate operation of eight-car trains, 
these extensions will admit of a very great increase in the car- 
rying capacity of the elevated division. 

"Chapter 573 of the Acts of 1907 was accepted by the board 
of directors on July 11, 1907. This act modifies Chapter 534 of 
the Acts of 1902, and the contract with the Boston Transit 
Commission, dated Sept. 25, 1902, made in pursuance thereof, 
for the use of the Washington Street tunnel and the subway, 
especially adapted for the use by surface cars provided for 
therein. By this act, authority for the building of such a sub- 
way ceases. 

''Under the act the Boston Transit Commission may con- 
struct a tunnel or subway, to be known as the Riverbank 
Subway, from a point or points in or under the existing Park 
Street subway station, Boston Common, and the lands interven- 
ing between it and the Charles River ; in or under the so-called 
Charles River Embankment, to a point or points in said em- 
bankment west of Harvard Bridge ; or to a point or points in 
Beacon Street, at or near the Back Bay Fens ; or to a point or 
points in Commonwealth Avenue or Beacon Street, east of the 
junction of Commonwealth Avenue, Beacon Street, Brookline 
Avenue and Deerfield Street. The company inay have a lease 
of this subway for twenty-five years frorn the beginning of the 
use thereof, at an annual rental equal to 4^/2 per cent of the net 
cost thereof. 

"By Chapter 497 of the Acts of 1907, accepted by the board 
of directors July 11, 1907, by the Board of Aldermen of the 
city of Everett, and approved by the Aiayor June 24, 1907, and 
by the Board of Aldermen of the city of Maiden June 25, 1907, 
approved by the Mayor July 9, 1907, the company is authorized 
to construct an elevated railway from Sullivan Square, Charles- 
town, in the city of Boston, through the cities of Everett and 
Maiden, to such point or points in the city of Maiden, southerly 
of Pleasant Street therein, as may be convenient for a terminus. 

"Under the Act of 1906, relating to the Cambridge subway, 
authorizing the company to construct a subway or subways in 
the city of Cambridge, and with advice of counsel, the com- 
pany complied seasonably with the initial steps relating thereto, 
but the Mayor of Cambridge has applied to the courts upon a 
question relating to the number of stations, and the provision 
of rapid transit on our system for that municipality and the 
communities beyond has been delayed for the present. 

"Progress has been made upon the plans for the East Cam- 
bridge elevated extension and in the acquisition of land for the 
thoroughfare. The design for the structure in Boston, both in 



January i i, 1908.] • 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



61 



the public ways and over private lands, for the viaduct across 
the Charles River, and for the structure and its connections 
with surface tracks in Cambridge, has been approved by the 
authorities whose consent is requisite therefor. Lands and 
buildings have been taken between Causeway Street and 
Brighton Street. Buildings have been torn down, and the engi- 
neers are making detailed plans in co-operation with the archi- 
tects, whose valued advice is assisting us in the erection of 
highly ornamental structures. 

"A summary of our business for the year is as follows : 

$13,952,966.00 
9,647.145-28 

$4,305,820.72 



INC OME ACCOUNT FOR THE YEAR, ENDING SEPT. 30, 1907- 



Gross earnings from operation. 
Operating expenses 



Net earnings from operation of owned and 

leased lines 

Subway rental 

Less amount collected from the Bostoir & 

Northern Street Railway Company 17,6 



$224,895-95 
46 



Interest on funded delit of West End Street 

Railway Company 

Dividend on preferred stock of West End Strcyt 

Railway Company, 8 per cent 

Dividend on common stock of West Eni-1 Street 

Railway Company, 7 per cent 

Dividend on stock of Somerville Ilors-; Railway 

Company, 6 per cent 

Ta.xes on West End Street Railway Company. . 
Interest and taxes on leased! property of the 

Old Colony StrC'st Railway Company 

Total payments on account of leased rail- 
ways 



650 



,273-49 
.3'8.89 



5 r 2,000.00 

688,^74.15 

9,180.00 
525.509-34 



Miscellaneous interest 




Interest on funded debt $306,388,90 

Taxes, Boston ELevated Railway Company.... 318,189.42 

Compensation tax under Act of 1897 123,275.92 

East Boston tunnel rental 51,371.09 

Depreciation fund 100,000.00 

Balance 

Dividend No. 12, paid Feb. 15, 1907. 3 per cent. 
Dividend No. 13, paid Aug. 15, 1907, 3 per cent. 



!>i, 730. 504-22 



Surplus for the year. 



899. 
$831. 

$33 



25-33 
78.89 

000.00 
278.89 



GENER.AL BALANCE SHEET, SEPT. 30, 1907. 

.\SSETS. 

Construction $12,350,453.27 

Equipment 2,256,922.23 

Real estate 7,541,767.66 

Subway and tunnel construction and eiiuipmcnt 495,722.11 

Cash on hand and in bank 1.404,725.41 

Bills and accounts receivable 89,247.42 

Damage and insurance funds invested 906,566.19 

Stocks and bonds 208,010.72 

Bonds d.eposited with Commonwealth of iiassachusetts 500,000.00 

Materials and supplies 1,472,381.25 

Somerville Horse Railroad Company 102.851.1 1 

West End Street Railway Company. Open account 792,731,24 

West End Street Railway Company. Property account 2,219,543.23 

Old Colony Street Railway Company. Property account.... 57,417.97 

Total assets $30,398,339.81 

GENERAL BALANCE SHEET, SEPT. 30, 1907. 

LI.\BrLITlES. 

Capital stock $13,300,000.00 

Funded debt 8,500.000.00 

Audit.ed vouchers and accounts 615,190.53 

Salaries and wages 160,358.41 

Dividends not called for 6,220.00 

Matured interest coupons unp;iid 71,840.00 

Rentals unpaid 353.823.75 

Outstanding tickets and checks 34,119.18 

Interest accrued and not yet due 250,429-99 

Taxes accrued and not yet due 950,512.06 

Rentals 'accrued and not yet due 148,828.11 

West }£nd .Street Railway Company. Lease account 1,207,201.98 

Damage fund 778,891.40 

Insurance fund 615,421.21 

Depreciation fund 700,000.00 

Premium from sale of capital stock and bonds available for 

construction and equipment purposes only 2,036,900.00 

Surplus 668,603.19 

Total liabilities $30,398,339.81 



DEBIT. 

Operating expenses 

For general expenses 

For maintenance of roadway and build- 
ings 

For maintenance of equipurent 

For transi)ortation cxiienses 

Taxes 

West End Street Railway Company's tax 
on capital stock and property 

Boston Elevated Railway Company's tax 
on capital stock and property 

Boston Elevated Railway Company's com- 
pensation ta.x on income 

Coupon Interest on West End Street Railway 

Company's bond-- 

Coupon interest on iloston Elevated K.iilway 

Company's bonds 

Rentals of leased railways 

Rental of East Boston tunnel * 

Rental of Subway 

Less amount collected of Bo.iton & Northern 

Street Railw'a\' Comi.ain- 

Depreciation funil 

Dividends paid on capital stock 

Balance carried to surplus account 



$983,996.4'! 



1 ,060 
1,011 
6,590 



318 



,659.69 
633-62 
855-48 



509-34 
189.42 
275-92 



S;9,647.!45--'S 



966,974.68 



■.895-95 

r,622.46 



Total 



CHtlll I . 

Earnings from .i])eratioii 

From passengers carried $13,546,779.20 

From carriage of mails 38,898.15 

From tolls for iise of tracks by other 

companies 41.214.13 

From rentals of real estate 159,799.69 

From advertising 93,170.09 

From interest 011 deposits, etc 64.397.26 

From miscellaneous income 8.707.48 

Interest from special deposits 

Total 

TK.AFFIC STATISTICS. 



650.318.89 

306,388.90 
1,250,416.50 

5i.37'-oq 

207.273.49 

1 00,000.00 
798,000.00 
33.278.89 

Si4,oi 1.167.72 
$13,952,966.00 



58,201.72 
$ 1 4.0 1 1.167.72 



ROL'ND TRIPS. 



Run by elevated passenger cars. 
Run by surface passenger cars. . 
Kun by U. S. mail cars 



Total 

RE\EXL"E MILES. 

Run by elevated passenger cars 

Run by surface passenger cars 

Run by U. S. mail cars 



Total 

P.^SSEXGERS CARRIED. 

Revenue passengers on elevated and surface cars. 



986,034 
4,600,794 
19.788 

5,606.6 1 6 



7.802,457 
44.027,731 
231.381 

52.06 1 ,569 
271.084.S15 



RECEIPTS. 

From revenue passengers on elevated and surface cars. .. ,$13,540,779.20 
From U. S. mail cars 38,898.15 

Total receipts from car operation !''i3-585,677.35 

Average receipts per i-e\eniie passenger 4.007 cents 



THE PITTSBURG PAY-AS-YOU-ENTER EXPERIMENT 



An interview with Duncan McDonald, general manager of 
the Montreal Street Railway Company and president of tlie 
Pay-as-you-Enter Car Company, on the Pittsburg pay-as-you- 
enter experiment, appeared in the New York Globe for Jan. 4. 
Mr. McDonald said that he had just returned from Pittsburg, 
and that the failure was due to an attempt to use the pay-as- 
you-entcr system with short platform cars. The difficulties 
were further enhanced by the fact that in the Pittsburg cars 
there is no exit from the front platform. If everybody had 
been prepared with their nickels matters might not have been 
so bad, but it took time to make change and, with little room 
on the rear platform for waiting passengers, the cars were 
delayed. Mr. McDonald said that similar conditions will not 
exist when the pay-as-you-enter cars are put in operation in 
New York City. He referred to the fact that 150 cars of this 
type had been in successful operation in Chicago since Nov. 25, 
and 150 more have been ordered. He also mentioned the order 
of the Public Se'r\ice' Corporation of New Jersey for cars of 
the same type. 



62 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. 2. 



THE CLEVELAND SITUATION 



Impressions have been gained from what has been said by 
Mayor Johnson to F. H. Gof¥ and others, that he will attempt 
to secure legislation the coming winter that will allow the city 
of Cleveland to acquire not only the street railway system, but 
the lighting system and other public utilities. In order to do 
this, an extremely large bond issue will be necessary and the 
Mayor will be compelled, of course, to induce the General 
Assembly to pass a special act that will allow an increase suffi- 
cient to carry out his purpose. This will mean an addition 
of $70,000,000 or $80,000,000 to the present indebtedness of 
$28,000,000. 

In support of the statement of Engineer Clark regarding the 
charges made by the city for cleaning the streets after the 
Cleveland Electric had completed track laying or repairs, F. H. 
Goff exhibited a bill for $145.50 a mile for cleaning stretches 
of St. Clair Avenue. Both the Mayor and Superintendent of 
Streets Hanna tried to explain this bill by saying that the street 
was left in a terrible condition and that the sand was three 
inches deep in the gutters. Mr. Goff said he wondered how this 
could be with the care that is generally taken to take away the 
material and the litter that is left. The impression left by this 
showing was that the city officials had forgotten the charges 
that were made at times for the work. At the same time the 
Mayor stuck to his declaration that Mr. Clark was wrong in 
his figures. In case he is right, the Mayor said he would be 
willing to apologize. 

Mr. Goff said that Clark had put the average weight of 
rails at 80 pounds and that the Mayor had ridiculed the idea, 
but that City Engineer Hoffman now says that this is correct. 
Again the Mayor said he would apologize if he is wrong. Mr. 
Goff, however, told him that he might do much harm by trying 
to discredit the statements of members of the committee on 
the floor of the Council chamber, when his own information 
is not correct. 

During a conference between Mayor Johnson and Mr. Goff 
after the regular meeting the subject of a security franchise 
was taken up. The Mayor said he thought that an act of the 
Legislature could be secured which would allow a security fran- 
chise that would continue twenty-five years after a possible 
forfeiture. Mr. Goff said that he would have to know that 
the earnings are properly secured, but that he did not want it 
made possible to forfeit easily. He and the Mayor also con- 
sidered the question of the parties to the negotiations, the 
Mayor saying that they are between the Cleveland Electric and 
the public, while Mr. Goff said they are between the Cleveland 
Electric and the Municipal Traction Company. As to the rate 
of fare to be incorporated in the security franchise, Mr. Goff 
said that he would confer with Secretary Davies, and if he, 
after figuring the problem out, thought that seven tickets for 
a quarter would pay at the end of the grant, he would accept 
it. Otherwise he would demand a higher rate of fare. Mr. 
Goff contends that legislation along municipal lines will not be 
popular and that it will be hard to get a law enacted allowing 
any special privileges before the expiration of the franchises, if 
the date is as claimed by the city. The committee on expira- 
tion of franchises has had several private meetings, but no 
report has yet been made. 

In the discussions last week. Mayor Johnson said that the 
value of the paving should be placed at what it would cost 
another ci^'mpany to reproduce it. This is the way he wants to 
get at the matter, although the cost to the Cleveland Electric 
may have been quite different. Mr. Goff said that if a figure 
ia to be placed upon the value in that manner, then the cost to 
the Cleveland Electric may as well be taken. C. H. Clark 
reported an estimated value of $2,048,000 for the paving, while 
the o;her member of the committee, City Engineer Hoffman, 
placed the value at $1,500,000. The mayor said he would rather 
call the figures guesses, and asked if Some more satisfactory 
basis could not be reached. 

Mayor Johntrn proposed to Mr. Goff that, as soon as they 
receive the report of Messrs, Tolles and Baker on the dates of 
franchise expirations, that they take what they believe will be 
the physical value of the property and go ahead with the 
negotiations, going back and correcting the figures to corre- 
spond with the actual value after they are through. Whether 
Mr. Goff will agree to this or not remains to be seen. He did 
not accept the proposition at the time. However, the committee 



on franchise expirations does not seem to be in any particular 
hurry to make a report. 

A brief prepared by Judge Sanders was read at the meeting 
Thursday, in which it was contended that paving is in the 
nature of a tax upon the company in return for the franchise 
grants made to it. As Judge Sanders is one of the attorneys 
for the Cleveland Electric in some of its suits the mayor 
expected this brief to have considerable effect. It was pre- 
pared for use in another case some time ago. 

Mr. Goff a few days ago suggested to Mayor Johnson that 
the Cleveland Electric system be leased to the city directly and 
that the terms of the lease be made so strong, as well as those 
of the security franchise, that there would be no opportunity 
for corruption in any way and that the term be a long one. The 
Mayor replied that this is just what he is trying to do, but 
owing to existing laws, it must be done through a holding com- 
pany. The city has no authority to own or operate street 
railway lines and, unless the Mayor succeeds in getting through 
certain legislation, this can not be done at all, if a settlement 
is to be made within a reasonable time. 

Hereafter the council committee of the whole will consist 
only of the members of the Council. Since the election the 
committee has been made up of members and members-elect of 
the Council, but vrhen the new men took their seats, the old 
ones went out of the committee as well as the city law-making 
body. The only reason for including the members-elect was to 
get them acquainted with the questions before the body before 
they went into office. 



PLANS FOR THE CHICAGO RAILWAYS COMPANY 



It is expected that the Chicago Railways Company will be in 
full possession of the Union Traction Company properties by 
Feb. I, when the time limit for acceptance of the new traction 
ordinance expires. Public sale Jan. 25 will be a formality. 
Within three years, according to the terms of the ordinance, 
the company must entirely rehabilitate the lines, which means 
that 118 miles of new track must be laid, to say nothing of ex- 
tensions. The old company, during 1907, laid 20 miles of new 
track and spent $2,000,000. Work to be done will cost $25,000,- 

000. There must be in operation within three years 1200 double 
truck cars. Making due allowance for what the company has, 
the car item alone will amount to more than $5,500,000. During 
the first year only 225 of the new cars need be put in operation. 
A central power plant would cost $5,000,000. City officials have 
estimated the addition to the city revenue from the 55 per cent 
of net receipts, as provided for in the ordinance, at $500,000 a 
year. An almost equal annual contribution will come from the 
Chicago City Railway. Both franchises took effect as of Feb. 

1, 1907. 

No important changes in the personnel of traction manage- 
ment are expected. John Z. Murphy, who has had charge of 
the reconstruction work on the Union Traction the past year, 
it is said, will be appointed engineer for the Chicago Railway 
Company on the supervising board of engineers. John M. 
Roach will be president or general manager of the company. 
Final orders and decrees entered by Judge Grosscup, pre- 
liminary to foreclosure sale of the Union Traction properties, 
provide as follows : 

That all of the properties go at auction, under foreclosure, 
to the highest bidder and that "pending and in aid of this sale," 
the receivers e.xecute a lease thereof to the Chicago Railways 
Company. The latter must raise $12,000,000 for rehabilitation. 
Lease holds good until absolute title passes. 

Only one claim — a receiver's certificate for $10,000 — out of 
the $61,000,000 represented by the various interests involved, 
stood out against the reorganization plan. Consent of all the 
trust companies representing the bondholders finally assured the 
success of the modified arrangement. Outstanding bonds 
amount to $25,699,000, and $22,461,500 of these were deposited 
in aid of the plan. No bondholder refused to come in. Con- 
sents from the stockholders of the parent and subsidiary com- 
panies ran from 80 to 90 per cent. 

Union Traction receivers must execute a lease of the proper- 
ties, which lease must be accepted formally by the Chicago Rail- 
ways Company within a month, and probably will be within a 
week. The new company will bid the amount of the bonds it 
represents when the property is sold by Master in Chancery 
Bishop, whereupon he will issue a mortgage foreclosure deed, 
and the legal transaction will be completed. 



January ii, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



63 



STREET RAILWAY PATENTS 



PERSONAL MENTION 



UNITED STATES PATENTS, ISSUED DECEMBER 24, 1907. 
874,477. JR?iiw^y Signal ; Harry M. Abernethy, Cleveland, 
Ohio. App. med April 3, 1906. A signal of the type operated 
by a gear train driven by an electric motor, the motor being 
clutched into relation to raise either a danger or caution signal 
according to the completion of circuits. The signals are 
dropped by an magnet-operated trip. 

874.490. Derailing Device ; William O. Clegg and Oscar J. 
Asmann, Palestine, Tex. App. filed May 6, 1907. Details of 
construction. 

874.491. Switch for Street Cars; William H. Coombs, Rock- 
ford, 111. App. filed Aug. 26, 1907. Relates to mechanism 
whereby switch-points may be engaged and thrown from the 
platform of a moving car. 

874,508. Brake for Electric Cars ; Moses G. Hubbard, Jr., 
Austin, 111. App. filed Nov. 18, 1896. A vehicle brake having 
its power controlled by the speed of one or more of the wheels 
thereof, in combination with automatic yielding mechanism 
for holding the vehicle from moving when stopped until the 
operator releases the brake. 

874.558. Alternating Direct-Current System of Control ; 
Howard L. Beach, Wilkinsburg, Pa. App. filed March 3, 1906. 
Relates to the control of the trolleys for electric locomotives 
adapted to take electric current from an overhead trolley or 
third-rail system, as desired. Includes electrically operated 
pneumatic apparatus. 

874.559. System of Control ; Howard L. Beach, Wilkins- 
burg, Pa. App. filed March 3, 1906. A system for the control 
of motors adapted to be operated eithed by direct or alternat- 
ing current. Provides means whereby the circuits of the sys- 
tem may be arranged automatically in accordance with the 
character of the energy supplied. 

874.567. Electric Controller ; Roy W. Brown, Amsterdam, 
N. Y. App. filed Feb. 19, 1907. A construction of rheostat 
having a contact which is spring actuated to move in one direc- 
tion and an electromagnet for controlling said contact. 

874.568. Car; Ezra S. Bucknam, Philadelphia, Pa. App. 
filed Feb. 7, 1907. Relates to a double-sash car window and 
provides means whereby the raising of the lower will also raise 
the upper sash. 

874,608. Danger Signal ; Clevia J. Luther, Desloge, Mo. 
App. filed Aug. 13, 1907. Apparatus responsive to a rise of 
water level, or fire, to effect the closure of circuits to operate 
danger signals. 

874,630. Third-Rail Attachment for Electric Cars : George 
H. Sohn, Lincoln, Cal. App. filed June 10, 1907. Relates to 
current collectors for underground trolley system^s having a 
special truck which runs upon a grooved conduit and has a 
depending shoe engaging the conductor in said conduit. 

874,635. Registering Device ; Ralph Storm, Joseph F. Under- 
wood and Robert Jackson, Waterloo, la. App. filed May 10, 
1907. Provides registering mechanism to be used in railway 
stations whereby a record may be made and kept of passing 
trains and of their stopping for orders. 

874,638. Controller ; Emmett W. Stull, Norwood, Ohio. 
App. filed May 3, 1906. Provides means whereby an injured 
or disabled motor may be cut out of circuit without interfering 
with the regulation of the remaining motor or motors. 

874,663. Brake-Shoe ; William E. De Voe, Chicago Heights, 
111. App. filed July 17, 1907. A back for a brake-shoe formed 
with a flange and tread portions, and a reinforcing strip formed 
partially from each. 

874,857. Brake; John H. Meredith, Altoona, Pa. App. filed 
April 3, 1907. Automatic means to compensate for the wear 
of the brake shoes. 

874,869. Control System for Electric Vehicles ; Olof A. 
Sandborgh, Swissvale, Pa. App. filed March 3, 1906. Pro- 
vides means for automatically completing circuit connections 
from one collecting device to a car when said device engages 
its supply conductor and for completing circuit connections 
from a second collecting device when the first is disengaged 
from the supply conductor. 



MR. W. B. SUTHERLAND, of Rochester, has been ap- 
pointed counsel for the second district public service commis- 
sion of New York. 

MR. A. I. BRECKENRIDGE has been appointed purchas- 
ing agent of the Waterloo, Cedar Falls & Northern Railway 
Company, with headquarters at Waterloo, la. 

MR. R. T. LAFFIN, who recently resigned as vice-president 
and general manager of the Manila Railway & Lighting Com- 
pany, arrived in San Francisco recently on the liner Manchuria. 

MR. A. L. SMITH has resigned as superintendent of trans- 
portation of the Lexington Railway Company, the Central Ken- 
tucky Traction Company and tlie Blue Grass Traction Com- 
pany, and the position has been abolished. 

MR. W. H. KEMPTON, who recently resigned from the 
Wcstinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company, of Pittsburg, 
as engineer on line construction, assumed a similar position 
with the Johns-Pratt Company, of Hartford, Conn., on Jan. i. 

MR. W. A. McWHORTER, formerly master mechanic of 
the Birmingham Railway, Light & Power Company, of Ala- 
bama, has resigned to join the staff of the Galena Signal Oil 
Company as expert on street railway lubrication. Mr. 
McWhorter will be attached to the Atlanta office of the com- 
pany, and will cover the territory south of the Ohio River 
and west as far as the Mississippi. Mr. A. Y. Evans has 
succeeded to the position of master mechanic at Birmingham. 

MR. J. F. WESSEL, for a number of years with the General 
Electric Company at its Baltimore office, is now connected, as 
electrical engineer, with Mr. R. D. Apperson, president of the 
Lynchburg, Roanoke and Montgomery properties. Mr. Wessel 
is a young man of wide experience, and is very highly thought 
of by the General Electric Company, and before leaving its 
employ he was offered a much higher position, but preferred to 
associate himself with the Lynchburg Traction & Light Com- 
pany, Lynchburg, Va. ; Lynchburg Water Power Company, 
Lynchburg, Va. ; Roanoke Railway & Electric Company, 
Roanoke, Va. ; the Petersburg Gas Company, Petersburg, Va. ;. 
Montgomery Traction Company, Montgomery, Ala., in the 
operating department. 

MR. CHARLES V. WESTOIST, who was elected president of 
the Chicago South Side Elevated on Jan. 4, has been associated 
with elevated roads in Chicago for the last 13 years. From 
1875 to 1888 he was engaged in the location, construction and 
* maintenance of steam railways 

in the Southwest. He came to 
Chicago to take charge of 
building one of the water 
works intake tunnels under 
Lake Michigan, and remained 
in the employ of the city untii 
1890, when he was engaged to 
supervise the construction of 
the West Chicago Street Rail- 
road tunnel under the Chicago 
River. In 1894 this was com- 
pleted, and Mr. Weston was 
made chief engineer in charge 
of the building of the North- 
western Elevated Railroad. He 
was later given charge of all of 
the new construction of ele- 
vated roads controlled by Mr. 
Charles T. Yerkes, and designed and built the union loop and 
the extensions and betterments of the Lake Street Elevated. In 
1901 he formed a partnership with his brother, Mr. George 
Weston, as consulting and contracting engineer. This firm was 
dissolved in 1903, when he was made chief engineer of the 
South Side Elevated, of which he has just been elected presi- 
dent. In the last four years he has had charge of the third 
track reconstruction on this road, also of its Englewood, Boule- 
vard and Stock Yards extensions. He is, therefore, intimately 
acquainted with the property of which he is now the head, and 
of its many complex operating problems. On May 6, last, he 
was appointed by the Mayor of Chicago as the city's repre- 
sentative on the board of consulting engineers, which has charge 
of the rehabilitation of the traction lines in Chicago, which posi- 
tion he has resigned. Mr. Weston is a member of the Am. Soc. 
C. E., of the Western Society of Engineers, the Chicago En- 
gineers' Club, and other societies. 




C. V. WESTON 



64 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. 2. 



NEW YORK STATE STREET RAILWAY STATISTICS 



The statistics of the street railway companies of New York 
for the year ending June 30, 1906, are now on file with the 
Public Service Commissions of the two districts to which the 
transportation interests of New York State have to report. 
The following table shows the capitalization and income report 
of those companies which are under the jurisdiction of the 
Commission of the Second District, or all of those outside of 
New York City. The list includes seventy-six companies, of 



which fifty-one show a surplus after paying operating expenses 
and fixed charges and twenty-five a deficit. Last year the cor- 
responding figures for the entire State were ninety-one com- 
panies reporting, of which fifty-four showed a surplus after 
paying fixed charges and thirty-seven a deficit. Of the seventy- 
six companies, this year nine paid dividends. Last year twelve 
companies paid dividends. The funded debt is that appearing 
as such in the balance sheet. 

The Long Island Railroad is included in the accompanying 
table, although the greater part of its system is operated by 
steam, because a part of the road is equipped with electricity. 



TABLE SHOWING CAPITALIZATION AND OPERATING STATISTICS OF THE NEW YORK STATE STREET RAILWAY COMPANIES 
REPORTING TO THE PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION OF THE SECOND DISTRICT. 



NAME OF COMPANY. 
I. > <ll /<**Wi*;/!i"/:^/?:/i.-( 



Ox June 30, 1907. 



Capital 
Stock. 



Year Ending June 30, 1907. 



Funded 
Debt. 



Total 
Receipts, 
All 

Sources. 



Operating 
Expenses. 



Dividend Paid 



Charges 
on Earnings. 



Amount. 



P. C. 



Surplus or 
Net IncoiTie 
for Year, 



Long Island R.R. Co 

International Ry. Co 

Rochester Ry. Co 

United Traction Co 

Syracuse Rapid Transit R. R. Co 

Utica & Mohawk Valley Ry. Co 

Schenectady Ry. Co 

Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversville R, R, Co, 

Crosstovvn St, Ry. Co. ( Buffalo) 

Hudson Valley Ry. Co 



Yonkers R. R. Co 

Auburn & Syracuse Elec. R. R 

Binghamton Ry. Co 

*Buira!o & Lake]Erie Trac. Co 

Albany & Hudson R, R. Co 

Rochester & Eastern Rapid Ry. Co 

Elmira Wtr., Lt. & R. R. Co 

Niagara Gorge R. R. Co 

Jamestown St. Ry. Co 

Oneonta & Mohawk Valley R. R. Co 

tRochester, Syracuse & Eastern R. R, Co 

Kingston Consolidated R. R. Co 

New York & Stamford Ry. Co 

Syracuse, Lake Shore & Northern R. R 

Orange County Traction Co 

Tarrytou-n, White Plains & Mamaroneck Ry. Co, , . , 
Poughkeepsie Citv & Wappingers Falls Elec. Rv, Co 

Ithaca St, Ry. Co 

PeekskiU Ltg. & R. R. Co 

Syracuse & Suburban R. R. Co 



Geneva, Waterloo, Seneca Falls & Cavuga Lake 

Trac. Co 

Chautauqua Trac. Co 

Black River Trac. Co 

t Western N. Y. & Penn. Trac. Co 

Warren <!<: Jamestown St. Ry. Co 

Waverly .Sayre & Athens Trac. Co 

Cortland Covmty Trac. Co 

Rochester & Suburban Ry. Co 

Cohoes Ry. Co 

WallkiU Transit Co 



Buffalo Southern Ry. Co 

Oswego Trac. Co 

Corning & Painted Post St. Ry 

Elmira & Seneca Lake Trac. Co 

Fishkill Elec. Ry. Co 

Bennington & N. Adams St. Ry. Co. . 

Eastern N, Y. R. R. Co 

Buffalo & Williamsville Elec. Ry. Co. 

Odgensburg,Street Ry, Co 

Troy it- New England Ry. Co 



Penn Yan, Keuka Park & Branchport Rv 

Rome City St. Ry. Co 

Hornellsville & Canisteo Ry. Co 

Plattsburg Trac, Co 

Rochester, Charlotte & Manitou R, R. Co. 

Oneida Ry. Co 

Marcellus & Otisco Lake Ry. Co 

New Paltz, Highland & Poughkeepsie Trac, Co 

Keeseville, Ausable Chasm & Lake Champlain R,R 

Co 

Hornellsville Elec. Ry. Co 



Huntington R. R. Co 

Glen Cove R. R. Co 

Buffalo & Depew Ry, Co 

St, Lawrence International Elec. R. R. & Land Co. 

CatskiU Elec, Ry. Co 

Port Jervis Elec, Lt., Pwr., Gas & R. R. Co 

Nassau County Ry. Co 

Newark & Marion Rv. Co 

<l> Buffalo, Dunkirk & Western R. R. Co 

Lima, Honeoye Elec, Lt. & R. R, Co j ., 

Northport Trac, Co 

<P Paul Smith Elec, Lt.. Pwr., & R. R. Co 

Adirondack Lakes Trac. Co . . 

Elec. Citv Ry. Co 

Fulton & Oswego Falls St. Rv. Co 

Babylon R. R. Co 



$12,000,000 
16,320,500 
6,000,000 
12,500,000 
4,000,000 
7,500,000 
4,100,000 
2,500,000 
2,860,000 
3,000,000 

1,000,000 
1,950,000 

976,849 
7,500,000 
1,750,000 
1,500,000 

512,042 
1,000,000 

100,000 
1,800,000 

6,372,500 
400,000 
500,000 

1,268,000 
325,000 
300,000 
750,000 
325,000 
650,000 
400,000 



450,000 
500,000 
105,000 
2,000,000 
200,000 
200,000 
320,000 
420,000 
120,000 
320,750 

547,200 
300,000 
100,000 
200,000 

50,000 
650,000 
300,000 

75,000 
150,000 
180,000 

94,000 
150,000 

50,000 
100.000 

97,500 
2,000,000 
200,000 
100,000 

60,000 
50,000 

30,000 
10,000 
305,000 
250,000 
138,000 
150,000 
35,000 
100,000 
3,500.000 
Private 

45,000 
'200,000 
; 60,000 
80,000 
15.000 
2 5,000 



342,418,703 
10,868,000 
4,375,000 
5,141,000 
3,899,000 
3,157,000 
2,000,000 
6,537,000 
2,974,000 
7,845,000 

1,000,000 
1,345,000 
1,786,000 
6,500,000 
1,850,000 
1,500,000 



1,000,000 
300,000 
1,300,000 

2,757,000 
700,000 

426,000 



425,000 
300,000 
366,000 
315,000 
612,000 
550,000 



450,000 
139,000 

55,000 
2,174,000 
300,000 
500,000 
500,000 
450,000 

84,000 
300,000 

500,000 
288,000 
100,000 
200,000 
50,000 
448,667 
300,000 
117,500 
150,000 
183,725 

100.000 
200,000 
80,000 
80,000 
81,250 
10,000 
200,000 
100,000 

175,000 
70,000 

26,000 
loansl 50,862 
350,000 
200,000 
132,000 

95,000 



250,000 
750,000 
ownership 



400,000 
100,000 



15,000 
33,000 



$10,260,183 
4,707,454 
2,451,701 
2,048,424 
1,176,767 
1,045,278 
1,043,369 
794,933 
668,289 
618,614 

417,587 
354,346 
287,024 
285,670 
273,997 
258,984 
224,817 
167,146 
166,445 
165,937 

145,605 
142.246 
136,748 
136,345 
133,029 
132,386 
124.650 
113,644 
111.164 
107,473 



97,148 
95,739 
94,221 
91,428 
84,135 
77,303 
77,298 
70,860 
70,051 
59,866 

58,940 
56,466 
53,247 
52,568 
51,182 
48,360 
45,109 
36,603 
33,509 
33,463 

30,028 
29,651 
26,152 
25,522 
25,095 
24,409 
23,597 
23,207 

23,514 
22,341 

20,755 
18,496 
16,041 
14,957 
14,839 
13,898 
12,780 
11,583 
11,514 
9,694 

9,657 
8,148 
7.751 
6,370 
2,564 
155 



$7,938,993 
2,698,778 
1,484,018 
1,187,735 
686,516 
657.363 
708.813 
402.582 
381,059 
415,640 

338,265 
202,501 
163,813 
181,202 
161,774 
168,963 
162,949 
91,971 
104,778 
145,896 

92,762 
85,053 
127,370 
95,076 
118,237 
144,086 
93,258 
80,422 
37,237 
59,011 



54,214 
52,316 
91,901 
43,936 
42,152 
53,793 
43,624 
43,785 
52,528 
42.,921 

41,838 
40,932 
31,592 
33,488 
31,908 
36,994 
23,653 
25,039 
20,459 
31,157 

21,788 
20,004 
12,532 
16,112 
15,182 
22,847 
16,011 
15,161 

15,570 
16,215 

17,719 
20,395 
22,754 

7,025 
13,534 
16,759 
11,735 
10,841 

4,550 
10,045 

10,170 
3,655 
7,325 
3,308 
2,869 
450 



$2,614,631 
969,824 
516,067 
349,925 
282,710 
183,982 
137,736 
356,818 
192,922 
202,248 

120,770 
86,511 
94,977 
148,581 
108,597 
120,115 
51,696 
56,553 
33,591 
45,225 

73,779 
40.025 
30,014 
4,961 
33,900 
32,070 
27.878 
22.137 
33.236 
36,499 



22,056 
16,675 

2.300 
11,420 
23,130 
10,800 
17,644 
51,176 

6,894 
17,489 

1,817 
13,964 

7,781 

6,704 
12,220 
10,833 
16,864 

9,745 
18,758 
774 

7,520 
11,417 
4,033 
6,950 
5,048 
1,563 
11,150 
4,876 

7.,128 
3,900 

1,887 
477 
18,683 
1,357 
7,104 
6,576 
425 
397 
19,500 
205 

251 
6,028 
5,593 

597 
1,498 
1,692 



652,820 
270,000 
187,485 
67,263 
125,000 
102.500 

114,466 



4 

4 and 5 



5 and 6 
5 



5 and 6 



17,875 
19,000 



5i 
6 and 2 



Def. 



Def, 

Def. 

Def. 
Def. 

Def. 

Def. 

Def. 

Def. 
Def. 

Def. 



Def. 
Def. 



Def. 



Def. 



Def. 



Def. 



Def. 
Def. 



Def. 
Def. 

Def: 
Def. 
Def. 



Def. 



* 6 mos. end. June, '07. t Nov. '06 to June 30, '07. t To Nov. 15, '06. 4> 6 mos. end. Dec. 31, '06. (t Aug. '06 to June 30, '07. 



Street Railway Journal 



XXXI. NEW YORK, SATURDAY, JANUARY 18, 1908. No. 3 



Vol. 



Published Every Saturday by the 

McGraw Publishing Company 

James H. McGraw, Pres. Curtis E. Whittlesey, Sec. & Treas. 



Main Office: 
NEW YORK, 239 West Thirtv-ninth Street. 



Branch Offices: 
Chicago: Old Colony Building. 

Philadelphia: Real Estate Trust Building. 
Cleveland: Schofield Building. 

San Francisco: Atlas Building. 

London: Hastings House, Norfolk St., Strand. 



Cable Address, "Stryjourn, New York"; "Stryjourn, London" — Lieber's 
Code used. 

Copyright, 1907, McGraw Publishing Company. 



TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION 

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and the Canal Zone: 

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Single copies 10 cents 

Combination Rate, with Electric Railway Directory and 

Buyer's Manual (3 issues — Feb., Aug. and Nov.) $4.00 per annum 

Both of the above, in connection with American Street 
Railway Investments (The "Red Book" — Published 
annually in May; regular price, $5.00 per copy) $6.50 per annum 



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Single copies 10 cents 



To All Countries Other Than Those Mentioned 'Above: 

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25 shillings. 25 marks. 31 francs. 

Single copies 20 cents 

Remittances for foreign subscriptions may be made through our 
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NOTICE TO SUBSCRIBERS. 

REMITTANCES. — Remittances should be made by check, New York 
draft, or money order, in favor of the Street Railway Journal. 

CHANGE OF ADDRESS.— The old address should be given, as well 
as the new, and notice should be received a week in advance of the 
desired change. 

BACK COPIES. — No copies of issues prior to September, 1904, are 
kept on sale, except in bound volumes. 

DATE ON WRAPPER shows the month at the end of which the 
subscription expires. The sending of remittances for renewal prior to 
that date will be much appreciated by the publishers. 

During 1907 the Street Railway Journal printed and cir- 
culated 427,250 copies, an average of 8216 copies per week. 
Of this issue 7500 copies are printed. 



A Stady of Electrification 

Mr. Murray's Institute paper gives a vivid idea of the 
multifarious problems that confront the engineer in deal- 
ing even with a relatively simple case of electrification of 
a steam road. The very beginning of such a study plunges 
one into a vexatious tangle of seemingly petty, but really 
important, details from which he escapes only with great 
difficulty. The explanation of the reasons for preferring 
a direct utilization of a single generator phase for the 
whole distribution instead of splitting up the line between 
two or three phases is much to the point, and there is little 



question that the event will prove the choice to have been 
a wise one. The choice of 11,000 volts as the distributing 
pressure is also one which will be a source of satisfaction. 
When it comes to passing above the modest voltages used 
on street railways one might as well go far enough to 
secure the advantages of high voltage. As modern poten- 
tials go, 11,000 volts is eminently conservative. It is not 
materially more dangerous or more difficult to«insulate than 
lower pressures, say from 2000 volts up, and gives the very 
material gains of a much smaller current to collect and a 
relative improvement in the copper losses, enabling the 
whole system to be operated without sub-stations. 

The major part of Mr. Murray's paper is devoted to the 
questions of sectionalization of the working conductor. As 
he very properly points out, this is not so much a matter 
of averting the results of local grounds as of giving com- 
plete control of the energy on the system. By making the 
section termini in the regular signal towers and putting the 
signal men in charge it becomes possible to introduce a 
new element in the safe running of trains, since, if neces- 
sary, a signal man can halt a train by cutting off its power 
at his own end of the section and telephone the signal 
man at the other end to do the same. Incidentally, we note 
that an effective remedy for interference with the tele- 
phone service between towns has been found in the use of 
a twisted pair, lead sheathed, and with the sheath grounded. 
In extreme cases on long lines, impedance coils across the 
telephone circuit with their middle points grounded, seem 
to remove the residual troubles. 

On a 11,000-volt distribution system it is very easy to 
sectionalize to any desired extent, for all the appliances are 
of moderate cost. Mr. Murray believes that the sections 
should be made at least miles' long and preferably of 
greater length. This makes it easier to give them termini 
in convenient towns and lessens the number of section 
switches, regarding which the author grimly remarks that 
there is general agreement that a switch in any line does 
not increase the reliability of that line. Incidentally, this 
leads into the question of insulation, since, the sections 
being terminated at anchor insulators, the endurance of 
these becomes a serious matter. In fact, there has been 
considerable trouble from their deterioration, due to the 
blast from the stacks- of the steam locomotives on the line. 
If steam and electric locomotives are to be used on the 
same track, it is evident that especial care will have to be 
taken in the design of insulators for the working conductor. 
It is also interesting to note the suggestion in favor of 
greater flexibility between the overhead wires and the pan- 
tograph. This can be secured in either element, and the 
New Haven Company expects to experiment with a differ- 
ent form of catenary on its branch lines and a flexible con- 
nection to its pantograph. These tests will be of great 
assistance in throwing light on the important question of 
satisfactory current collection at high speeds. 



66 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. 3. 



The Proposed Association of Operating Managers 

Members of the American Street and Interurban Railway 
Association will recall that at the Atlantic City Convention 
it was decided to organize another affiliated association, to 
take up questions of transportation, traffic and general 
operating subjects. The committee of the American Street 
and Interurban Railway Association in charge of the 
formation of this new body has consequently issued a call 
for a meeting of the operating officers of member com- 
panies to take place in New York on Jan. 30, to elect 
officers, appoint committees, outline the program for the 
1908 convention, and take such other action as may be 
necessary in the organization of the association. It is 
hoped that there will be a large attendance, and that the 
results will be as successful as in the case of the other 
affiliated associations. 

There are certainly a vast number of topics which can 
be considered by the proposed organization. They include 
not only the proper means of caring for the traffic already 
in existence, but in providing ways and means for its stimu- 
lation. They embrace such questions as fares and transfers 
and their proper collection, and possibly their registration 
as well. The new association, in connection with the Engi- 
neering or Claim Agents' association, can take up the 
.means for preventing accidents, the best form of car, and 
many other topics where the fields of the associations 
will overlap. We presume that the subject of rules for 
employees, as well as the discipline of employees and the 
conduct of benefit associations will also be considered as 
coming within the purview of the new organization. A 
wide field of usefulness is thus open to the new body, and 
we believe that the plan of removing these subjects from 
the main organization and placing them entirely in the 
hands of those whose duty it is, in a street railway company 
to execute them, will prove eminently satisfactory. 

The topics which will thus be considered at the conven- 
tions by the new organization will be those which have 
largely, during the last few years, been considered as pecu- 
liarly belonging to the parent association, which inferen- 
tially will, in the future, devote itself largely to discus- 
sions of policy and other executive matters. This should 
not mean, however, a retirement in any respect from the 
floor of the conventions of those presidents who have taken 
an active part in the past in the afYairs of the American 
Association. These gentlemen will, undoubtedly, now feel 
at more liberty to attend meetings of any one of the four 
affiliated associations in whose work they may have a more 
personal interest. Those whose inclinations turn toward 
the engineering side will probably attend the meetings of 
that association ; those who are attracted to the questions of 
accounts will give their preference to that body; managers 
of a legal turn of mind will be more interested in the meet- 
ings of the claim agents, while those who consider opera- 
tion their special province will become closely affiliated 
with the new organization. The separation will certainly 
give a better opportunity for the discussion of operating 
topics than under the old methods, where the time devoted 
to these subjects had to be divided with those of policy. 
The results should result in progress for the street railway 
industry as a whole. 



Improving Car Sign Practice 

Observation of car signs in several cities lately visited 
suggests the need of closer attention to this important mat- 
ter, which bears so directly upon revenue. It is easy to 
let the sign question slip out of sight on bvisy systems where 
new problems are constantly coming up for solution, but 
if it was feasible to measure the influences of suitable signs 
upon the traffic, there is no doubt that the conditions now 
often found would be very much improved. The circum- • 
stances in different cities, of course, require varied treat- 
ments of the sign problem, but there are a few points of 
fundamental importance which ought not to be overlooked. 
They may seem self-evident to some managers, but their 
neglect justifies reference to them at this time. 

It is certainly a mistake to run a car over a given route 
other than a belt line without changing the destination sign 
at the end of each half trip. Even on the average belt line 
it is desirable to indicate a definite destination or direction 
of movement. On some roads no hint is given as to the 
course of a car on a belt line, and the result is that passen- 
gers unfamiliar with the system may, for example, be car- 
ried far out of their courses through taking a northbound 
belt car when the destination would have been reached in 
half or a third the time by taking a southbound belt car. 
It is not always feasible to ask the conductor from the 
street the general course of a car, and when this can be 
done the stops are made needlessly long, as a rule. Every 
possible effort should be made to encourage short-distance 
riding, for the profits are far greater than in the case of 
the long haul. It is a simple matter to sign up belt line 
cars with a side sign that shall indicate the general course 
of the route, and the service can sometimes be perceptibly 
improved by such a policy. 

Failure to use a different destination sign over the front 
of the car at the end of each trip opens the way toward an 
extensive boarding of the wrong cars by the public, with 
resulting delays to the rolling stock through an excessive 
number of stops. It ought to be a cardinal motto of street 
railways to cut out every unnecessary stop on their sys- 
tems. No one can make a scientific study of rapid transit' 
without soon coming 'to the conclusion that unnecessarily 
long or too frequent stops are costly to both the service and 
the motive power and maintenance departments. Is it too 
much to urge that car signs be maintained on the rolling 
stock with the specific object of reducing false boardings, 
as well as of indicating correct destinations? A car whose 
front vestibule sign indicates the two opposite terminals of 
a route, and whose rear vestibule sign indicates some other 
point reached on one part of the round trip, simply encour- 
ages delay and inconvenience as far as strangers are con- 
cerned. Americans are traveling more and more in this 
country; and while the great majority of passengers may 
know the destination of a car imperfectly signed, by its 
direction of motion, a considerable percentage of outsiders 
find the service less convenient than it would be with a little 
more care in sign arrangement. The side sign is doubtless 
worked out too extensively in some cities where the routes 
are complex, but in other places there is no intimation of 
important points or streets passed on the trips. It is thor- 
oughly good practice to omit destinations from the side 



January i8, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



67 



signs, and to use special placards on the front and rear 
vestibules when necessary, but the rear vestibule signing 
should confirm that on the front, rather than include addi- 
tional or dit¥erent route data. In rapid transit systems — 
w^hether they be elevated or subway — the need is equally 
apparent. A single passenger who stops to ask the guard 
whether the train is going to one destination or another is 
apt to hold back a number of passengers anxious to board 
the train. A certain number of inquiries will be made by 
careless passengers, who will neglect to read any signs, no 
matter how clear and numerous they are. But the com- 
pany should attempt to reduce these delays to a minimum 
by providing all regular and careful passengers with means 
to know the destination and routes of trains. 

Keeping Track of Distantly Located Shops 

After a consolidation of several small electric railway 
companies, the conduct and unification of the repair shops 
and their work form one of the first problems to be faced 
by the management. Each road forming the combination 
has presumably had its own shop, and if the roads are in- 
terurban in character the shops will probably be found to 
be located at considerable distances from each other. The 
first step usually is the selection of the largest or most ad- 
vantageously situated shop as headquarters of the master 
mechanic of the entire system and the appointment of fore- 
men to take charge of the other shops. Such a division of 
work has its advantages, but may also result in the man- 
agement losing sight to some extent, even possibly neg- 
lecting, the smaller shops. If this is done, the almost in- 
variable result will be less work and less thorough work 
in them. To be sure, there are foremen who can and will 
work and who will keep others at work just as well when 
left alone as when they feel they are under close super- 
vision, but they are exceptions. 

One way of keeping track of the more distantly located 
shops is for the master mechanic to make very frequent 
inspection trips over the system and visit all of the dififer- 
ent points at which the work of his department is being 
done. This, however, takes a great deal of time. The 
next best way is to establish a system of reporting every- 
thing done by the small shops, such as records of wheels or 
armatures changed, brake-shoes put on, controllers re- 
paired, cars oiled, etc. A perusal of such reports, together 
with a knowledge of the number of mefi employed and of 
the local conditions, will enable the master mechanic to 
judge pretty well whether or not the shop force is keeping 
busy. To an extent these reports will indicate the nature 
of the work being accomplished. For instance, if they 
show frequent changes of armatures due to low bearings, 
the natural inference is that the cars are either not properly 
oiled or are not being well inspected. 

Of course, if the reports are received and simply filed 
away, the time spent in getting them up is almost wasted. 
The head of the department should make it an invariable 
practice to look them over and compare them, and when 
there are indications of anything unusual, the foreman 
should be asked for an explanation. In most cases the 
master mechanic should communicate with each shop at 
least once a day, either by letter or telephone, if he cannot 
make a personal visit, and comment on the reports or at 



least refer to them in such a manner as to show that they 
have been examined. Such procedure will result in the 
foreman of each shop realizing that his work is being fol- 
lowed by those in charge, and that he is being credited for 
any good work which he does, as well as being watched 
for any points in which he may fall behind the standard. 

Tool Locations in Repair Shops 

Repair shop practice on electric railways differs radically 
from the work of regular production in manufacturing 
plants, for while the same class of operations is often re- 
peated in each case, in the railway shop there is no sequence 
of handlings, and tool work in a progressive manner with 
a single product passing from one end of the establishment 
to the other is not a part of the routine. Nevertheless, tool 
location is important in relation to convenience of repair 
shop work, and it has a direct bearing upon the cost of 
maintainance. 

The main points to insure in laying out tools in an elec- 
tric railway shop are those bearing upon minimum cost of 
installation, least time in transferring work between cars 
and tools, an ample supply of natural light, convenience in 
access to the storeroom, compactness in electric driving 
where the group system is employed, and the placing to- 
gether of tools closely related in their use upon the same 
parts of the equipment. Some of these conditions are 
obvious, as the location of wood-working tools near the 
paint shop, and the removal of lathes, drills and other metal 
working machinery from the immediate vicinity of the 
forge shop. Orders are often neglected in shop arrange- 
ments. 

While compactness is desirable because of its reduction 
in the cost of belts and shafting, and also on account of the 
decreased friction losses and lessened dangers of accidents 
through the fouling of the overhead equipment, it should 
not be carried so far that long pieces of work cannot be 
readily handled. It is often necessary to saw rails and 
steel girders or beams in sections in the shop, and it should 
be possible to do this at the hack saw without inference 
with other work. A location of the hack saw which enables 
the longer pieces to be put in place without requiring work 
to be temporarily stopped at any other machine or bench is 
highly desirable. In the case of wheel repairs it is advan- 
tageous to locate the boring mill and wheel press near each 
other, and to avoid long Jiandlings between these tools and 
the pit tracks devoted to truck inspection and adjustment. 
It is also desirable to locate the lathes used largely in turn- 
ing down commutators near the armature winding room, 
unless, as in some cases, these tools are so placed inside the 
space given to this class of repairs. Large planers are 
preferably located in close proximity to overhead traveling- 
hoists, and machines devoted to bolt cutting, turning and 
facing of trolley wheels, grinding contact surfaces smooth, 
as in circuit breaker and controller repairs, are convenient 
if placed not far from the storeroom. At times it is an ex- 
cellent plan to locate an emery wheel inside the room itself 
for the removal of burrs and other defects on small cast- 
ings. Register, circuit breaker, headlight and controller 
repairs require mainly hand work, and the removal of these 
well away from the machine tools is a distinct step in 
advance. 



68 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. 3. 



TRACK RECONSTRUCTION IN SAN FRANCISCO to an established city grade. For some distance at the 

^ lower end the tracks had to be raised as much as four feet. 

Considerable interesting track work has been carried on This work was started last summer and has been carried 

in San Francisco by the United Railroads since the earth- on without interruption to the car service which at this 

quake and fire of April 18, 1907. Some of this work has point is more congested than in any other section of the 




THE COMPLETED LOOPS AT THE FERRY BUILDING 



been necessitated by the changing of the old. cable lines 
over to operation by electricity, the alteration consisting 
principally in taking out the old cable rails, slot rails and 
yokes and relaying the track with heavy girder rails. On 
many of the old electric lines new rails had to be laid and 



city. The lack of interruption to service was due to there 
being four tracks on this portion of Market Street, two of 
which could be temporarily out of commission at a time. 
Work was first started on the outer north track an4 then 
on the south outer track. The north inner track was next 




PLAN OF LOOPS AT FERRY BUILDING 



a large portion of the roadbed worked over to eliminate the 
damage caused by the .earthquake and the subsequent heavy 
traffic during the removal of debris. 

On lower Market Street, in addition to altering the cable 
tracks for permanent electric operation, the entire roadbed 
from Sansome Street to the Ferry Building has been raised 



raised and finally the south inner track is now being 
brought up to the required level while the cars are being 
operated on the outer tracks. 

The different stages of the work are well illustrated by 
the accompanying photographs. First the old track rails 
were removed and then the slot rails. These rails had been 



January 



1 8, 1908.]. 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



69 



in service for more than twenty years and were so well 
secured in a solid roadbed that even though laid entirely 
on made ground they were not damaged by the earthquake. 
As a good-sized fill had to be made nearly the entire length 



steam roller and brought up to a point two inches below 
the bottom of the ties, which were embedded in a crushed 
red rock. On the hewn redwood ties were placed the rails, 
consisting of 9-in. 141-lb. grooved rail in 6o-ft. lengths. 




TRACK FILLED IN KK\ 



■■OR CONCRETE STRINGERS 



of the section, the old concrete roadbed with cable yokes Steel tie rods are used every ten feet and in addition the 
was left in place, thus forming a solid foundation for the rails are braced by steel angle chains every eight feet, 
new bed. After the track was lined up and the rails brought up to 




TEMPORARY OUTER LOOP AT THE FERRY BUILDING 



After the sand or crushed brick fill was brought up to the grade a concrete stringer i<S ins. wide at the top and 24 ins. 
required grade, eight inches of ballast were placed on it. at the bottom was cast under each rail so as to bed in the 
This ballast consisted of crushed rock or old concrete foot of each rail. The V-shaped space between the string- 
broken up. This was then rolled thoroughly with a lo-ton crs was filled with crushed rock to the top of the ties. 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. 3. 



Basalt paving block topthing was next laid against the rails completed street will be a very valuable improvement and 

and filled in between with concrete to within two inches of will also tend to remove the unfavorable impression found 

grade. The roadbed was topped with two inches of by strangers this past year, who have obtained their first 

asphalt. and often lasting idea of San Francisco by wading through 




PT'ITIXr, TP (iLl) rVP.I.E RAILS. PREPARATORY TO FILLING IN AND RAISING ROADRF.D TO PERItlANENT GRADE OF 

TRACKS AT SIDE 

The Space between tracks was built up in the same man- and over the debris, dust or mud, building obstacles, etc., 
ner. The four tracks are laid on ii-ft. centers, and as the that have been predominant on lower Market Street since 
company is required to place and maintain the pavement to 




LOOKING UP CALIFORNIA STREET, SHOWING NEW TRACK AT OLD CABLE RAILS AND SLOT REMOVED, PREPARATORY TO 

PERMANENT GRADE LEVEL CHANGE TO ELECTRIC OPERATION 

a line two feet outside the outer rails, it has had to put in the fire. The improved Market Street will stand as one of 

more than forty-one feet of roadbed and pavement, or the first monuments of a clean anti-graft municipal ad- 

nearly half the entire width of Market Street. As the city ministration. 

is paving the rest of Market Street in a similar manner the Another feature of the improvements on lower Market 



January i8. njoS.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



Street is the construction of a double loop by the United 
Railroads at the Ferry terminus of the Market Street lines. 
Previous to the fire of April, 1906, the cable cars ran on to 
a turntable and had to be reversed before they could start 
back on the line. To say nothing of the inconvenience 
caused by the necessity of jumping onto the cars while they 
were being turned, they could not be dispatched quickly 
enough in the evening rush hours to prevent daily a block- 




CONCRETE CRUSHER ON FLAT CAR FOR CRUSHING OLD 
CONCRETE FOR NEW ROADBED 



ade stretching up Market Street for from four to six 
blocks. 

During the fall of 1906 a temporary loop was laid in 
front of the Ferry Building, as shown in the view on 
page 69, taken Oct. 22, 1906. Later this track was made 
permanent and recently an inner loop has been added and 




REMOVING CAIU.E YOKES AND CONCRETE ROADBED BY 
DERRICK CAR 



the straight tracks in the center removed. Witli the new 
arrangement the double loop system will in reality extend 
up the street as far as Sutter and Sansome streets, as 
shown on the accompanying drawing. The Sutter and 
some of the north of Market lines will switch to the outer 
tracks at Sutter Street and continue on this track around 



the outer loop and and back on the outer track. The re- 
maining Market Street lines will continue straight down 
the inner tracks and use the inner loop. Cross-overs 
will be provided so that the service can be flexibly handled 



LAYOUT IN SHOP OF SPECIAL TRACK FOR 3-FT. 6-IN: CABLE 
TRACK AND STANDARD GAGE ELECTRIC TRACK OX 
EDGE OF LOOP .^T THE FERRY 

in case of trouble on any one track. Even as the service 
has been operated the last fall, with only one loop in use at 
a time, there has been very little and generally no blockade 
during rush hours. 

In rehabilitating the old Sacramento and Clay Street 
cable road opportunity has been taken to obviate the dan- 
gerous "death curve" at Sacramento, East and Market 
streets. Formerly the cars passed within about five feet of 




ROLLING THE ROADBED 



the curb in rounding the corner. The improvement con- 
sisted in building the cable track Jind the outer track of the 
trolley loop in conjunction for a short distance, thus en- 
abling the cable line to be placed seventeen feet from the 
curb at the dangerous corner. Two of the illustrations 
show the special work for this point as assembled in the 




72 



StREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. 3. 



shops of the United Railroads and also as laid. It will be 
noticed that the cable track is of 3-ft. 6-in. gage, while the 
electric track is of standard gage. But one crossing of 
rails is necessary and the short rail does not have to be 
broken. The roadbed of the cable road was constructed in 
a manner similar to that described for the Market Street 
lines, except that basalt blocks cemented in place were used 



between the rails. One object of the special cementing 
was to make the trackway smooth and slippery so that 
horses would be kept off and out of the way of the cars, 
the street being narrow and subject to congestion. 

Formerly the cars on this line were operated down Sac- 
ramento and out Clay streets. Owing to the joint opera- 
tion on a portion of the loop, however, the direction of the 
cars had to be reversed. This change necessitated shifting 



the Sacramento Street track between Hyde and Larkin 
streets so as to make a cross-over to the opposite side of the 
loop, beginning at Larkin street. This work of shifting 
the entire concrete roadbed was accomplished successfully 
with the aid of hydraulic jacks, as shown on this page, 
the method being similar to that used on the Sutter Street 
line and described in the Street Railway Journal about 
two years ago. 



The old double cable track crossing at Powell and Cali- 
fornia streets, at the corner of the Fairmount Hotel, and 
the new one which has replaced it with steel-hardened cen- 
ters, heavy yokes, rails and plates. 

As previously mentioned, most of the track reconstruc- 
tion work of the United Railroads where electric operation 
superseded cable the entire concrete roadbed of the cable 
track was removed. The method 
of doing this work is illustrated 
in the engravings which ap- 
pear on pages 70 and 71. The 
track and slot rails were first 
broken loose and removed, the 
yokes were then loosened by 
picks and by means of a car der- 
rick the large chunks of concrete; 
were hoisted out. As the yokes 
were generally firmly imbedded 
in these blocks, the latter were 
swung over the pavement, the 
hoisting winch released and the 
block allowed to fall to the 
ground. This operation was gen- 
erally successful in breaking the 
yoke away from the concrete. 
For the new roadbed this broken 
concrete was run through a 
crusher which was mounted on a 
flat car and driven by an electric 
motor from the trolley circuit. 
The crushed concrete was thus 
quickly and efficiently deposited on the new roadbed at the 
points desired. 

The red rock spoken of as being used for the top fill of 
the track on the Market Street work is obtained from a 
quarry near Sutro Heights on the Cliff House line. It is 
shoveled out by means of the improvised electric shovel, 
which consists of a standard railway derrick car to the 
boom of which, at about its center, has been pivoted an 
arm with a two-yard bucket at the lower end. The entire 
apparatus is driven by one motor at trolley voltage and 
works very successful!}'. 

The reconstruction work mentioned is being carried on 
under the general supervision of General Manager Charles 
N. Black, the direct oversight and designing of the work 
being in the hands of B. Peyton Legare, engineer of main- 
tenance of way and construction for' the United Railroads. 
The photographs are by J. H. Mentz, official photographer 
of the company. 

. ...4... 

Two hundred and eighty-eight employees of the electrical 
department of the Georgia Railway & Electric Company 
were on Jan. i the guests of H. M. Atkinson, Chairman 
of the Board, at a dinner, given at the Davis Street 
plant. It was the twelfth annual gathering, Mr. Atkinsoii 
having inaugurated the custom when the employees nuni- 
bered only thirty-two men. There are now more than 350 
men in the department, while the parent company, which 
includes the street railway department and the gas company, 
employs more than 2000 people. Mr. Atkinson's guests 
were conducted from the electric and gas building to the 
plant in special cars. Half an hour was consumed in in- 
specting the machinery, the most interesting part of which 
was the huge 3000-hp gas engine. The luncheon was 
served on long tables ranged down the west side of the 
building. 




MOVING CABLE ROADBED BY HYDRAULIC JACKS 




COXXRETE AS REMO\ ED FROM CABLE ROADBED 



January i8, 1908.] STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



WINDING ROOM DEVICES IN THE SHOPS OF THE 
WEST PENN RAILWAYS 



The West Penn Railways Company makes all its arma- 
ture and field coils, and several original devices have been 
developed in the winding room for facilitating and decreas- 
ing the cost of their manufacture. 

HOT COIL PRESS 

To press the coils, a hot press with a double motion has 
been built. After the coil has been placed in the slot, the 
crank shown in the accompanying illustration is turned and 
the slot or groove is narrowed down to the proper width. 
The hand wheel on top is then employed to lower the top 




METHOD OF HOLDING COIL WHILE TAPING IT 



-iron and press the insulation of the coil to shape. The 
press is heated by a gas flame underneath. Two similar 
presses are in use in the winding room. 

COIL CLAMP 

One .of the accompanying illustrations also shows a con- 
venient method of holding a coil while it is being taped. 
A crank on a screw projecting upward through the clamp 
presses the clamp down against the coil. 

INSULATION CABINET 

On the wall of the winding room is a cupboard built 
especially for insulating materials of various kinds. The 
lower part holds ten standard length rolls of duck, linen, 
asbestos or other materials. Above are shelves for tape, 
cut mica, fibre and similar winding room materials. The 




COMMUTATOR GROOVER 



lower portion of the front of the cabinet is hinged so that 
it may be swung open and be used as a cutting table. 

COMMUTATOR SLOTTER 

The commutators of all railway armatures on the sys- 
tem are kept slotted. The work is accomplished by means 
of a 13/2-in. diameter circular metal saw held in a special 
device and driven by a small motor through a flexible shaft. 
The saw is secured to the shaft of the holder in such a 
manner that when worn it may readily l)c removed and 



73 

replaced by a new one. About twenty-five minutes is re- 
quired to slot a Westinghouse 56 commutator j/g, in. deep. 
A small motor driven blower on the same circuit as the 
driving motor is employed to blow the mica dust away from 
the operator. 

FIELD COIL TESTER 

A transformer field coil tester in use is also illustrated 




INSULATION CLOSET IN THE WEST PENN RAILWAYS 
COMPANY'S SHOPS 



herewith. "The magnetic circuit is built of laminations and 
is 3 ins. X 5 ins. in cross section. The opening inside is 5 
ins. X 12 ins. A wooden frame holds the laminations to- 




DOUBLE MOVEMENT DEVICE FOR HOT PRESSING COILS 



gether. The top section of the circuit is suspended by a 
rope passing over a pully above and counterbalanced. The 
illustration shows a field coil being used as a primary coil. 
However, a specially wound coil of seventy-eight turns of 
No. 5 wire is usually employed. Alternating current is ob- 
tained from connections with the city lighting system. 

BAKING OVEN 

Coils and armatures are baked in an electrically heated 
box built of reinforced concrete. The wiring is so ar- 



74 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. 3. 



ranged that the electric heaters may be used in connection 
with armature testing circuits where from 5 to 12 amperes 
are required. 

The winding room devices described were gotten up 




FIELD COIL TESTER 

largely by Mr. Crawford, shop foreman, and O. B. Eve, 
foreman of the winding room. This article is published 
through the courtesy of Geo. W. Wells, master mechanic 
of the system. 



oil begins to flow and as a consequence the bearing may 
become so hot that the babbitt will melt and run out. 

To eliminate these troubles, the novel method shown in 
the accompanying print was devised by a lubrication ex- 
pert. The material comprises a small casting with the 
upper end tapped out for )^-in. gas pipe and having a 
tapering hole so that the lower end has an opening of only 
3-16 in. The casting is set in the center of the hole in the 
motor shell and a hard wood print placed on top. The 
print is so made that there is a space for any desirable 
thickness of babbitt metal. The metal then is poured into 
this space and when cool the print is withdrawn, leaving a 
perfect oil-tight box integral with the motor frame. If a 
cross-bar is required it can be cast in the babbitt. Any 
type of feed can be used in this cup. 

The drawing shows the cup equipped with the Remelius 
type of post, which consists of a tapering pin in a hollow 
tube, the tube having a seat fitted to the taper on the end 
of the pin. The post extends through the cover with two 
nuts on top, one nut acting as a lock. The regulating valve 
does not have to be in the post, as the whole regulating- 
device can be placed in the small casting. 

The change in the method of securing the cover was 
made owing to the loss of thousands of badly hinged oil 
box covers on the old type motors. Not only is the cover 
held tight, but also dust proof, as it is flanged and has 
either a felt or leather washer. The cover has an oblong 
hole protected by a spring cover, through which oil is 
poured into the box. 



INTEGRAL OIL BOX FOR RAILWAY MOTORS 



Several large electric railway companies in the East 
liave recently adopted an improved method for arranging 
the oil feed in the old type motors for- 
merly lubricated with grease. The use of 
an oil cup has proven troulolesome in many 
ways and at the present time is the cause 
of a number of railways continuing to use 
grease. The oil cup for such motors has 
not only caused a lot of trouble, but has 
also heen an expensive arrangement. One 
of the troubles was due to the great dif- 
ferences in the size of the opening or old 
grease receptacle in the motor frame of 
the same type of motor ; and as it would 
be impossible to make different sizes of 
cups to care for this variation, a large per- 
centage of them are such a poor fit that 
it is impossible to hold them tight enough 
to prevent their jumping out and getting 
lost or broken when the car goes over 
special work or switches. 

Another great trouble is that it is neces- 
sary to have two or three patterns for the 
same motor, as the armature boxes are 
entirely different in form and size from 
those on the axle bearing, so that a system 
having several different types of motors 
would of necessity require numerous sizes 
and shapes of oil cups. 

Still another disadvantage in using an 
oil cup is that during extremely cold 
weather the oil congeals and does not feed 
until the bearing becomes warm enough to heat the oil 
through the cup. As the oil cup has quite an air space 
around it, considerable heat must be generated before the 



The Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company has -notified the 
Public Service Commission, in compliance with a request 
made at the public hearing, that in November it had avail- 





Top View 



DETAILS OF INTEGRAL OIL BOX 




Steel Sprins 



Ptrocf 1!\ .loiirnal ■ 



able for winter service 1604 surface cars, as compared with 
1403 surface cars available in 1906. The increase in cars 
is 14.3 per cent, and in seating capacity 16.8 per cent. 



January i8, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



75 



NOVEL CAR USED IN TROY, N. Y. 



The United Traction Company, which operates the street 
railways of Albany and Troy and vicinity, recently ordered 
twenty-five cars of a type embodying several interesting 
departures from current city practice. Fifteen of these 
cars have been completed and are now used in Troy, for 
which service they were especially designed. 




APPEARANCE OF THE NEW TROV CAR WHEN THE DOORS ARE CLOSED AND THE STEPS ARE UP 

Unlike Albany^ which is noted for its steep hills, the 
greater part of Troy extends as a very level and narrow 
belt about 7^ miles long and parallel to the Hudson River. 
When the numerous factories in this section close in the 
evening, there is a tremendous rush to the cars, attended 
by the usual quota of platform accidents. Consequently, 
the problem before the company was to secure a car which 
would give the maximum carrying capacity, eliminate the 



It will be noted from the accompanying plan and section 
that the underframe has two center sills, each consisting 
of a 6-in. I-beam. These center sills are carried clear 
through to the end of the car, where they are tied into the 
angle-iron buf¥ers. They carry the larger portion of the 
floor loads and transmit the weight of the vestibules 
through the 5 in. x 3 in. T-iron end sills. That portion of 
the center sills extending from the body bolsters to the 

buffer is supported by 
the end sills which 
are attached to the 
side sills, as shown in 
the drawing. The side 
sills are 4^ in. x 7^ 
in. yellow pine, are 
28 ft. long and cov- 
ered with J/2-in. steel 
])late on both sides. 
The rest of the un- 
derframe consists of 
short (jak cross sills 
and two plated sills 
extending the length 
of the \ estibulc from the end sill or from the end sill to the 
buffer. The trap-door location and timbers are also shown 
in the half plan of the car. 

From the arrangement of the underframing it is apparent 
that this design avoids all possibility of platforms sagging 
or dropping down. In reality the car is an integral struc- 





VIEW OF THE TROY CAR WITH THE DOOR OPEN AND THE 
STEPS DOWN. THE GRAB HANDLES ARE INSIDE 
THE CLOSED DOOR 

platform accidents and improve the headway by requiring 
less time for loading and unloading. 

These objects appear to have been admirably fulfilled by 
adopting a car practically without platforms and which 
cannot be boarded after the doors are closed by the motor- 
man. The cab arrangement as well as the door and step 
features are similar to those of the Boston car, described 
in the Street Railway Journal of Aug. 25, 1906, but the 
elimination of the usual overhanging platform is due to 
important changes in the underframing. 



INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING TOWARD OPENED MOTORM.XN'S 
CAB, SHOWING DOORLESS ENTRANCE TO 
SEATING COMPARTMENT 

ture, having but one floor level and containing two doors 
at each end with a cab for the motorman. Another feature 
of the underframe construction is the greater resistance 
of¥ered in collisions, owing to the way the body bolster is 
attached to the floor framing. In case a collision occurs, 
when the car body is stopped suddenly while the trucks go 
forward under their momentum, something must give way. 
With this kind of construction, the most likely accident 
would be to have the king-bolt twist the body bolster, which 
can be easily removed and repaired, leaving most of the 



76' 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. 3. 



shock of the collision to be borne by the two 6-in. I-beams 
serving as the center sills. 

The total over-all length of this car is 51 ft. ins. and 
its v^'idth 8 ft. The section in which the seats are placed 
is only 28 ft. long, but it would hardly be proper to call the 
seating compartment the car body in the usual sense, as 
there are no doors separating it from the vestibules, the 



Ooorc/ossol 



depth of 32 ins. It is separated from the rest of the car 
by two folding doors provided with glass sash, through 
which the motorman can observe boarding and alighting 
passengers without coming into contact with them. These 
doors are attached to channel beams, inside of which the 
car wiring is led, as shown in the platform plan. 

The most interesting feature in the operation of the car. 




ARRANGEMENT OF PLATFORM, MOTORMAN'S VESTIBULE, 
STEPS, ETC. 

arrangement in this respect being exactly like that of the 
New York subway cars. The seats, which are arranged 
longitudinally to give maximum standing room, will ac- 
commodate forty persons. They are of rattan and 18 ins. 
wide, leaving an aisle about 3 ft. 4 ins. wide for standing 
passengers in addition to the large space in the vestibules. 
This large proportion of standing room is particularly de- 
sirable in this case because of the nature of the rush-hour 




CROSS SECTION AT END SILL AND BOLSTER 

and the one which is expected to do so much to reduce 
platform accidents and delays, is the method of simultane- 
ously closing the doors and raising the car steps, or con- 
trariwise, opening the doors and lowering the steps. The 
latter, of course, are double because the vestibule is flush 
with the rest of the car floor. 

The actuating mechanism for a pair of doors on each 
side consists of an air motor supplied from the regular air- 




H.ALF-PLAN OF UNDERFRAMING, SHOV/ING EXTENSION OF CENTER SILLS TO THE END OF THE CAR ■ 



travel in Troy. One can readily understand why ma.ximum 
standing capacity is a necessity on these routes in view of 
the fact that only one of the Troy collar and cuff companies 
has fully 4500 girls who leave the works in the evening 
at the same time. 

The general arrangement of what would ordinarily be 
called the platforms is well shown in one of the plans and 
also in one of the interior views. The motorman's cab 
extends the full width of the vestibule and has a maximum 



brake reservoir, and a system of levers connecting with the 
doors and steps. The device is controlled pneumatically 
by the motorman through two handles in the cab, one 
handle caring for the front end and the other for the rear 
end of the car. The motorman, of course, while control- 
ling the front door does not close the rear door until he 
receives the starting bells from the conductor, nor does he 
open the doors before the car has stopped. The doors are 
adjusted to open in one second and close in two, but the 



January i8, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



77 



movement can be slowed or quickened one way or the other 
if found desirable. Rubber air cushions are attached to 
the closing edge of the doors, and as the latter are automat- 
ically retarded in the last two or three inches of the closing 
movement, there is little danger that passengers will be 
pinched or have their clothing caught. The step levers are 
conected to the main lever which controls the corresponding 
door. When the door is closing the lower and upper hinged 
steps fold together parallel to the side of the car in a posi- 
tion where it is impossible to get a hold of any kind, be- 
cause the grab-handles are inside the doors. Should the 
air mechanism fail the door and step could be operated by 
hand. The doors are also wide enough for two passengers 
to enter or leave together. 

The cars were built by J. M. Jones & Sons, Watervliet, 
N. Y. They are operated on Brill 27 G-i double trucks, 
have four G. E. 80, 40-hp motors, K-28 controllers, General 
Electric air brakes and Peacock hand brakes. The door 
and step mechanism was furnished by the Consolidated Car 
Heating Company. The general design and construction of 
the cars was in charge of H. A. Benedict, mechanical and 
electrical engineer of the United Traction Company. 



THE NEW HAVEN SYSTEM OF SINGLE-PHASE DISTRIBU- 
TION WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO 

SECTIONALIZATION * ^ 

BY W. S. JIURRAY, 
Electrical Ejigineei', Xew Yurk, New Ila^'en & Hartford Railroad Company. 

In the New Haven installation a number of methods of 
distribution were considered, among them the following : 

(1) Eleven thousand-volt, three-phase generation at the 
power house, transmission along the right of way at this 
voltage ; step-down transformers furnishing trolley voltage 
at 3300; track mileage divided into three equal linear parts, 
each part being supplied by an individual phase. 

(2) The same arrangement as (i) with the exception 
that step-down transformers furnish 6600 volts to trolley. 

(3) Eleven thousand-volt, three-phase generation at 
power house ; transmission along the right of way at this 
voltage ; track mileage divided into two equal linear parts, 
each part having its trolley connected through the trans- 
mission line to one of the three terminals of the power 
house bus-bar, the remaining bus-bar being connected to the 
tracks, thus making a common connection for the two trol- 
ley sections. 

(4) Eleven thousand-volt, three-phase generation, trans- 
mission along the right of way at this voltage, only one 
phase being applied to all sectionalized trolley wires 
throughout tTie zone of electrification. The three phases 
are also carried throughout the electrification zone, and are 
at all points available for polyphase motors, such as would 
be used in railway machine shops and for the operation of 
motor-driven generators ■ in local direct-current railway 
plants owned by the railroad company. 

Fig. I shows the three first mentioned. Fig. 2 shows the 
fourth, which was the one actually adopted. 

There are advantages to be gained in any one of the 
above mentioned alternatives, but the single-phase distri- 
bution as described under (4) carries with it advantages, 
the sum of which far outweighs the sum of the advantages 
in the others. In a word, the distribution, as described 
u-nder (i), (2) and (3), would seem to offer a better oppor- 
tunity to distribute the load in tlie three-phase windings of 

*Abstract of paper presented at tlie meeting of the American Institute 
of Electrical Engineers, Jan. lo, 1908. 



the generators, yet this is open to question on account of 
the possible unequal distribution of trains in the individual 
phased sections. But the greatest and deciding disad- 
vantage of any of the three-phase distribution schemes is 
the complication that results in the overhead system, to- 
gether with the fact that for an equal weight of overhead 
copper the efficiency of the single-phase system is higher 
than any of the polyphase arrangements. 

A modification of arrangement (4), which was consid- 
ered, may be mentioned, namely, 11,000-volt, three-phase 
generation, single-phase distribution for traction with step- 
down transformers distributed along the line, their sec- 
ondaries furnishing 3300 or 6600 volts to the sectionalized 
trolleys. For the reason that the life-hazard in using 11,- 
000 volts was not considered to be greatly increased over 
that of 3300 or 6600 volts, and in view of the higher effi- 
ciency, lesser currents to be collected by locomotive shoe 
contacts, greater reliability and the lower operating costs 
(no transformer sub-stations) the advantages of the 11,000- 
volt direct transmission to the sectionalized trolleys was 
immediately apparent, and the problem became simply one 
of insulation. 

As concerns the choice of three-phase generators in con- 
nection with single-phase distribution for traction pur- 
poses, again local conditions were the real factors that 
framed this conclusion. Single-phase or balanced poly- 
phase voltages are undeniably more desirable than unbal- 
anced ones ; at the same time when proper allowance and 
arrangement are made for the unbalanced voltages, and 
there is a decided market for polyphase power, it is diffi- 
cult to escape the conclusion that it is a desirable and neces- 
sary adjunct to the system. In connection with its appli- 
cation to the New Haven electrification, it may be said that 
synchronous motors will be shortly substituted for steam 
engines in one of our lighting plants. Such arrangements 
will bring about the centralization of power generation, 
and by proper field adjustment of the synchronous motors 
the general power factor .of the single-phase system will 
be raised. 

Having touched upon some of the determining factors 
that brought about the arrangement of three-phase genera- 
tion and single-phase distribution, the remainder of this 
paper will be confined to a discussion of the methods and 
lengths involved in the sectionalizing of the single-phase 
distribution, and as tlTe power wire (which is the outside 
wire in Fig. 2) plays only an unimportant part in its appli- 
cations to the traction system, it will not be referred to 
again. 

Single-phase distribution offers an excellent opportunity 
for sectionalizing. As may be seen from Fig. 2, the 
system consists simply of the track trolleys, two auxiliary 
wires immediately adjacent and the necessary switching 
complement. Although these auxiliary wires have been 
called feeder wires and while, as a matter of fact, they do 
serve to increase the capacity of the overhead system, this 
is not their principal function, as the amount of copper in- 
cluded in the trolleys would suffice to be within the eco- 
nomic figures of copper loss. The auxiliary wires are in- 
stalled to serve as by-passes, in the event of it being de- 
sired to cut dead any or all of the trolley wires in any 
section. Thus by this system of auxiliary by-passes any 
degree of sectionalizing can be used, and any or all trolley 
voltages in sections can be removed without interrupting 
the continuity of the voltages throughout the zone. The 
lengths of sections are governed entirely by local condi- 
tions. No two sections of the 14 that exist in the 21 miles 



78 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vo]^. XXXL No. 3. 



of New Haven electrification are the same. It is seen, 
however, from these figures that the average length of sec- 
tions is 1.68 miles, that none of these is over 2.19 miles or 
less than 1.07 miles. 

The best reason that can be assigned for the use of 
sections is in order that line troubles may be localized. 
There are many others, and some of a most important char- 
acter. Indeed, it may be said that were the line absolutely 
immune from trouble, such as grounding, mechanical fail- 
ures, etc., there would still be many good reasons for sec- 
tionalizing it, and these reasons will develop as the subject 
is further studied. 

Of the 14 electrical sections between Woodlawn and 
Stamford, nine are co-terminus with the signal towers. 
In each of these towers there is installed a small panel con- 
taining the pilot switches controlling the trolley (and by- 
pass) circuit breakers installed on the anchor bridges. 
Aside from the economical features of this scheme of con- 
trol, as no operators other than our present signal operators 
are required, the value of placing the distribution in the 
hands of this class of men is most important. Their con- 
stant attention to matters pertaining to the operation of 
trains brings about the attention which should be accorded 
to the distribution of current, and their thorough under- 



should be remembered that usually the items of advantage 
for the "small number" of sections will be items of dis- 
advantage for the "larger number" and vice versa. It is 
also assumed that the signal towers along the right of way 
average about 13^ miles apart and that electrical sections- 
of this length, or longer, will be classed as a "small num- 
ber" and sections shorter than this will be classed as a 
"large number." 

A tabulation of the advantages and disadvantages of 
the use of a "small number" against a "large number" of 
sections is as follows: 

SMALL NUMBER 



3- 



Advantages 

Co-tcrminus tower scheme 
more easily arranged. 

Fewer switches to main- 
tain. 

Greater reliability, due to 
less frequent grounding 
of line. 



I. 



Less cost. 
In advance 



3- 



TroUej, 3S00 Volts Phase B 



Trolley, 3300 Tolto Ptaae C i 

' „ ^ I 



=5 



- Geueratur 



Trolley, OliUO Volts 



Trulkj. tiOCO Volts 



Diatjram ~1 



Trollej, 0000 Volts 



i3 



IICCJ Volts, 3 <}i 



Pbaae b, 


^ Trolley, llOOU Voita 




I'llnse C 1 .Trolley, IKWJ Vclts 




*■ + 


/ Feeder ^ 


f 








Track 






Track 


Pha^e A , 


11000 Volts 


— f 




I'hasi A 11000 Volts 




B Section Break 






3^ 


Gtueratot Diagtaill "s 





[;>■ I Phase InBuIatloo 
Street Railway Journal 

FIG. 1.— THREE PROPOSED SYSTEMS OF SECTIONALIZATION 



Standing of the conditions of traffic on the various tracks 
permits the most intelligent handling of electrified and de- 
electrified trolleys, assuring at once prompt and reliable 
service in the matter of handling a situation when cross- 
overs have to be made on electrified tracks, and while re- 
pairs are being made on others from which the voltage 
has been removed. The value of placing the distribution 
system in the hands of the signal operators may be again 
illustrated by saying that should an electric train run past 
a stop signal set by the operator, or should the operator 
desire to stop a train in his block he has only to trip the 
pilot switch controlling the trolley circuit breaker, from 
which the train is drawing its power, and signal the oper- 
ator in the adjacent tower to do likewise. The individual 
value of this protective perquisite is an illustration of the 
use of sectionalizing outside of the question of line troubles. 

In the discussion of sectionalization it would seem inter- 
esting to enumerate the advantages and disadvantages pe- 
culiar to a choice of a "small number" and a "large num- 
ber" of sections over a given distance. In this table it 



Disadvantages 
Difficulty of locating 

grounds increased. 
Greater section of track 
cut dead in case of 
ground or other trouble. 
Disadvantage, however, 
related to cross-overs. 
Larger section breakers 
required. 

of a discussion of the items in the above 
table, is is fair to assume that convenience 
of construction of the apparatus required 
for either the long or short sections may be 
equated. That is to say, the work-train 
service, in either case, would be about the 
same, and the structures would require 
much the same general superintendence and 
engineering. 

With long sections it would, of course, 
be necessary to splice the messenger cables, 
as they could hardly be manufactured on 
single reels greater than 2 miles in length, 
but the splicing process would not be a 
matter of great inconvenience, and would 
not detract from the value of the cables. 
On the other hand, with the shorter sec- 
tions a greater number of anchor bridges 
would be required for the supply of sec- 
tionalizing switches, but these structures 
would not increase, to any extent, the diffi- 
culties of erection, nor would the placing 
of apparatus upon them interfere with 
regular traffic. 

Taking up now the discussion of the advantages and dis- 
advantages mentioned above, we note that under "advan- 
tages" : 

1. Co-terminus tower seheine more easily arranged. In 
my estimation this is by far the most important factor 
favoring a small number of sections. It is quite clear that 
with a great number of sections, their termini would fall 
at points between towers, necessitating some form of sub- 
station or building for the electrical operators. This would 
be inconvenient, both for the railroad company and the 
operator, on account of the cost of maintenance and opera- 
tion for the former, while the latter would be far removed 
from his living point. The reason that the co-terminus 
scheme is more readily arranged with the use of long sec- 
tions is apparent, in view of the fact that no convention is 
necessary to be followed in regard to standard distances, 
it being at the option of the engineer to choose such towers 
as are already located on the line as a termini of electrical 
blocks. 

2. Fewer switches to maitain. This advantage is ap- 



January i8, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



79 



parent since the number of switches varies directly with the 
number of sections, and I believe there is general agree- 
ment that a switch in any line does not increase the relia- 
bility of that line. 

3. Greater reliability, due to less frequent grounding of 
line. In the present stage of the art, the anchor insulators, 
which have given the best results from a combined me- 
chanical and electrical strain point of view, have been of 
corrugated cylindrical form. The insulating value as well 
as the reliability of this form of insulator is unquestion- 
ably less than that of the mushroom or petticoat type of 
insulator, which is used to support the messenger cables on 
intermediate catenary bridges. It is my belief, however, 
that the insulating value of the anchor insulator described 



serious matter, as the offending insulators are very quickly 
located, and there is also being perfected at this time a 
resistance scheme of measurement by which thf point of 
ground can be approximated within 5 per cent of its actual 
location. Upon the perfection of this apparatus this difli- 
culty will be eliminated. 

2. Greater section of track cut dead in case of ground 
or other trouble; disadvantage, however, related to cross- 
overs. This trouble would be of a more serious character 
if it were railroad practice to include a great many cross- 
overs on the main line. The average distance between 
cross-overs on the New Haven road is even greater than 
the distance of the electrical blocks. In consequence of 
this, should a section become dead on account of a ground, 




''^^^ LarchmoDi 



n 



^^ ^ j s Tower 6i 



•i""L^ S Tower i 
Harrisou 



.Li 





Track 3 


■ 


Track 1 


Track 2 


Track i 



Rye 



Br.No.l67 



' Port Chester Tr T 

' Test Track, Siding ri^TH" 




^ Greenwich Crossover ^ 

Tower 62 Towtr (11 

Greenwich 



I I Track 1 



I I I Track 8 



I I I Track 4 



Power S Br.No.213 



Br.No.87T 



Auxiliary ^00 



Riverside 
Tower 60 Auxiliary 



Stamford Sidings 



Stamford Siding 
Tower B9 



E 



Power 



still 11^ Power station 

H ^ 

■ .lutomatic Circuit Breaker 
— Single Line Section Break 

Double 
H Tower 



Br.No.3M 

Street Railway Journal 



Br.No.34B Br,No.374 Br.No.399 

FIG. 2.— SYSTEM OF SECTIONALIZATION ADOPTED 



could be greatly enhanced by suspending from it some form 
of protective shield or petticoat. At present the blast from 
steam locomotives seems to produce on its surface a very 
rough enamel of coal dust and cinders which is almost im- 
possible to remove, and which greatly reduces the insulat- 
ing values of the insulator. 

4. Less cost. It is immediately apparent that the cost 
would be much less on account of the elimination of a 
larger amount of switching apparatus and the heavy bridge 
* work required at all anchorages. 

In the table of "Disadvantages" we note : 
I. Difficulty of locating grounds increased. This is quite 
apparent, in view of the fact that there are a greater num- 
ber of insulators between the circuit breakers, but experi- 
ence in actual operation has indicated that this is not a 



it is possible that the train would have to cross over at a 
distance from the trouble greater than the length of the 
electrical section. Railroad engineers look upon cross- 
overs as a necessary evil on account of remembering their 
high cost of maintenance and the necessity of interlocking 
machines in conjunction with them, and it is fair to as- 
sume that their distance apart will not be decreased for the 
convenience of shortening the electrical sections; hence, 
this difficulty cannot be classed as one of special moment. 

3. Larger section breakers required. In the use of 
longer sections, it is apparent that more trains may be 
drawing power from the section breakers, so that it will be 
necessary to design them for greater capacity and they will 
be called upon to open larger propulsion currents. This 
disadvantage, however, fades when we consider that the 



8o 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXI. No. 3. 



maximum demand upon the breakers is a short circuit, and 
as this is a duty which a section breaker of any capacity 
has to stand ready to perform, this objection might be con- 
sidered as not existing. It would be a strange state of 
affairs if it were impossible to improve upon any principle 
or form of construction adopted. In regard to the prin- 
ciples which governed the electrification and sectionaliza- 
tion adopted by the New Haven road, I have found by care- 
ful inquiry into the opinion of those who are responsible 
for the operation of our electric trains and the distribution 
of currents to them, that if any change were to be made 
possibly some advantages would accrue in the use of longer 
sections. 

In regard to form of construction. It is fair to say that 
there are many changes that can be and are being made 
which will greatly increase the efficacy of distribution. It 
is my observation that the New Haven electrification has 
been looked upon as a radical departure from engineering 
practice. There is no question about the justice of such a 
remark when viewing the matter as a whole. If, how- 
ever, we segregate each link in the chain which forms the 
whole, I believe it will be found that no one link is a great 
departure from a practice that has existed many years. 
It has simply been the putting together of old principles 
into a new form. One exception can be made to this 
statement. The alternating-current railway motor is new, 
yet an exposition of its characteristics, such as in its speed 
and torque curves, show that within it old underlying prin- 
ciples prevail. Its complements, the power house and line, 
involve no new principles that have not been tried out 
under various forms and conditions. A high tension mov- 
ing, contact has nothing new or of a disturbing nature 
about it. 

When the form of electrification of the New York divi- 
sion came up for decision the easy path of the least resist- 
ance lay open to the engineers of the New Haven road. A 
form of electrification had been adopted and applied to 
traffic rails over which the New Haven trains were obliged 
to go in their entrance 'to New York City. An acceptance 
of this form of electrification would have simplified and 
made easy the duties and responsibility of the engineers of 
the New Haven road. The right path, however, is not al- 
ways the easiest, and the principles which existed in their 
minds were of a character that required a radical departure 
from the easy and tempting alternative. There is an old 
saying: "Nothing that is worth while ever calme easy," and 
such has been the case with the New Haven road. We 
have encountered unexpected difficukies, which are always 
common to initiative, though none of them has been of a 
character which could be interpreted as a menace to the 
general' principles involved. The difficulties have either 
been corrected or their correction is easily in sight. 

The last six months of operation have offered the oppor- 
tunity for a collection of valuable data, and the following 
observations and recommendations are offered in the hope 
that they may be of some value to other engineers inter- 
ested in the electrification of steam roads: 

1. In one, two, three or four-track railroads, the single- 
phase distribution should include besides the trolley wires, 
by-passes or feeders. 

2. Electrical sections should not average less than 1.5 
miles in length ; greater averages are entirely acceptable 
and individual lengths should be governed by local condi- 
tions. 

3. Twenty-two feet is a safe general working distance of 
trolley from rail. 



4. The de-insulating effect of steam locomotive stack 
discharges is a most important consideration to be kept in 
mind in the matter of properly insulating high-tension wires 
from ground. 

5. High insulation factors should be used where high- 
tension construction due to low bridges is brought nearer 
the rails than the normal height of 22 feet. Strong me- 
chanical- shields should be used to deflect locomotive blasts 
from messenger insulators at low bridges. Care should be 
exercised in the installation of these shields so that high- 
tension conductors and ground are separated by a safe 
working distance. Wherever possible, insulators should be 
installed away from the direct line ot the locomotive blast. 

6. Where auxiliary wires connected with the electrifica- 
tion cannot be carried over highway bridges as aerial con- 
ductors, they should not be carried under, unless they are 
enclosed in lead-covered, cables, with end-bells properly en- 
closed in suitable housings at points where the conductors 
change from aerial to lead-covered cables. 

7. All circuit breakers connecting feed wires (or by- 
passes) to the trolley busbars should be equipped with time 
relays, so that any short circuit will immediately open the 
trolley breakers, thus locating the trolley section grounded. 
Equipping the feeder breakers with time relays insures con- 
tinuity of voltage on wires not affected by the short cir- 
cuit. Each trolley breaker pilot switch should be provided 
with a light to indicate when it opens, and an announcer 
bell should ring in the signal tower at the same time so that* 
the operator is promptly notified. 

8. On account of deleterious influences of weather and 
locomotive stack discharges, and the general 'inconvenience 
of getting at busbars and switches when installed on anchor 
bridges, all section oil switches should be installed in switch 
houses erected at the side of the tracks, with lead-covered 
cable connections between trolley and switches. 

9. Signaling should be arranged so that the operator can 
prevent the engineer from spanning two sections by his 
locomotive shoes in the event of the advance section being 
grounded. 

10. All signal towers should be interconnected with a 
reliable telephone service. Immunity from electromagnetic 
and electrostatic disturbance in the telephone system can be 
secured by using twisted wire pairs enclosed in lead-covered 
sheath, the sheath being grounded frequently. This sug- 
gestion is more particularly applicable to the interrupted 
or tower-to-tower telephone system. In this case the dis- 
tance of exposures of the telephone wires is not great, and 
thus the summated effect of electromagnetic induction is 
negligible. In the case of the through telephone line where 
the circuit is uninterrupted throughout the zone of electri- 
fication, the lead sheath and twisted pair respectively are 
again effective in removing all static charges and electro- 
magnetically balancing the circuit ; but on account of the 
cumulative action of the electromagnetic induction, either 
compensating transformers or a system of impedance coils 
installed across the telephone circuits at intervals of "2 miles 
(this distance may be less, depending on the electromag- 
netic density) with their central points grounded should be 
used. Either method will satisfactorily remove the im- 
pressed voltage due to electromagnetic induction. The im- 
portance of reliable telephone service between operating 
towers cannot be too greatly emphasized. 

The above mentioned are some of the fundamental req- 
uisites which design and practice have brought out in con- 
nection with the New Haven electrification. Design and 
practice are many times good friends, but if a difference 



January i8, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



81 



of opinion arises, practice will, in nine times out of ten, 
have the better of the argument. Experience, the great 
teacher, has brought out either the efficacy of the original 
design or the proper modification of it. 

The observations and recommendations above cited are 
those that have been impressed upon the writer during the 
period of operation so far attained. E.xcept for certain 
minor and easily remedied details, experience to date with 
the New Haven arrangement of single-phase distribution 
would indicate that the fundamental principles involved 
have been correctly applied. 

The discussion of double or single catenary construction 
on main line electrification was intentionally omitted from 
the paper. A choice of the one or the other must be a com- 
promise of a great many considerations, the principal one 
being the number of tracks to be electrified and local con- 



such as now used in the New Haven electrification, will 
bring a lighter and cheaper construction and possibly 
afford a greater opportunity in insulating the overhead sys- 
tem from ground. I can see no reason why single cate- 
nary spans need be made any less than those used in the 
double catenary construction, as the cross rigidity that may 
be desired can be obtained by tying into adjacent latitudi- 
nal catenaries, all of which, of course, arc subject to the 
pull-off construction at present employed. Of course, 
there are a great many pros and cons about this, and again 
we are forced to the conclusion that to-day is not the time 
for standardization, as it will not pay to accelerate our 
conclusions at a greater rate than the operating evidence 
upon which they should be based. 

Still another point that has not been touched upon in 
the paper is the great flexibility offered in the double 
switch arrangement of supplying power to a trolley wire 




VIEWS IN PORTCHESTER YARDS OF NEW^ HAVEN RAILROAD, SHOWING SINGLE CATENARY CONSTRUCTION 



ditions, but there is one fact that has been conclusively 
demonstrated to me, viz., either the trolley wire or the 
trolley shoe must be flexible, whether the construction be 
for main or branch lines. Of course, in the single cate- 
nary construction a flexible contact conductor is provided. 
In the triangular construction the contact conductor is 
rigid. This requires a flexible shoe, which in a degree is 
secured by the spring pantograph arrangement. E.xperi- 
ence, however, has forced upon me the conclusion that the 
pantograph must be still further supplemented by a light 
but strong mechanism which will insure flexible contact 
between the shoe and trolley wire, thus not offering a 
great deal of inertia in movement when the shoe meets 
the hard spots of the line, which exists at the catenary 
haiiger points. 

We have adopted a form of construction in our East 
Portchester yard, in which the latitudinal catenaries are 
supported by cross catenaries, in some cases spanning as 
many as ten tracks. This construction has about it a 
great many attractive features, and I am not sure but that 
experience will not bring out the possibility of using the 
cross catenary for main-line work. Such an arrangement, 
if more frequently reinforced with cross bridge anchorages 



at the two extremities of its section. It is readily seen 
that if the trouble exists in one of the circuit-breakers sup- 
plying a trolley wire in any given section, this switch can 
be immediately cut out and all the power supplied will be 
from the remaining switch at the other end. This flexi- 
bility, of course, is secured in virtue of the low loss due 
to high-tension transmission and the employment of by- 
passes or feeders, to which previous reference has been 
made. 

An impression has come to me that I might have dwelt 
more fully on the details of the system of distribution. 
As stated previously, it has been so universally described 
in the engineering papers that I have rather felt that I 
was writing about results and experiences with something, 
with the general parts of which we were all acquainted. 
If I have universal support in this impression, I can only 
offer in amelioration Fig. 4, which assembles all the links 
of our transmission chain, the functions of any one link 
of which is common knowledge. 

[The flexible suspension in the Port Chester yards, de- 
scribed by Mr. Murray in the abo\e paragraphs, is illus- 
trated in the two lialf-tonc engra\ings herewith. — Eus. 
.Street R,\ii,w,\v Jot'Kx.\i.. | 



82 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. 3. 



A NEW SINGLE -PHASE RAILWAY MOTOR 

At the meeting of the American Institute of Electrical 
Engineers, held on Jan. 10, E. F. Alexanderson, of the 
General Electric Company, presented a paper devoted to a 
technical description of a single-phase commutator motor 
which has recently been put on the market by that com- 
pany. The machine is called a "series-repulsion" motor, 
because it embodies many of the best features of the so- 
called plain repulsion motor and of the compensated series 
motor. Its terminal voltage can be selected with greater 
liberty than with the series motor, but not so arbitrarily 
as with the repulsion motor. 

In mechanical construction the machine differs imma- 
terially from either the Thomson-Atkinson repulsion motor 
or a conductively compensated motor. However, the "com- 
pensating" winding, termed the "inducing" winding, has 
twice as many turns as would usually be employed for a 
series motor. The mechanical arrangements of the circuits 
are indicated in Fig. i. The electrical connections of the 
rotor and stator circuits during the starting and the run- 
ning periods are shown in Figs. 2 and 3, respectively. The 
inagnetizing actions of the stator windings are not indi- 
cated in the last two illustrations, but they can be ascer- 
tained by studying these two diagrams in connection with 
Fig. I. It is believed that the characteristics of the motor 
under starting and running conditions can most readily be 
shown by the use of Figs. 4, 5, 6 and 7. 

The connections of Fig. 4 are electrically equivalent in 
all respects to those of Fig. 2, while the magnetic relations 
are also properly shown. Fig. 5 shows circuits whose elec- 
trical characteristics and magnetic behavior are the same in 
every respect to those in the circuits of Fig. 4 or Fig 2. 
It will be noted that the motor indicated in Fig. 5 is a so- 
called plain Thomson-Atkinson repulsion motor, and pos- 
sesses all of the characteristics of this machine. The 
"inducing" winding has twice as many effective turns as 
the armature, hence the armature current at starting is 
equal to twice the current in the inducing coil, or to twice 
the current in the field coil, as shown in Fig. 2. It is 
claimed that by the connections shown in Fig. 2 (and re- 




FIG. 1— .\RR.\NGEMENT OF M.VGNET- FIGS. 2 AND S.— ELECTRICAL 
IZING CIRCUITS CONNECTIONS IN START- 

ING AND RUNNING 
POSITIONS 

produced in Figs. 4 and 5} the starting torque is doubled 
for the same current and same commutation as would be 
obtained with a compensated series motor. 

The electrical connections shown in Fig. 3 are repro- 
duced in Fig. 6, which indicates also the magnetic rela- 
tions. The circuits of Fig. 7 are electrically and magneti- 
cally equivalent to those of Fig. 3. The performance char- 
acteristics of the motor of Fig. 7 are similar to those of a 



compensated single-phase motor, but the action throughout 
the commutation zone is quite different. In the motor of 
b^ig. 7 the flux along the brush axis depends solely upon the 
e. m. f., Es, and is unaffected in any way by the current in 
the armature. The current in the compensating and com- 
nmtating winding is a dependent variable, having a value 
such as not only to oppose the magnetomotive force of the 
armature current, but also to supply the m. m. f. to produce 
the flux demanded by the e. m. f. Es. The cutting of this 
flux by tlie armature conductors under running conditions 




FIGS. I AND 5.— EQUIVALENT OF CIRCUITS SHOWN IN 
FIGS. 1 AND 2 

generates in the armature coil under the brush a speed 
e. m. f. that neutralizes the transformer e. m. f. produced 
in this coil by the alternating field flux. 

It is interesting to examine the required value and time- 
phase position of the commutating flux. The transformer 
e. m. f. of the field flux varies in value solely with the 
field strength, and is always in time-quadrature therewith ; 
it is unaffected by the speed except to the extent that the 




FIGS. 6 AND 7.— EQUIVALENT OF CIRCUITS SHOWN IN 
FIGS. 1 AND 3. 



speed may alter the field strength. The speed e. m. f. of 
the commutating flux is in time-phase with this flux and it 
varies in value with both the flux and the speed. It is seen, 
therefore, that the commutating flux should be in time-quad- 
rature with the field flux and it should decrease in value as 
the speed increases. When the connections shown in Fig. 7 
are used, the commutating flux is always in time-quadrature 
with the e. m. f. Es (or Ep). Now, under speed conditions 
the current through the armature and field circuits is ap- 
proximately in time-phase with the e. m. f. Ep. Hence, 
the field flux, which is in time-phase with the field current, 
is almost in time-quadrature with the commutating flux. 
Fig. 2 shows the arrangement of connections which allows 
the e. m. f. Es, and therefore the commutating flux, to be 
decreased as the e. m. f. impressed across the motor field 



January i8. 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



83 



and armature circuits is increased, or as the speed in- 
creases. 

It is stated thaf the commutation of the machine at a 
frequency of 25 cycles is much better than that of a con- 
ductively compensated series motor at the same frequency, 
and even better than that of the latter motor at 15 cycles. 
This result is due largely to the use of the connections de- 
scribed above, although some improvement is attributed to 
the use of a fractional-pitch winding on the armature. The 
latter improvement is said to be of the same character as 
that accompanying the change from an ordinary direct- 
current machine to a commutating-pole machine. The in- 
troduction of the commutating flux tends to lower the 
power factor, but Mr. Alexanderson claims that the greater 
liberty in design that is gained in the new type allows the 
motor as constructed for railway service to possess prac- 
tically the same power factor as does a conductively com- 
pensated series motor for the same duty. 



DISCUSSION AT THE A. L E. 

The discussion of the papers on Jan. 10 was opened by 
L. B. Stillwell, who congratulated the Institute upon the 
attitude of the engineers of the New Haven Railroad in 
frankly disclosing not only their successes but also their 
difficulties. He thought that the Institute should have more 
papers of the kind of Mr. Murray's, in which actual work 
is described. Such papers are presented before other tech- 
nical bodies, and the resulting criticism of practice is bene- 
ficial to all concerned. He also congratulated Mr. Alexan- 
derson and his associates on the production of a single- 
phase motor in which there was no idle resistance in the 
armature winding, but was anxious to learn how much this 
step had cost in other directions. The strong point of the 
motor appears to be its facility to commutate under speed 
without sparking, but at the moment of starting the spark- 
ing may be serious. It would also be interesting to know 
the power factor, both at starting and at speed, as well as 
the ratio of output to weight. Little was said in Mr. Alex- 
anderson's paper in regard to the performance at low fre- 
quencies. From the facts given it would look as if the 
motor would gain as much in the ratio of output to weight 
by a reduction of the frequency from 25 to 15 cycles, as 
the compensating series motor, but in view of the limited 
space on a railway truck, information on this subject is of 
importance. 

A communication from B. G. Lamme was read by F. H. 
Shepard. Mr. Lamme showed that in order to limit the 
sparking at starting in the Alexanderson repulsion motor 
it is necessary to reduce the field strength considerably be- 
low the value allowable when resistance leads are used with 
a compensated-series motor. Even if the field strength 
were reduced to 70 per cent of normal the short-circuit 
current would have five times the normal value and the 
working current for double-torque would have to be 2.86 
times the normal. With preventive leads the short-circuit 
current would be 1.25 times normal and the working cur- 
rent for double-torque only 1.6 times normal. Thus the 
brushes of the former motor would have to carry three 
times as much current at starting as those of the latter. 
With the same limiting short-circuit voltage, the flu.x; could 
be increased by 66 per cent by using 15 instead of 25 
cycles, and the output could be increased by about 30 per 
cent. 

W. B. Potter complimented the New Haven Company 
on the excellence of its overhead construction, but where 



there was joint operation with steam he believed that the 
third-rail was superior to an overhead construction. He 
agreed with Mr. Murray on the desirability of a through 
feeder in parallel with the different sections, but did not 
see the need of two such feeders on the same phase as the 
trolley wires. He favored from 3 to 5 miles for the length 
of main line sections rather than a shorter distance, and 
this length had proven satisfactory in third-rail operation. 
At cross-overs, however, there should be a short section 
controlling the main line and cross-over tracks. In con- 
nection with the third point mentioned by Mr. Murray, he 
said 22 ft. was a desirable height for the trolley wire and 
it was unfortunate that this height should not be main- 
tained throughout, as it would then be possible to use a 
nmch lighter form of pantograph. He did not think it 
would be advisable to carry overhead wires, which are sub- 
ject to lightning, through lead cables, and thought this 
could generally be avoided by modifications in the construc- 
tion followed. Referring to the Alexanderson motor, he 
said that the essence of the improvement embodied in it is 
its better inherent commutation. By reason of this im- 
provement it is possible to modify other features affecting 
the performance of the motors which have heretofore been 
subordinated to commutation, with an accompanying 
greater reliability, lessened maintenance cost and increased 
output for a certain amount of active material. 

O. S. Lyford, Jr., agreed with Mr. Murray's recom- 
mendation in regard to by-passes or feeders when the line 
contained two, three or four tracks, but did not think it 
always necessary with a single-track road. The objects of 
sectionalization are (i) to minimize the interference with 
the operation of the road in case of line trouble; (2) to 
locate the fault quickly, and (3) to reach the fault with a 
work train. If the line is a short one, a grounded trolley 
wire would stop traffic in any event, and the work train 
should be operated by an independent unit, preferably 
gasoline, because more easily put into service. Again, 
other things must be taken into account besides the trouble 
on the line. On a railroad provided with a positive block 
system, the process of getting the rules abandoned so that 
a special train can proceed against the block is about as 
difficult as making the repair after reaching the trouble. 
It is essential to insulate the high-voltage trolley system 
thoroughly, which at the present state of the art dictates 
the exclusive use of porcelain. On the Rochester division 
of the Erie Railroad there has been practically no disturb- 
ance of any kind on the ii,ooo-volt system, although there 
were terrible thunderstorms last summer and the high- 
tension line was struck repeatedly. A telephone system is 
on the same poles with the trolley line and, with propei 
transposition and suitable means for removing the static 
charge from the telephone line, it has been possible to 
operate the telephone system satisfactorily. 

W. I. Slichter explained that in the Alexanderson motor 
certain features are introduced to assist in starting, and 
others are employed only when running. The compensat- 
ing and inducing winding is provided with twice the num- 
ber of turns as are on the armature. Hence when the 
armature is short-circuited at starting there is twice as 
much current in the armature as in the field coils, while 
under running conditions the current in the field coils is 
equal to that in the armature. Thus the field flux is rela- 
tively smaller at starting than while running. The ten- 
dency to sparking, which is minimized at starting, is 
neutralized under running conditions. A certain amount of 
wattless volt-amperes is required for maintaining the com- 



84 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. 3. 



mutating field, but the improvement in commutation in- 
creases the efficiency and lessens the maintenance cost. 

S. M. Kintner said that he was very much interested in 
learning about the new single-phase motor, which seemed 
very interesting in theory. He would like to have had in- 
formation, however, of its power factor ; its weight com- 
pared with d.c. motors of equal torque ; its commutator 
wear under heavy currents ; character of brush used and 
life in car-miles; how long the motor can stand locked 
with 150 per cent full-load torque, and how long it will 
stand overload torques of 150 to 200 per cent of the hour 
ratings for periods of three or four minutes when operat- 
ing at normal speeds and at low speeds. It is not the run- 
ning condition that is the hard one, but the starting 
condition, and it is then that motors with preventive leads 
show their greatest superiority over those without them. 
The power factors of a certain line of series compensated 
motors with which the speaker is familiar has the follow- 
ing values : 25-cycle motors varying in size from 75 to 
250 hp at their usual ratings, 85 to 90 per cent; 15-cycle 
motors varying from 75 hp to 500 hp, 85 per cent to 94 
per cent. Data on the weight of these same motors show 
that in comparison with d.c. motors on a basis of percent- 
age of weights for equal torques, the 25-cycle motors weigh 
33 per cent and the 15-cycle motors 10 per cent more. 
These weights include gears and gear cases. Recent cal- 
culations show that in a given space it is possible to get 
50 per cent greater output with 15 cycles than with 25 
cycles. The comparison of two four-motor equipments 
made up of 75-hp, 25-cycle motors and 95-hp, 15-cycle mo- 
tors show an increase in total weight of electrical apparatus 
of 5 per cent with the 15 cycles and a gain in horse-power 
of 26 per cent. On a basis of total car weights the increase 
in weight of the 15 cycles was only 1.6 per cent. On a 
road operating 100 single-phase motors of 100 hp each, the 
car-miles per brush during October, November and Decem- 
ber, 1907, averaged 15,200 car-miles. The cars averaged 
200 miles per day, and one car during October ran 10,740 
miles and in November 9400 miles. On another road 13,000 
car miles per brush was obtained as the average for the 
past two months. In his experience with single-phase mo- 
tors during the past year and a half, covering 600 motors, 
he did not recall a single case of trouble which could be 
traced to a preventive lead burning out. 

Dr. C. P. Steinmetz stated that the two great objections 
to alternating-current commutator motors for railway work 
have been the impracticable low power factor and the hope- 
lessly bad commutation. About eighteen years ago Mr. 
Eickemeyer produced the compensating winding which 
allows a motor to be constructed with a reasonably good 
power factor. The second serious problem of the motor 
relating to commutation has been eliminated in the Alex- 
anderson motor, and the alternating-current commutator 
motor may now be considered in practically as good a shape 
as the direct-current motor. It may be stated, therefore, 
that the period of youth of the alternating-current railway 
motor is concluded. 

In conclusion, Mr. Murray said that it was a question 
whether heavy induction with preventive leads was 
better than light induction without them, and thought 
that decision should be held in reserve until prac- 
tical results should determine the answer. In regard to 
the remarks upon his own paper, he believed that in long- 
distance traction work, overhead construction and alternat- 
ing-current transmission to the motors a necessity. Two 
feeders were used so that if trouble occured on one feeder 



a section of it could be cut out and repaired. He thought 
the tendency would be toward trolley sections of from 3 to 
5 miles, but local conditions would govern. The question 
of pantographs under low bridges was a problem which 
had yet to be solved. At first some trouble had been ex- 
perienced in the system of supports at low bridges, due to 
the effect of locomotive blasts. The contacts, however, 
were reduced to two and the insulators were placed at the 
side instead of at the middle, so that the locomotive blasts 
did not effect them. Since this change was made, four or 
five months ago, no difficulty or trouble has been experi- 
enced in the grounding of the contact conductor or of the 
messenger cables under low bridges. Referring to Mr. 
Lyford's remarks, the speaker thought that feeders might 
be omitted for short, single-track lines, but were quite nec- 
essary for long, single-track lines, so as to operate on each 
side of a ground. He had a high opinion of porcelain as 
an insulator, if it was possible to get the mechanical 
strength in porcelain that can be obtained in the molded 
material. 

Mr. Alexanderson said, in answer to Mr. Stillwell's •ques- 
tion about whether his remarks about the 25-cycle motor 
applied in the same ratio to the 15-cycle motor, that if the 
heating of the motor is a limitation they do not apply, but 
if the starting torque is a limitation they do apply. Where 
a motor can slip its wheels the limitation is the heating, 
and in that case the 15 and 25 cycle motors are equivalent 
in output. A brush that has been in service for 10,000 
miles shows a wear of only 3/16 in. The motors have 
been in service for some time, but have not had the feature 
for starting described in the paper because it was imprac- 
ticable to embody it at that time. Some speakers have 
thought the motors were for a lower starting torque than 
the series motor, but Mr. Alexanderson believed that it had 
the highest starting torque possible. 



REPORTS OF THE ASSOCIATIONS 

The reports of the American Street & Interurban Rail- 
way Association and of the American Street & Interurban 
Railway Engineering Association have been issued and were 
mailed to member companies the end of last week. They are 
out earlier this year than ever before, and Secretary Swen- 
son, of the American Association, is to be congratulated 
on the promptness with which this work has been done. 
The American Association report contains 408 pages and 
that of the Engineering Association 366 pages, and both 
reports contain a summary index of the previous reports 
of the associations. The Engineering report also contains 
the full report of the sub-committee on rails, which has 
not been published in any of the technical papers. 



The Columbus Railway & Light Company, of Columbus, 
made its usual Christmas distribution to its employes. All 
married men were given $2 and the single men $1, which 
sums were added to the savings accounts started by the 
men two years ago. The company made the first deposits 
for the men two years ago, presenting them with the bank 
l)Ooks as Christmas presents. 

■ 

The record as regards number of passengers transported 
in the New York subway was reached on Saturday, Dec. 
21, when the number reached 688,638. The Manhattan 
elevated lines on the same day carried 961,114 persons, the 
largest number since the subway was opened. 



January i8, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



85 



THE PERMANENT WAY 



BY H. L. WEBER, 

Chief Engineer Fort Wayne & Wabash Valley Traction Company. 



When wood ties were cheap it was a comparatively easy 
matter to provide track within reasonable cost which would 
be suitable for heavy rolling stock. But with wood ties 
in the neighborhood of $1 each, f. o. b., some cheaper and 
more durable substitute must be found, if possible, for the 
wood tie. An increase merely in the weight of the rail will 
not solve the problem, although it will help. Good founda- 



clamp is employed to fasten the bases of the rails together, 
and the old rail ties are embedded in a concrete foundation. 
But it is poor economy to select a heavy rail section if it 
involves a sacrifice of strength in the ties and foundation. 
The best policy is first to consider the tie, next the founda- 
tion, and finally the rail. As a matter of fact, the load, 
rail, tie and foundation are considered in the order given, 
in determining what duties the ties have to perform. In a 
permanent way, where the tie and foundation are synony- 
mous terms, then the tie and foundation can be considered 
first. 

Another fact to be remembered is, that, while concrete 




SECTIONS OF EAST WASHINGTON STREET PAVING, FORT WAYNE, IND., SHOWING RUBBLE CONCRETE 



tions must be provided, and a really permanent way is the 
kind of a way desired if a saving is effected in the end. This 
may not be possible in the track alone, but if the reduction 
in wear and tear to the rolling stock and to the nerves of the 
passengers is also taken into consideration a substantially 
constructed permanent way will be found the cheapest, 
when all things are considered. The nerves of the patrons 
of an electric railway company is an asset which should be 
rated liberally by the management, although some trans- 
portation officials may think differently. The aim of the 
company should be to give an enjoyable, as well as a con- 



beams of a certain size will answer in one place, they may 
be unsuitable in another. Local conditions which will 
produce absolute failure are usually connected with the 
sub-grade, which may be wet and poorly drained, or con- 
taining quicksand, or of a soft, spongy nature. In all such 
cases drainage should be provided and plenty of bearing 
surface secured. On all sub-gradeS of this kind a sheet 
concrete foundation for a permanent way should be used. 

In many places, in the early horse-car days, many tracks 
were paved with boulders or cobblestones. These pave- 
ments will be found to-day to be just as good as when they 



CoDtiUUOlltS Joint 



) X-K-sS^tos'-g 1^ Propoae.l 6*73* Rail 




4_- V '^'^'^^^-^^■^2 

--20" 



5 0' 




0. ■■-V:^/-/. ^ ^■vV:^^^i>j^J Beam .V v . 14'x 30 ' L 
i-. i'-' C'lll I M ?^*i28'KeluforcLng Rods 
X^O'S Umii, Tile I 



Poll 1 ill 30< 

8 Drain THe- 



SIDK ELKV.VTION 



Street HaUway Jjurnal 

SECTIONS SHOWING PROPOSED PLANS ("A" AND "B") WITH CONCRETE BEAM CONSTRUCTION, WOOD, STEEL OR OLD- 
RAIL TIES AND CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT UNDER JOINTS 



venient, service; to have the cars always on time, and to 
carry its patrons gently around all curves and over all 
switches. A conductor ought not to be obliged to apologize 
to his passengers because the latter lose their equilibrium 
or are swung in their seats when the car is improperly sent 
around a curve, nor should they be jolted into a state of 
nervous prostration by every piece of bad track or special 
work, 

The permanent way must receive more consideration and 
its proper construction should be studied to get the greatest 
efficiency with the least cost. In many instances, when a 
company substitutes a heavier for a lighter rail, the latter 
can be cut into short lengths and used for cross ties, if a 



were laid; not worth much then, but no worse now. Dur- 
ing reconstruction these boulders can be used to excellent 
advantage in making a rubble concrete foundation. In 
many instances this old material will amount to 25 per 
cent or 33 per cent of the total stone required, thereby 
cutting the cost of the concrete in two, and making just 
as good a job if properly done. The section of the East 
Washington Street paving presented herewith shows how 
these stones were utilized. This plan reduced the cost of 
the concrete from $5.50 per cubic yard to $3.07 per 
cubic yard. 

It is usually "a condition and not a theory" which con- 
fronts the engineer. Each case has its governing factors 



86 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. 3. 



which must receive due consideration at his hands, and 
this rule is particularly true in the construction of 
permanent way. Whether it is of the concrete beam or 
sheet concrete type, the foundations must be relied upon to 
support the rails and their loads. Why should not the rails 
be held in position by the addition of anchor bolts? It is 
my opinion that this scheme is practical with the properly 
designed appurtenances and a Continuous, Atlas or equally 
good rail joint, with or without reinforcement under the 
joint, as the case may demand. With this idea in view, I 
offer this plan as a suggestion with estimates of its cost. 

In either plan of construction the sub-grade is prepared, 
the drainage is arranged and the track is assembled and 
placed to the proper grade and line. The foundation then 
is constructed. 

The cost of constructing a concrete beam permanent 



The track on the East Washington Street Improvement 
was relaid with the old 534-in. rails that had been in service 
on the same street for fourteen years. The rails were 
reversed end for end by placing the outside of the rail balls 
to the gage side. The base was quite badly eaten away by 
rust, and it was necessary to place the ties 30-in. centers. 
The excavation was exceedingly heavy, running from 
18 ins. to 48 ins. deep. The cost follows: 

Cost to take up old track and relay same, exclu- 
sive of rail, joints, bolts and bonds, including 
Avood ties 30 ins. centers, spikes, laying the 
track to line and grade ready for foundation. .$0.42 per lin. ft. 

Excavation 72 " " " 

Concrete foundation, $3.07 per cu. yd 74 " " " 

Brick paving 88 " " " 

Total cost $2.76 per lin. ft. 





^ - - 6'^| - -i'i '-'>- ' 

1 ' \ y, AM 








% Wolt j \ 1 





Uad„:rjjtj„raat 



SECTION OF PROPOSED CONCRETE BE.A.M UNDER JOINTS AND PLAN OF CONNECTING RAIL TO BEAM 



way, exclusive of rails, rail joints, bolts and bonds would 
then be as follows : 

To lay single track, furnish channel cross-tie 
5 lbs. per ft., anchor bolts and clips, 5-ft. cen- 
ters, with tie plates between each tie with 
anchor bolts and clips, making anchorage 

2Y2 ft. centers .* $0.55 per lin. ft. 

Excavation for track, 18 ins. deep 17 " " " 

Concrete 1.35 

Brick paving 88 " " " 

Total cost $2.92 per lin. ft. 

The cost of the concrete beam construction with Carnegie 
steel ties, 5-ft. centers, exclusive of rails, joints, bolts and 
bonds, would be : 

To lay single track and furnish Carnegie steel 
ties, bolts and clips, ties 14^ lbs. per foot of 

tie, reinforcement under joints $0.60 per lin. ft. 

Excavation 22 " " " 

Concrete 1.35 " " " 

Brick paving 88 " " " 

Total cost $3.05 per lin. ft. 



An estimate on the same plan of work, on the same basis 
as East \A'ashington Street, using Carnegie steel tie or old 
steel rails for ties, is : 

Track laying, including ties and labor with neces- 
sary fastenings $0.60 per lin. ft. 

E.xcavation, 18 ins. deep 19 " " " 

Concrete, $3.07 per cu. yd 74 " " " 

Brick paving 88 " " " 

Total cost $2.31 per lin. ft. 

The accompanying diagrams show three plans for laying 
the bricks between the rails. Plan. "A," of which a half 
section is shown, contemplates the use of a special block 
with corner clipped off, the brick next the rails being laid 
on its side under the ball and being followed up with the 
special block. This block is followed by the regular block 
in their order. Plan "B" contemplates using nothing but 
the regular block and both plans provide for laying the 
block parallel with the rails. 

East Washington Street was laid as shown, with the 
Weber nose block, manufactured by the Metropolitan Pav- 
ing Brick Company, of Canton, Ohio. This style of paving 



January i8, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



87 



has proved very popular witli city engineers, and very satis- 
factory to the traveling public, and by its use street rail- 
way companies can make and maintain a very neat appear- 
ing street and one that meets with the general approval of 
city authorities in connection with the T-rail. 



THE "PAY-AS-YOU-LEAVE" CAR 



A novel type of car, entitled the "pay-as-you-leave" car, 
has recently been patented by William S. Twining, chief 
engineer of the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company, and 



car body forms a closed truss with which the wheel base 
can be made as long as desirable and in which the overhang 
is reduced to a minimum. At the same time the seating 
capacity of the car is a maximum. As center doors are 
used it is possible to equip the car with three or more steps 
if necessary. This affords opportunity to employ a 33-in- 
wheel, which in the opinion of Mr. Twining is the smallest 
wheel which should be used with a 40-hp motor, on account 
of clearance between the paving and the motor or gear 
case. 

Plans are presented of single and double-ended cars on 




street RiiL'ira// Juuraai 



■i2'2" 

DOUBLE-ENDED CAR ON PAY-AS-YOU-LEAVE SYSTEM 



P 



JJ 



Seating Capacity l\) 



Kiitrance 



n 



Alotonuau 



-34'0"- 



iStreet Railway Journal 



-50 '10^'- 



-44'10"- 



SINGLE-ENDED CAR ON PAY-AS-YOU-LEAVE SYSTEM 



- 2'6''- 



is claimed by the designer to accomplish a number of de- 
sirable objects which are not secured in any other form 
of car. 

Passengers enter the car at the front end only, and by 
steps directly in front of the motorman. They leave by 
the rear exit only, directly in front of the conductor. In 
this way no passenger can enter or leave the car without 
doing so directly in front of either the motorman or con- 
ductor, a plan which, Mr. Twining considers, will reduce 
the liability of accident to a minimum. 

As the name of this car implies, the passengers pay on 
leaving the car and do so as they pass the conductor, who 
stands on the rear platform. It is expected that after the 
public becomes used to the car the passengers upon leaving 
will have their nickels ready to give to the conductor. 
Those who require change will secure it from the con- 
ductor between stops so as to be prepared with the proper 
fare when they wish to alight. As the motorman's cab 
commands the entrance at front he can stop any passen- 
ger who attempts to leave the car without paying. This 
same cab, when at the rear of the double ended car, pro- 
vides the conductor with accommodations for his storm 
coat or overcoat, papers, records, etc., for which there is 
now no place in any of the ordinary cars. It also protects 
him from the weather on long runs. 

The new type of car is also claimed to be very easy to 
ventilate, as the window in the upper half of the entrance 
door can be lowered to provide a direct draft through the 
car, as is now done in the ordinary elevated equipment. In 
summer the exit door would be kept open. 

Another advantage claimed by the designers of the 
proposed type of car is that of body construction. The 



the pay-as-you-leave system. No definite plans have been 
made to introduce either of these cars on the Philadelphia 
system. 



CONSTRUCTION CAR FOR LISBON, PORTUGAL 

The J. G. Brill Company furnished last month to the 
Electric Tramway Company of Lisbon, Potrugal, a con- 
struction car identical to the one shipped by the same build- 
ers to Lisbon a year ago, except that in that car two cranes 
were included for loading heavy pieces of material, such 
as wheels, axles, rails, etc. The car is powerfully con- 
structed and has heavy sub-sills, and the posts which sup- 
port the roof are composed of angle-irons which are bent 
to conform to the shape of the roof. The truck on which 
the car is mounted is of the builders' No. 21-E type , and 
is equipped with track brakes as well as the hand brakes. 
The length of the car over the body is 25 ft., and the width 
over the posts, 8 ft. When the system in Lisbon was elec- 
trified, some five years ago, 120 eight-bench, open. Brill 
cars were put in service, mounted on the No. 21-E single 
trucks. The next shipment consisted of 40 twelve-bench 
open cars, mounted on Brill maximum traction trucks, and 
a year ago the company adopted the Brill semi-convertible 
type of car, mounted on No. 27-GEi trucks for first-class 
service and placed 20 in operation. The John Stephenson 
Company at the same time furnished 20 double-truck cars 
with longitudinal seats, for second-class service. 



The City Council of Culiacan, Mexico, has granted per- 
mission to Eng. Francis Butterfield for the construction of 
street car lines in that city. 



88 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. 3. 



THE CELEBRATION ATTENDING THE BROOKLYN TUNNEL 
OPENING 



The opening of the tunnel to Brooklyn was fittingly 
marked by a public celebration. Thursday, Jan. 9, under the 
direction of the citizens' committee. The ceremonies were 




THE CEREMONY AT THE BOROUGH H.\LL, BROOKLYN 



begun with a reception in the New York City Hall, at which 
many persons prominent in city attairs met President Mc- 
Gowan, of the Council, the Aldermen, the old Rapid Transit 
Commission, which appri)- 
priated the money for build- 
ing the tunnel, and the mem- 
bers of the Public Service 
Commission. The party then 
made the tri]) from the City 
Hall under the East River to 
Brooklvn, where at the Bor- 
ough Hall they were met by 
a large delegation of local 
citizens and business men. 
Here the formal exercises 
were held in connection with 
the event. The ceremonies 
were concluded with* a lunch- 
eon at the Hamilton Club. 

Since the opening of the 
tunnel the riding has been 
very heavy, and no estimate 
can therefore be made of the 
probable traffic of the line. 
In anticipation of the traffic 
that would be offered at the 
Borough Hall, Brooklyn, by 
the opening of the new line, 
the Brooklyn Rapid Transit 
Company greatly increased 
its local Brooklyn surface 
car service which terminates 
at the Borough Hall, and in 

that way has adequately handled the crowds. Formerly 
during the rush hours about one hundred cars were used in 
this local Borough Hall traffic, but now about two hundred 



and fifty are used. The extension to the service includes the 
addition of cars to the Fulton Street, Putnam Avenue, 
Greene Avenue, Flatbush Avenue, Fulton, Seventh and 
Third Avenue lines. On the elevated lines extra guards 
and ticket sellers have been provided at Borough Hall sta- 
tions. 'There has been no reduction, however, either in the 

number of surface or ele- 
vated cars run over the 
Brooklyn Bridge, although 
the effect of the Subway on 
the Brooklyn Bridge conges- 
tion at the rush hours is 
quite noticeable. Vice-Presi- 
dent and General Manager 
Calderwood, of the company, 
says it is impossible to pre- 
dict to just what extent the 
new line will relieve the 
Bridge until the trend of 
traffic has become fixed. He 
is of the opinion, however, 
that conditions will change 
and improve as the operation 
of the trains in the subway 
is extended up Fulton Street 
to Atlantic and Flatbush 
Avenues, the terminal. Mr. 
Calderwood says that the 
company, just as it planned 
to care for the Subway 
traffic by increasing the cars 
on its local City Hall service, will change and adjust the 
schedule of both elevated and surface lines to meet the 
demands. 




CROWD AT THE ENTR.VNCE TO THE SUBWAY AT THE BACK OF THE BOROUGH HALL, 

OPENING DAY 



In this connection another event is soon to take place, 
which will have a very material bearing on the traffic 
situation in Brooklyn. This is the proposed opening about 



January i8. 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



89 



Feb. I of the new terminal at the Manhattan end of the 
Brooklyn Bridge for the elevated lines. At the present 
time, during the rush hours the elevated cars in Brooklyn 
are looped at the Brooklyn side and a shuttle-car service 
operated over the bridge proper. After the new terminal is 
completed, however, it is the purpose of the company to 
run all of its elevated trains through to Manhattan, thus 
eliminating the change of cars, which is now necessary. 
For some time past the company has run the elevated cars 
through to New York during the non-rush hours, but this 
was not possible during the rush hours, because the facili- 
ties for switching at the New York end were such that six- 
car trains could not be accommodated, whereas during the 
non-rush hours the Brooklyn trains ar? made up of three, 
four and five cars. 

As many of the passengers on the subway to Brooklyn 
will patronize the elevated lines of the Brooklyn Rapid 
Transit Company, plans have been made by the company 
for building an island station opposite the tunnel exit on 
Fulton Street, between Court Street and Boerum Place. 

— 

NEW RAIL WAY CO NTROLLERS 

The use of higher operating voltages for electric railway 
systems has imposed more exacting operating conditions 
on the controller equipments for electric cars. The Gen- 
eral Electric Company has therefore designed a new line 
of cylinder controllers with improved magnetic blow-outs 
which can be used on systems in which the voltage peaks 
reach 750 volts. At present three controllers, known a- 
the K-34, K-35 and K-36, are being built. The K-34 con- 
troller is suitable for use with either two 150-hp or four 
75-hp motors. The K-35 for use with either two loo-hp 
or four 50-hp motors and less. The K-36 is for use with 
two motors only, each of 60 horse power or less. The con- 
troller capacities are based on the standard rating of 500 
volts, and for higher voltages they can be correspondingly 
increased. 

The K-34 and K-35 controllers are provided with "bridge" 
connections by which full current is maintained through all 
motors during the transition period from series to parallel. 
A smooth acceleration is thus obtained and the strain on 
motors and gearing which occurs with a control having a 
partial or total open circuit position at transition is reduced. 
The bridge connections are not included in the K-36 con- 
troller, as not only are they unessential on small equip- 
ments, but they require a larger controller. 

The main operating handles are directly connected to the 
cylinder and no gearing is used. To accommodate the new 
style of blow-out, the reverse switch is located at the left 
of the controller (except in the case of the K-36), which 
therefore differs from the previous K type, in which the 
reverse handle is at the right of the main handle. The 
other modifications from existing styles chiefly relate to 
the construction of the controller cylinder, the location of 
the reverser fingers and the method of fastening the leads 
to the controller. Individual blow-out coils and arc chutes 
are provided, the steel cores of the former being riveted 
to steel flanges which are fastened to the finger bases. 
Steel plates are also embedded in the arc deflector parti- 
tions, and are thereby electrically insulated from the con- 
troller frame. These flanges and plates distribute the 
magnetic flux through the' arc chutes parallel to the shaft, 
and consequently at right angles to arcs formed between 
the fingers and cylinder casting whatever position the arc 
may assume. This insures the extinction of the arc under 



all o[)erating conditions and reduces burning and conse- 
quent repairs to a minimum. 

An improved method of fastening the cylinder castings 
to the shaft is used. Insulation is wrapped around the con- 
troller shaft, which is of hexagonal section. The cylinder 
castings fit over this insulation and are pressed against it 
by set screws bearing on steel keys. This construction 
prevents the castings from shifting round the shaft, and 
at the same time provides for the ready removal and 
replacement of any casting, if required. 

The terminals for the leads entering the controllers are 
directly attached to the finger bases, thereby obviating the 
necessity for a separate connection board. The omission 
of the connection board provides additional space in the 
controller. In the K-34 and K-35 advantage has been 
taken of this to lengthen the reversing cylinder, thus allow- 
ing all fingers to be located on the outer side, where thev 
are accessible for inspection and repairs, 


ORGANIZATION OF THE OPERATING MEN'S ASSOCIATION 

Secretary Swenson of the American Street and Inter- 
urban Railway Association, has just issued the following 
notice in regard to the proposed organization of an associa- 
tion of operating managers : 

* " Jan. 14. 1908. 

To the General Managers of Aleuiher Companies. 

Gentlemen: At the Friday (Oct. 18. 1907) session of the 
.Atlantic City convention the American Street and Interurban 
Railway Association unanimously adopted the following resolu 
tion : 

"Whereas, experience has demonstrated the desirability and 
usefulness of our existing afhliated organizations, and 

"Whereas, It has appeared from discussion that another or- 
ganization of similar character should be created, to which 
should be committed lines of work pertaining to transportation, 
traffic and general operation ; now, therefore, be it 

"Resolved, That the executive committee be and hereby is 
requested to take such steps as it may deem desir^il)le to en- 
courage the formation of such an organization." 

The executive committee of the American Associaiiun at its 
meeting held in the city of New York, Saturday, Oct. 19, 1907, 
voted to proceed with the organization of a fourth affiliated 
association in accordance with the above resolution, and the 
undersigned committee on organization was appointed. 

The committee has given careful consideration to this entire 
matter and is of the opinion that the new association should 
bring together general managers, managers, passenger agents, 
advertising managers, superintendents and other operating offi- 
cials, for the consideration of problems of interest to those 
engaged in the actual operation of street and interurban railway 
properties. The exact name of the new association will be de- 
termined at the organization meeting. 

The annual meeting of the executive conunittee of the Amer- 
ican Association will be held on Friday, Jan. 31, and it is the 
desire of the undersigned to have the organization of the new 
association completed, so that the action thus taken may be 
ratified at that meeting, including the adoption of the constitu- 
tion and by-laws, the election of officers, the appointment of 
committees and the general outline of the program for the 
1908 convention. 

We therefore give notice that a meeting for the purpose of 
organizing the fourth association to be affiliated with the Amer 
ican Street and Interurban Railway Association will be held at 
the office of the association, 29 West Thirty-Ninth Street, En- 
gineering Societies' Building, New York City, on Thursday, 
Jan. 30, 1908, at 10 o'clock in the forenoon. You are respect- 
fully urged to have one or more representatives of your com- 
pany present at this meeting, fully authorized to participate in 
the organization of such a fourth affiliated association. 

This is a very important meeting and a full attendance of 
representatives of member companies of the American Asso- 
ciation is earnestly requested. Yours very truly, 

(Signed) Calvin G. Goodrich, Chairman. 

W. Caryl Ely. 
Jas. F. Shaw. 

Committee on Organization. 



go 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[\\>L. XXXL No. 3. 



TRACK LAYING ON THE INDIANAPOLIS & CINCINNATI 
TRACTION SYSTEM 

A rather interesting method of laying track is employed 
by J. W. Moore, chief engineer of the IndianapoHs & 




CONSTRUCTION TRAIN 

Cincinnati Traction Company. JNIost of the work is done 
along a paralleling steam road, and ties unloaded at stations 
on the steam r(iad are hauled in wagons and distributed 



are cut away and the recess is fitted with rollers 12 ins. 
long. A rail train consists of six cars or three loads of 
rails together with the necessary joints, spikes and bolts. 

In unloading the rails they are pushed on- the rollers and 
are then shoved over the cars to the foremost one. The 

method of taking 
the rail from this 
car is well shown 
in the accompany- 
ing illustrations. 
The rails are 
bolted up tempo- 
rarily and are se- 
cured to gage by 
Ijridles made of 
bar iron. Each 
end of the bridle 
is bent so as to 
hook over the out- 
side of the flange 
of each rail. A 
spike slipped in a 
hole drilled at the 
inside edge of the 
flange holds the 
rail securely. 
These bridles are 
placed at about 
15-ft. intervals and 
a sufficient number 
is provided for 
two miles of track. 
-Spikers following 
the track laying 

gangs remove them, after which they are carried forward 
to be used again. The rails are then made permanently 
fast to the ties. With this method of construction a crew 





PLACING Till-: RAILS ON THE TIES. 

along the right of way a considerable distance ahead of 
the rail handling gang. 

The 60-ft. rails are loaded on ordinary flat cars provided 
with timbers over the bolsters which support the rails 12 
ins. above the floor. At their middle point these timbers 



TIES L.\ID READY FOR THE RAIL, 
of twenty-four men have been able to lay one and three- 
quarter miles of track between the hours of 9 a. m. and 
4 p. m. 

The accompanying illustrations show the different steps 
in the work on the Indianapolis & Cincinnati system. 



January i8, 1908.] 



str^:et railway journal. 



91 



TROLLEY EXPRESS TRUCK IN NEW HAVEN. 



The Connecticut Conipan}-, which operates all of the 
electric lines in Connecticut belonging to the New York, 
N'ew Haven & Hartford Railroad, also controls the Trolley 
Express Company, which operates trolley express cars for 
the handling of express packages, produce and small 
freight, as well as a large number of horse express wagons. 
It is naturally the desire of the company to electrify 
its trucking business as far as possible, for it has an 
abundance of electric power and realizes the many advan- 
tages in both economy and efficiency to be gained by its 
use. It has consequently recently had designed and built 
by the James MacNaughton Company, of New York, an 
electric trolley truck for use in hauling heavy freight to 
and from its railroad freight depot. This truck has 
the appearance of an ordinary electric storage battery 
truck, but is also equipped with a trolley pole, so that when 
necessary it can take current from an overhead wire. 

The vehicle is driven by two automobile motors, specially 
wound for 250 volts and fitted with the Westinghouse spe- 
cial G. E. 53 controller, which has five speeds forward and 




TROLLEY EXPRESS TRUCK OPER.\TED IN NEW ILVVEN 

one reverse. Its motive power, when on tlie highway, is 
supplied by a Westinghouse battery of the Plante type, 
having fifty cells of seven plates each and a caj^acity of 
forty amperes for one and one-half hours. The battery is 
charged from the overhead wire while the vehicle is on the 
track, and can only be charged on one of the forward 
speeds of the controller. An overload circuit breaker cuts 
the battery out of circuit when it is fully charged. The 
tires are five inches wide and have a groove on the 
periphery three inches wide and one-quarter inch deep at 
the center. The double flange thus obtained holds the 
vehicle with sufficient firmness to the rails when desired, 
yet not so rigidly as to interfere with the ability of the 
driver to steer the vehicle to one side and thus have the 
wheels ride up over the rails and of¥ on to the pavement. 

The vehicle has a radius of operation when ofif the tracks 
of ten miles, calculated on a level hard surface road and 
with full load. It weighs about 7980 pounds and has a 
load capacity of five tons. The trolley pole is adjusted so 



as to ha\'e a considerable lateral movement, and is sO bal- 
anced that when the truck leaves the tracks and the pole 
is released it automatically drops down on the top of the 
vehicle after it has reached a certain height or angle. 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE INDIANA COMMISSION 

The second annual report of the Indiana Railroad Com- 
mission has been filed with the Governor. The Bureau of 
Inspection inaugurated by the Commission June i shows 
that the work of the Bureau has greatly benefited the com- 
munity by bringing about more friendly relations between 
the steam and the interurban railroads and the people at 
large. The report states that the number of fatal accidents 
occurring on the steam and interurban railroads during 
the year ending June 30, 1907, was 413 and the number in- 
jured 4637, an increase over the previous year in the num- 
ber killed of 71, and in the number injured 344. The in- 
terurban and steam roads have nearly all been thoroughly 
inspected, and faulty construction and equipment are being 
gradually replaced. For electric railways the Bureau of 
Inspection reports eight defective bridges, fifty defective 
signals and twenty-five defective roadways. The Bureau 
inspected about 500 miles of electric railway. About iioo 
miles remain to be inspected. While inspecting the electric 
railways quite a number test stops were made to determine 
the efficiency of the brakes. It was found that very satis- 
factory results could be obtained on electric cars equipped 
•with straight air, and that the application of sand very 
materially assisted in making a stop on a dry rail, and es- 
pecially on a wet one. It was found also that the sanding 
arrangement on many cars was not satisfactory. If the 
santl l)ox is located on the body of the car and the sand 
pipe lead from the qar to the rail the sand would not reach 
the track on a curve. To overcome this, rubber hose is 
sometimes fastened to the truck. With the pneumatic 
Sander it was found that when the air was turned on full 
it would not deliver sand, ljut lilow through and was not 
at all satisfactory. The report states that both the steam 
and interurban railways are co-operating cheerfully with 
the bureau and are affording every facility for making 
these inspections with a view of making travel safer. 



AIR-COCK INTERLOCK ON THE METROPOLITAN WEST 
SIDE CARS 



A number of the cars of the Metropolitan West Side 
Elevated Railway, in Chicago, have been equipped with 
an ingenious and simple device by which the train can not 
l:)e started unless the air-cock valves are in the proper posi- 
tion for working. This is accomplished by connecting a 
switch in series with one of the control circuits to one of 
the cocks under each brake valve, the switch being so 
arranged that the cocks in the operating cab must be open 
and those in the other cabs closed before power can be 
transmitted to the motors. It is stated that the device can 
be installed on cars already operating for less than $5 per 
car for labor and material, and can be applied to anv con- 
trol system. It was invented by E. T. Munger, master 
mechanic, and A. H. Daus and H. A. Johnson, engineers, of 
the company, who have a]i]ilied for patents covering its 
main features, and, it is believed will tend greatly to re- 
duce accidents caused by a neglect on the part of trainmen 
to change the position of the air cocks on their train at 
terminals. 



92 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[\^oL. XXXL No. 3. 



A NEW RECORDING MILLI-VOLTMETER AND SHUNT 
AMMETER 



Electrical engineers have long felt the need for an accu- 
rate and sensitive recording milli-voltmeter, w^hich is 
adapted to practical everyday service as well as for labora- 
tory tests. There has also been a demand for a recording 
ammeter of the shunt type which can be connected by leads 




FIG. 1.— REDUCED FACSIMILE OF CHART 

to the main bus-bar. The shunt system is especially eco- 
nomical where heavy currents are to be indicated or re- 
corded, as the instruments may be located at a considerable 
distance from the main current where the instrument is 
located. The recorders illustrated herewith and made by 
William H. Bristol, of New York, 
have been designed to meet these 
particular demands. 

The two most important funda- 
mental features of these recorders 
are a sensitive electrical movement 
of special design made by the 
Weston Electrical Instrument 
Company, and a new recording 
system so arranged that there is 
absolutely no friction between the 
recording arm and the chart. 
These instruments are so sensitive 
that the recording arm will move 
the whole scale of 5 millivolts or 
less, making it possible to accu- 
rately record one ten-thousandth 
of one volt. The graduations on 
the chart are evenly proportioned 
over the entire range, the same as 
the Weston ammeter, so that even 
though there is a small current 
flowing the readings may be as 

readily taken as if the current was the maximum that the 
instrument would record. This feature will be greatly ap- 
preciated, as there are many places where it is desired to 
install instruments for increasing future demands, and it 
is important that the records be perfectly clear, even 
though the loads are very light when the outfit is first 
installed. 

The records are made on a novel, semi-transparent, 
smoked chart, which is periodically brought into momen- 



tary contact with the end of the recording arm by means 
of a special vibrating device. In this way a series of 
white dots are made on the smoked surface and these form 
a continuous line, and a record is thus made without caus- 
ing any friction between the moving arm and the chart. 
The rate of vibration of the chart is timed to suit the fre- 
quency and range of the variation in the current to be 
recorded. The usual period of vibration of the chart is 
once in 10 seconds, but to obtain continuous lines where 
the fluctuations of the current are quite rapid, the vibrating 
attachment is made to operate twice every second. When 
the record is completed, the chart is dipped in a simple 
fixitive solution which makes the record permanent for 
filing. 

Fig. I is a reduced photographic facsimile of a chart 
taken from one of these instruments in connection with 
electrolytic surveys of underground structures which are 
being conducted by the Electrical Testing Laboratories, of 
New York City. The graduations of this chart are arbi- 
trary. It was revolved once in 24 hours and was vibrated 
once every 10 seconds. The zero position of the recording 
arm was the middle of the scale, so that the record might 
be independent of the direction of the current, as in many 
cases the direction of the current changes from negative 
to positive during the day. It is expected that by using a 
number of these instruments, operating simultaneously at 
difYerent points, stray currents in water and gas mains or 
in any underground structure may be recorded, making it 
possible to discover the causes of trouble and how they 
may be eliminated. 

The recording ammeter is shown in Fig. 2 connected to 
a standard Weston 10,000 amp. shunt, to which is also 
connected a Weston indicating station ammeter. This 
illustration shows that the recorder may be readily applied 




FIG. 2.— RECORDING AMMETER CONNECTED TO SHUNT AND STATION AMMETER 



to any standard shunt which is already in service, without 
disturbing the indicating instrument at the switchboard. As 
illustrated here, leads of almost any desired length may be 
used to connect the indicating and recording instruments 
to the shunt on the main bus-bar. It is even possible to 
have the recording ammeter located in the superintendent's 
office at a great distance from the shunt, and the indicating 
instrument located on the switchboard convenient for the 
observation of the operator. Such combination outfits 



January i8, 1908.] 



STREliT RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



93 



could be furnished as units, with leads of the proper 
lengths to suit the individual cases. 

The recording shunt annneter has been successfully ap- 
plied for taking continuous records of the current on a 
^ large trolley system, where the fluctuations are very rapid, 
and varied as much as 4000 amp. several times in a minute. 
The charts for such work as this are made to revolve once in 
one hour and the vibrator operates t\\ ice in one second. For 
preliminary tests the recorders are provided with special 
fast vibrators for the smoked chart and with a clock move- 
ment to revolve the chart once in one hour, but for con- 
tinuous daily records the standard 24-hour charts are 
recommended. 





THE 



IMPROVEMENTS IN BRIDGEPORT 



The Connecticut Company reports that in 1907 it spent 
about $600,000 in improving its property in Bridgeport and 
vicinity. The work thus begun will be continued and 
finished this year. Most important are the improvements 
to the power system. In this connection the Sea View 
Avenue plant has been remodeled and rebuilt. A new 1200- 
kw unit, new steam piping and new feed water heater have 
been installed, and a new oiling system finished. In 
addition the station has been almost entirely rewired. 
Work going on and contemplated consists of new con- 
densers with a new intake crib, the installation of addi- 
tional boilers and coal handling machinery, and a 
400-kw booster set to feed the company's Bridgeport-New 
Haven line for next summer's business. The condensers 
are being installed, the booster is ordered and the other 
work in various stages of completion. The company found 
that additional copper was necessary in its feeders, and so 
has run new lines to Fairfield, Milford and in the city. 
The company has also spent a large sum for paving. In 
Bridgeport new track has been laid in East Washington 
Avenue, Stratford Avenue, and Fairfield Avenue. The 
charges to maintenance of track and roadway for the 
Bridgeport lines since April i have run considerably over 
$200,000, while for the five months ending Nov. 30 the 
company spent $103,000. Another important work is tlie 
establishment of storage and operating car houses and 
shop on Congress Street north of the railroad station. Last 
winter the Bridgeport lines had twenty-eight double-truck 
closed cars. This winter there are forty-eight of the same 
type. During the summer the company increased the num- 
ber of fifteen-bench open cars by twelve. These additional 
cars have been furnished at an expense of $195,000. Ten 
closed cars recently received are equipped with a new type 
of destination sign, plainly discernible by day or night, 
which is being tried with a view to its general adoption. 



OUTTNG ON NORTHERN TEXAS TRACTION 



The department heads of the Northern Texas Traction 
Company were entertained recently by General Manager 
Edgar at a banquet at the Delaware cafe, the reception 
being a recognition of the valuable aid given the manage- 
ment of the road in bringing it to its present high state of 
efficiency. Those present were: A. W. Q. Birtwell, C. H. 
P.oken, G. H. Clifford, H. T. Edgar, W. C. Forbes, G. J. 
Fry, J. E. Gallagher, T. N. Hartin, L. B. Higgins, W. L. 
Hunter, J. P. Morton, E. E. Nelson, J. R. Phillips, M. M. 
Phinney, A. G. Rosser, C. L. Sykes, Theodore Taylor, W. 
L. Weston, E. L. White and W. H. Woodfin. 



TRANSFER IN A CAMPAIGN AGAINST DISEASE 
IN BALTIMORE 



The United Railways & Electric Company, of Baltimore, 
as the result of its desire to co-operate in the crusade now 
being waged against consumption by the residents of Balti- 
more and the press, plans to publish on the back of all its 
transfers, to be issued during the month of February and 
on Sundays in March, the words of advice here reproduced. 
The consensus of opinion is that this method will prove 



CONSUMPTION 



cAr« cJSSr IF TAKEN IN TIME 



DO Nor NEGLECT COLO OR SUCH PREMONITORT SYMPTOMS *S SLIOMT COUGH. 
FEVER. MIGHT SWEATS. LOSS OF W EIGHT. BUT CONSULT * GOOD PHySICIAW. 



CONSUMPTION 
IS CONTRACTED 
THROUGH THE SPIT 
OF CONSUMPTIVES 



FRIENDS OF \ ENEMIES OF 

CONSUMPTION CONSUMPTION 
DAMPNESS ~ DIRT i SUN - CLEANLINESS 
DARkNESS - DR INK | FltESmig-llOUM SHHIfi FOOD 



CAUTION 



AN OUNCE OF PREVENTION IS WORTH A POUND OF CURE- 
NO MATTER WHEThIS VOU Save tuberculosis or not. 
!^ NOT ENDANGER THE MEXlTH OF FRIENDS AND FAMILY BY 
CARELESS SPITTING. ^ 



ANNOUXCEMENT TO BE MADE ON BACK OF BALTIMORE 
TRANSFERS 

effective in placing information in the hands of many who 
would otherwise remain ignorant of the manner in which 
the dread disease is contracted and relieved. There is a 
city ordinance which prohibits spitting upon the floors and 
platforms of cars within the city limits, and the purpose of 
the company is to secure the passage of such a law by the 
State Legislature, effective in the counties in which its 
svstem operates. 



CARS FOR THE AMARILLO STREET RAILWAY 



The Danville Car Company has recently turned out for 
the Amarillo Street Railway Company, of Amarillo, Tex., 
four new semi-steel, semi-convertible cars, which measure 
22 ft. over the car bodies, 32 ft. 7 ins. over all, 8 ft. 2 ins. 
in overall width. The side sills are of yellow pine with 
steel plate between, and the subsidiary sills on each side 
for the truck are reinforced with steel angles. The body 
framing is of ash. The sides of the car are covered longi- 
tudinallv with 13/16 tongued and groo.ved yellow pine, and 




SEMI-STEEL, SEMI-CONVERTim.E C.\R FOR AMARILLO. 

from the arm rail down are covered with No. 14 sheet steel 
in panels. The side is of No. 14 sheet steel riveted in one 
length, thus forming an interior truss. The cars are full 
vestibuled with folding doors. The interior finish with the 
exception of the steel panels below the arm rail is of cherry. 
The seats are of the Hale & Kilburn walkover type. The 
curtains are of Pantasote. The Danville Car Company's 
side vestibule sign is used. The bodies are mounted on 
Brill No. 21 E trucks. The headlights are of the Kirb\- 
Neal type. 



94 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[\'oL. XXXI. No. 3. 



FINANCIAL INTELLIGENCE 



Wall Street, Jan. 15, 1908. 

The Stock and Money Market 

Further decided progress in the direction of general improve- 
ment in the stock market has been made during the past week, 
and this too in the face of a number of adverse influences 
whicli ordinarily would have served to check any advancing 
tendencies. Following on the heels of the Seaboard Air Line 
receivership, comes a similar development in connection with 
the Chicago Great Western, thus emphasizing the fact that 
there are at least a few of the smaller railroad systems of the 
country in need of financial rehabilitation, while a number of 
railroads reported pronounced decreases in earnings for No- 
vember. This naturally led to expectations that the statements 
for December and January, if not for succeeding months, will 
likewise show up poorly, but strange to say this prospect had 
no appreciable effect upon the securities of tlie corporations 
directly concerned. In addition to these unfavorable factors, 
considerable disappointment was felt on account of the failure 
of the Northern Pacific to declare an extra dividend at this 
time, while not a little uncertainty was created by the important 
failures in the jewelry trade and by the evidences of business 
contraction in various parts of the country. There was also 
some disappointment, as well as surprise, liecause the Bank of 
England did not reduce its discount rate, especially in view of 
the prevailing low rates in the London open market and the 
strong position of that institution, as disclosed by its usual 
weelcly return. However, the fact that the Bank of France 
and the Imperial Bank of Germany lowered their discount 
figures was accepted as practically a foregone conclusion that 
the Bank of England would be quick to follow suit. 

That stocks generally advanced despite the presence of these 
several disturbing elements is due simply and solely to the 
vastly improved local monetary position, although the existence 
of a stubborn short interest made it a comparatively easy task 
for the professional cliques to work up their respective favo- 
rites. However, the enhancement in values was not entirely 
due to the operations of professionals, as prompted by the re- 
newed ease in money and the prospects of still greater ease 
in the early future, outsiders were induced to come into the 
market and pick up stocks in greater or less quantities. The 
bond market likewise felt the effect of this influx and the de- 
mand for railway mortgages was better perhaps than at any 
time for more than a year past. Not only did call money rule 
below the legal rate practically throughout the week, but time 
loans on Stock E.xchange collateral could readily be had on 
the basis of 6 per cent for six months. Borrowers, however, 
were not at all inclined to pay any such figure and were holding 
off for a considerably lower rate, with every indication that 
lenders would sooner or later be compelled to meet their terms. 
The flow of money from interior points is of course the 
fundamental reason for this condition of affairs. Through 
this medium almost entirely our banks have been enabled to 
once more get on their feet, so to speak, and whereas during 
the height of the recent panic they had the unprecedented deficit 
of over $54,000,000, they are now able to report a surplus above 
legal requirements of over $6,000,000. In due time now the 
Clearing House certificates outstanding will all be retired and 
the banks resume the position occupied by them prior to the 
troubles of last fall. All these things have tended to inspire 
renewed confidence in the future of the security market and 
have completely offset the unsettling factors previously re- 
ferred to. Stocks of all descriptions have participated in the 
better tone, and even Amalgamated Copper has exhibited 
strength, notwithstanding" expectations that the next dividend 
is to be reduced. In a few instances, notably the anthracite 
coal stocks, the advances have been sensational, the gains in 
the cases cited being accounted for by the exceptional prosperity 
now being enjoyed by the coal trade as a whole. 

Without exception, however, prices have made substantial 
gains, the local traction group taking a prominent part in the 
movement, which is quite, natural in view of latest develop- 



ments. The opening of the new tunnel under the East River 
and its successful operation ever since marks an epoch in the 
local traction situation, the far reaching importance of which 
it is hard to determine. Thus far the advantage appears to 
be largely with the Interborough, as it has brought to that 
company a considerable traffic hitherto not enjoyed. Eventual- 
ly, however, the Brooklyn Rapid Transit is bound to benefit 
greatly by the enlarged population which the new transit facili- 
ties will bring to the Borough of Brooklyn, consequently senti- 
ment regarding all the local traction securities at present is 
decidedly bullish. 

Philadelphia 

Although the dealings in the local traction shares as- 
■ sumed only moderate proportions during the past week, 
still they shared to a great extent in the improvement 
which has been witnessed in the general securities market. 
Philadelphia Rapid Transit, which was the active feature of 
the trading, advanced to i8j^, and held most of the gain. 
Philadelphia Traction, after an early decline to 845/2, advanced 
sharply to 87 and closed at the highest. Union Traction moved 
up nearly a point to 51%, and substantial gains were recorded 
in Philadelphia Company's stocks, the common selling at 37^/^ 
and the preferred at 38^2. Frankfort & Southwark Passenger 
sold at 280 @ 282, and Fairmount Park Transportation brought 
84. American Railways was steady at 43 and Consolidated 
Traction of New Jersey advanced to 654. 

Baltimore 

Pronounced strength characterized the dealings in the 
Baltimore traction issues, United Railway issues scoring 
sharp advances. The 4 per cent bonds, after selling at 82J/2, 
rose 'to 85, while the incomes rose nearly 5 points to 49>4. The 
funding 5s advanced about 2 points to 71 J-^, and the stock sold 
at 111/2. In the other issues trading was light, but prices 
throughout the entire list held firm. Lexington Street Rail- 
way 5s sold at 96; Baltimore City Passenger 5s at loi and 
Baltimore Traction Ss at 107. 

Other Traction Securities 

In the Boston market more interest was manifested 
in the tractions than for some time past, and prices 
generally reached a higher level. Boston Elevated led 
the list, selling as high as 130J4, but the Massachusetts 
Electric issues also improved materially, the common selling 
at 12 and the preferred at 49^. Boston & Suburban sold at 
10 @ g}i and Boston & Worcester preferred rose a point to 
60. West End brought 80 and the preferred 9654 @ 96. The 
Chicago market was quiet but firm. Metropolitan Elevated 
common changed hands at 17, while the preferred moved up 
to 461/2. South Side Elevated advanced to 71 and Chicago & 
Oak Park at 2. 

Security Quotations 

The following table shows the present bid quotations for the 
leading traction stocks, and the active bonds, as compared 

with last week: Jan. 8. Jan. 15. 

American Railways ■ 43 43 

Boston Elevated 129 129^2 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit 40 44?4 

Cliicago City aiso aiso 

Cleveland Eletftric 41 M — 

Consolidated Traction of New Jersey 61 6454 

Detroit United 37'A S^'A 

Interborougli-Metropolitan 6V2 7^A 

Interborough-Metropolitan (preferred) i8]4 20 

Internation.^.l Traction (common) — 30 

International Traction (preferred) 4s — 6i'/i 

Manhattan Railway 118 123 

Massachusetts Elec. Cos. (common) joyi nVz 

Massachusetts Elec. Cos. (preferred) — 49 

Metropolitan Elevated, Chicago (common) 161/2 aiy'A 

Metropolitan Elevated, Chicago (preferred) 41 455^ 

Metropolitan Street — 20 

North American SoVs 53'A 

Philadelphia Company (common) 36 S^A 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit 1814 18 

Philadelphia Traction — Ss'/z 

Public Service Corporation certificates - 54 54 

Public Service Corporation, 5 per cent notes 85 85 

South Side Elevated (Chicago) 64 68 

Twin City, Minneapolis (common) 8sA Styi 

Union Traction (Philadelphia) 5o'A 5i54 

a .\sked. 



January i8, I(;o8.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



95 



Metals 

The "Iron Age" says the improvement in the linancial situa- 
tion is reflected by a better feeling in the iron trade, but as yet 
there has been iittlc increased buying except in pig-iron. The 
cast-iron pipe manufacturers, East and West, have been fairly 
large buyers. The steel rail business is very light, and contrac- 
tors for structural material are still liolding back. 

The copper metal market remains unchanged at i3-}4 to 14 
for lake, is-^g to 15",^ for electrolytic, and i.S's to 155 k for 
castings. 



STREET CARS ACCIDENTS IN CHICAGO IN 1907 

During the year ended Dec. 31, 1907, there were 3430 street 
car accidents of various kinds reported to the police depart- 
ment, as against 3154 in 1906, and 2035 in 1903. The number of 
accidents to persons reported by the elevated roads also in- 
creased from fifty-two in 1906 to eighty-one in 1907. The fol- 
lowing table shows the causes of accidents reported: 

1907. 1906. 

Alighting from cars 866 ■ 843 

Cars striking vehicles 836 687 

Persons struck by cars 824 768 

Sudden stops or starts 179 82 

Thrown from car hy conductor 25 13 

Miscellaneous 700 761 



IMPORTANT INTERURBAN BILL INTRODUCED IN 
MASSACHUSETTS 



There has been fded with the Secretary of State a petition 
for legislation to allow interurban electric railroad companies 
to construct, operate and maintain an elevated or subway struc- 
ture longitudinally in any public street or way. With the peti- 
tion is a bill, which provides : Section i. An electric railroad 
company heretofore or hereafter organized under the laws of 
this commonwealth may construct, operate and maintain an 
elevated or subway structure logitudinally in a public way or 
place of a city or town with the approval of the aldermen of 
a city or the selectmen of a town and the approval of the board 
of railroad commissioners. 

Section 2. An electric railroad company shall not begin the 
construction of its elevated or subway structure longitudinally 
in the public ways or places of a city or town until it has filed 
in the ofifice of the city or town engineer a plan showing the 
exact location thereof and the general form and method of con- 
struction. After thirty days from -the filing thereof the railroad 
company shall apply to the board of railroad commissioners, 
■which, after such notice and hearing as it may deem proper, 
shall approve said plan, or alter the same in such manner as it 
may deem necessary. 

Section 3. In respect to the equipment, use and operation of 
an electric railroad over said elevated, and in said subway 
structure, the company shall have all the rights, privileges and 
immunities set forth in the general law, now in force, or in 
laws hereafter enacted applicable thereto. 

Section 4. An electric railroad company whose petition to 
the board of aldermen of a city or the selectmen of a town, for 
■c\n elevated structure or a subway, has been refused, or has 
neither been granted or refused, within three months after the 
tiling thereof, m.ay apply to the board of railroad commission- 
ers, who, after such notice and hearing as it deems proper, if 
they deem public necessity so requires, may enter a decree grant- 
ing the location of such structure. 

Section 5. This act shall take effect on its passage. 



THE BOSTON ELEVATED RAILWAY COMPANY 



An abstract of the report of the Boston Elevated Railway 
Company for the fiscal year ended Sept. 30 last was published 
last week, but the leading position of the road in New England 
makes some comments and further facts of interest. The 
records of the company reflect to some extent the abnormally 
unpropitious and unusual trolley weather that was experienced 
during the winter of 1906-07. The lateness of the spring of 
1907 also, coupled with the severity of the winter previous, so 
retarded riding that it was well into the middle of June last 



liefore the company was able to record anywhere near normal 
increases in its gross receipts, as coni|)ared with the same 
peri(.)d of the previous year. The gross earnings of the com- 
pany for the late fiscal period represented the smallest actual 
increase, as well as per cent of increase, ever shown in the his- 
tory of the company — $425,781, or 3.1 per cent — with the excep- 
tion of 1905, when the expansion in that item was $298,323, or 
2.4 per cent. 

During the last fiscal year the company added 5.807 miles to 
its surface lines, and leased as well a short piece of track here- 
tofore controlled by the Boston & Northern Street Railway 
Company, at Orient Heights, East Boston, making its total 
length of surface tracks 445.897 miles which, in conjunction 
with its 16.015 miles of elevated road, make the total mileage 
461.912. Of this total mileage, appro.ximately 50 miles are 
sidings and tracks in car houses and yards. In reducing the 
income account for the last fiscal year to a per mile basis, 
therefore, only the amount of first and second track should be 
taken into consideration. This is approximately 410 miles, as 
compared with about 405 miles in the year previous. The fol- 
lowing table is the per mile showing of the company in the last 
fiscal year, as compared with 1906: 

P. C. 

1907. 1906. Changes. Chge 

Gross earnings $34,032 $33,403 Inc. $632 1.89 

Operating expenses 23,531 22,980 Inc. 551 2.40 



Net earnings $10,501 

(3ther income 142 



$10,420 Inc. $8[ 
265 Dec. 123 



Tnlal increase $10,(143 

All charges *8.6i() 



$10,685 Dec. $4 J 



8, 58 J 



Inc 



Balance $2,027 

Dividends 1.940 



$2,103 Dec. $76 
1,970 Dec. 24 



Surplus $81 $133 Dec. $52 

"' Includes $^44 per inilc charged for depreciation. 



0.77 
46.41 

0.39 
0.39 

3.61 
1. 21 

3909 



An interesting feature of the last pamphlet report is a sum- 
mary of the stockholders of record on Oct. i, 1907, which 
shows that the total number was 3438, holding 133,000 shares 
of stock. Of this number 3009, holding 114,347 shares, reside 
in the State of Massachusetts. It is, therefore, apparent that 
about 86 per cent of the stock is held in the home state. 

The Boston Elevated Railway Company was incorporated in 
1897, since which time rapid strides have been made as regards 
earnings. For instance, the gross earnings since 1898 have ex- 
panded some $9,000,000, or approximately 52 per cent, while at 
the same time the gain in net has been in the neighborhood of 
$2,700,000, or about 625^2 per cent. The average yearly gain in 
gross earnings from Sept. 30, 1898, to Sept. 30, 1906, was 5.9 
per cent, or 47 per cent for the eight years. It will, therefore, 
l)e noted that had the average yearly expansion been main- 
tained in the late fiscal period, the gross receipts would have 
been considerably in excess of $14,000,000. 

Since the company was organized material improvement has 
been made in its percentage of operating expenses to gross 
earnings, a reduction in the last fiscal year of 2.5 per cent, as 
compared with 1898, having been effected. The following table 
shows the percentage of operating expenses to gross earnings 
each year from 1898 to 1907, both years inclusive: 



Year. 

1907 

1906 

1905 

1904 

J 903 



Per cent 
operating- 
expenses 

to gross. 
. . 69.1 
. . 68.7 
. . 68.0 
. . 69.6 
. . 69.0 



Year. 

1902 

1901 

1900 

1899 

1898 



Per cent 
operating 
expenses 

to gross 

• • 69.4 
. . 67.9 

• • 67.3 

• • 70.5 
. . 71.6 



During the last fiscal ye;ir the number of passengers carried 
by the company was 271,084,815, and the total revenue received 
therefrom was $13,546,779, while receipts from the carriage of 
United States mails amounted to $38,898, making a total revenue 
from these two sources of $13,585,677. The average receipts 
per revenue passenger amounted to 4.997 cents. The profit and 
loss surplus on Sept. 30 last, as shown in the balance sheet, 
was $668,603. 



q6 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. 3. 



THE CLEVELAND SITUATION 



One of the important features of the meeting at Cleveland last 
Friday was the proposition of Mayor Johnson to ascertain the 
cost of securing the consents of property owners all over the 
city, and allowing this to stand in lieu of the value of pavement 
construction. The valuation committee reported a difference of 
$258,122 in their figures on pavements. For the Cleveland Elec- 
tric the value was placed at $1,520,888, while the city's repre- 
sentative placed it at $1,282,766. The committee was set to 
work to reconcile the differences in some way, and reported 
that the difference, with the exception of $52,000, was due to 
different methods of arriving at depreciation estimates. A re- 
quest was then made for instructions as to whether to estimate 
on the straight line year or 4 per cent curve. Mayor Johnson 
proposed to compromise on the remaining $206,000. Mr. Goff 
said that the estimate should be on a 3 per cent, instead of a 
4 per cent curve, and that the difference, as proposed by the 
Mayor, would then be about $150,000. The Mayor accepted this 
and ordered it added to the estimate made by his member of 
the committee, which would make the total valuation of pave- 
ments about $1,412,766, depending upon how the $52,000 still 
unsettled is adjusted. Since the larger item has been arranged 
there is not much danger but that this one will be adjusted in 
some way without much further trouble. 

A number of items in schedule B 2 were discussed on Friday, 
including such things as expenses of grade crossing elimination, 
pavement outside the tracks, cost of land for making curves at 
street corners, frontage maps and other things of the kind. The 
mediators do not agree upon all the items as belonging to any 
scliedule, the Mayor holding that some of them do not belong 
to cost, but to expenses of operation. Mr. Goff replied that if 
they do not belong to the cost of the property, then they should 
be included in the lost capital account, and considered under a 
head of this kind or added to the sum the Mayor is willing to 
concede for good will. In discussing the cost of frontage maps, 
Mr. Goff declared that the company should be credited with 
what it would cost to secure the franchise rights and the char- 
ter for a company to reproduce the properties of the company. 
The Mayor did not want to allow this. 

At a meeting Monday forenoon, ]\Iessrs. Baker and Tolles, 
committee to decide upon the dates of the expiration of the 
various franchises, submitted a report which shows them to be 
far apart in some instances in their opinion. While their idea 
of the e-xpiration of franchises on various lines within the city 
varied quite a little, the greatest difference was in those to 
which grants to extend tracks had been made. Mr. Tolles held 
that the grants operated to extend the franchise of the entire 
line in several instances, while Mr. Baker held to what is known 
as the Tayler opinion, that such a grant applied only to the 
portion of the line included in the extension and that the fran- 
chise for the extension expired with that of the original line, no 
matter how many years it was given for. 

Some of the franchises in the suburbs, Mr. Tolles held, ex- 
pired on dates varying from 1917 to 1931, while Mr. Baker held 
that the franchises in these places expire with those within the 
city. Mayor Johnson stated that the differences in the expira- 
tion of the franchises would easily make a difference of between 
$1,000,000 and $2,000,000. 

F. H. Goff, in the absence of Mr. Tolles, took up the discus- 
sion of the subject and stated at the outset that he felt that Mr. 
Tolles was correct in his contentions. He discussed the so- 
called Tayler rule which has been followed by Mr. Baker and 
said that the Supreme Court had given an opinion to the effect 
that a City Council has full power to grant an extension for as 
long a time as it sees fit, so it does not e.xceed the twenty-five 
3-ears set by the' statutes. 

City Solicitor Baker said that he and Mr. Tolles tried to 
make their decisions by letting all court decisions stand, whether 
they believed them right or not. He further stated that Mr. 
Tolles had urged that all contracts made with the villages be 
carried out. Baker said he believed in observing contracts 
when the bodies that made them do not go beyond their au- 
thority. In the case of the Gelville arrangement he believed 
that the Village Council had exceeded its authority in giving the 
company a franchise extending beyond the life of the franchise 
of the original line. He said he did not believe it wrong or 
immoral to repudiate a contract that has been made under such 
circumstances. Law makes a difference when it comes to things 
of this kind, he said, and he felt that it is right and moral to 



hold to the tenets of the law, even if this result in the repudia- 
tion of contracts. 

Mayor Johnson stated that he would go as far as any one in 
recognizing contracts made by the suburban towns. He dis- 
cussed the ordinance made by the village of Glenville to the 
St. Clair Street line, and said it was about the most severe 
ordinance that the company had ever accepted, because it was 
drawn by F. H. Goff while he was Mayor of the village. Mayor 
Johnson, however, tried to turn this fact to advantage in say- 
ing that the company is now trying to make this ordinance the 
basis of a claim of $500,000 addition to the franchise values. 
He also argued along the same lines that Mr. Baker did, to 
the effect that the ordinance is of no account after the franchise 
on the line within the city expires. 

The Mayor is formulating plans to get at the proportion of 
the business the parts of the system lying outside of the city 
do, and stated that he would place men at the city limits to 
secure the number of passengers on each car for a certain 
length of time. He stated that this would aid in ascertaining 
the franchise value on the various lines. 

A question as to how to arrive at the value of franchises was 
brought up, and the Mayor said he knew of but two ways of 
getting at this. One was to value the franchises on the different 
lines in fragments, as the roads were given grants, and the other 
is to secure an average date of expiration and then apply the 
car-miles or number of passengers carried or some other rule 
of this kind. The fixing of a rule will be one of the difficult 
matters to arrive at. 

The Tayler rule, which was discussed at the meeting Mon- 
day, applies mostly to the grants lying outside of the city, which 
were made as extensions, rather than original grants. The 
Chapman decision was also discussed in all its phases. This 
was a decision by Judge Chapman to the effect that a franchise 
ordinance giving rights on tracks on which a car line is already 
in operation cannot be' made to extend beyond the life of the 
original grant. In addition to the dates fixed by the franchise 
committee, as individuals, the expiration of franchises has been 
agreed upon as follows: Payne Avenue, Jan. 26, 1910; Wade 
Park Avenue, July 13, 1913; Cedar Avenue, July 13, 1913; most 
of the Broadway line, July i, 1914. The difference on a por- 
tion of the St. Clair Street line is twenty-one days, but the most 
important disagreement is the Woodland Avenue line and West 
Side system, which includes one-fourth the trackage of a goodly 
portion of the system. 

In their discussion Tuesday both F. H. Goff and Mayor John- 
son stated that they would not depend strictly upon legal rights 
in the settlement of the franchise question. This is considered 
an important step in the matter, although Mr. Goff said he did 
not know that it would please the officers of the Cleveland Elec- 
tric to have him depart from the rights which the company 
hold in the least. He feels that this is a case where there must 
be some concessions on both sides if an agreement is to be 
reached. The company, Mr. Goff said, had not regarded the 
ordinances as mistakes, and have spent the money for improve- 
ments and repairs under the impression that the franchises all 
expired at a later date than is claimed by the city. City Solicitor 
Baker said that he had not changed his mind regarding the 
Tayler rule. The Supreme Court, he said, had reversed itself 
several times on the points included in it and any lawyer is 
liable to make a mistake in his ideas of it. He thinks Mr. 
Tolles has made a mistake. 

The Mayor said he did not believe the Chapman decision is 
correct, although it is in favor of him and the city. He asked 
that Mr. Goff select something to balance his idea on this, so 
that they will be even in their concessions. The Mayor also 
said that, if Judge Sanders, one of the Cleveland Electric attor- 
neys, said in a case four or five years ago that these franchises 
expire in 1908, his words should not be used against the com- 
pany now. He probably did not intend to state definite dates 
in his address, and besides, he has a right to change his mind 
and give the company his latest opinion. 

Messrs. Andrews and DoiPont reported on the store schedule 
a value of $305,882.30, a decrease of $26,278.09 from the value 
made under former negotiations. 

City Solicitor Baker, who is acting with S. H. Tolles in 
ascertaining the dates of the expiration of franchises on cer- 
tain lines of the Cleveland Electric, claims that the company ad- 
mitted that its rights on Woodland Avenue and Kinsman Street 
expire in February, 1908, before the United States Superior 
Court in April 1904, when suit was brought to enjoin the Hop- 
kins and Cope ordinances ; and also before the Chamber of 



January i8, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



97 



Commerce in 1901, when the existing franchises were being in- 
vestigated by a special committee. When the case mentioned 
was tried, it is claimed that Judge Augustus J. Ricks _ decided 
that these franchises expire Feb. 10, 1908. The Cleveland Elec- 
tric says that ordinances passed in 1893 operate to extend the 
franchises of a number of West Side lines two years, and that 
they still have this length of time after the date given to use the 
lines. If this can be shown, the values of the franchises will be 
much more than they will be under the claim of the city. 



AFFAIRS IN NEW YORK 



The regular monthly accident report for December, as com- 
piled by the Public Service Commission, shows the following 
figures for the railroads and street railways ; 



Killed 51 

Fractured skulls 14 

Amputated limbs 5 

Broken limbs 36 

Other serious injuries 94 

Total 200 



There were 216 car collisions in December, and 947 persons 
were struck by cars and injured. In getting on cars 438 per- 
sons were injured, and 435 were injured in alighting. Em- 
ployees injured numbered 363, and the minor accidents totaled 
1,594, bringing the total of accidents for the month up to 3,993. 

Within the last few days the finishing touches have been 
given to the completed four tubes of the first section of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad Company's tunnel system now building 
under the East River between Long Island City and Manhattan. 
Within a few weeks it is predicted that the four under-river 
tubes of the system will be joined about midstream under the 
East River, and thus the second section will be moving toward 
completion. 

It is the hope of the Public Service Commission that it can 
persuade the trunk line railroad companies, which are now 
engaged in the electrification of their system, to become bidders 
for the operation of city subways, presumably to be run in 
connection with their suburban service. A letter from the 
commission to the Board of Estimate regarding the changes 
that have been made in the plans for the bridge loop subway 
intimates such a hope. The letter is in part as follows : 

During the preparations of the contracts for the Fourth Avenue Subway 
in Brooklyn, the Public Service Commission has considered it advisable 
to make certain modifications, so as to reduce tlie grades and increase 
the headway. The object of these changes is to promote the more rapid, 
safe and economical operation of trains, and to make it possible for cars 
now being used in the local suburban traffic of steam railroads to be 
operated 'through the subway. By so doing this would also facilitate the 
making of more advantageous contracts by the city for the subsequent 
rental and operation of the road. In the opinion of the commission it 
would be a great mistake to build any future subway of such dimensions 
that an existing railroad might be debarred from being a competitive 
bidder, or through which it would be impossible to run railroad cars. 

The trains tlirough the Fourtli Avenue Subway will continue over the 
Manhattan Bridge and be run through the subway loop now under con- 
struction in Canal and Centre Streets. If the Fourth Avenue Subway 
is enlarged it would be advisable to enlarge the subway loop, otherwise 
the larger cars used by steam roads could only run as far as the Man- 
hattan terminal of the Manhattan Bridge; the subway loop only allowing 
for a headroom ot 13 feet 6 inches above top of rail, whereas 14 feet 6 
inches are necessary for the cars used in suburban traffic. 

The subway loop, connecting as it does, the Williamsburg Bridge with 
the other two bridges, is so planned that the cars from any future sub- 
way extending into Brooklyn or Queens from the Brooklyn terminus of 
the Williamsburg Bridge can he run to the subway loop. If tlie present 
h.eadroom of 13 feet 6 inches is not enlarged, it will be impossible to allow 
for any railroad connection with such future subways, and will make it 
impossible for any present railroads in Queens to reach Manhattan via 
the Williamsburg Bridge and subway loop. 

Our chief engineer, Mr. Seaman, after careful study of the problem, 
has found that it is possible to modify tlie plans for the subway loop so 
as to increase the height of the tunnel. To make these changes it will 
be necessary to cliange two of the stations, and in order to make proper 
connection with the crosstown line in Canal Street, it is proposed to 
unite the two stations at Leonard-Franklin Street and at Howard-Grand 
Street into one station at Canal Street. It is also proposed to operate tlic 
loop as two double-track railroads, instead of one four-track road, but 
with cross-overs to be used in case of accident, or when needed for the 
shunting of trains. Eventually this might lead to the connection of the 
Williamsburg Bridge with the Brooklyn Bridge, which would naturally 
serve the purposes of the elevated roads in Brooklyn wiiich connect witli 



these two bridges. The other set of tracks would be operated in connec- 
tion witli the JIanhattan Bridge, through the proposed terminal at 
Chambers Street and thence down William or Nassau, crossing the East 
River by a tunnel and connecting with some future subway in Brooklyn. 
This loop would naturally serve the I'ourth Avenue Subway, and could 
be operated there in conjunction with or entirely independent of the loop 
previously described. 

This modification simplifies a very complicated plan; eliminates two 
double-deck stations, making all tracks on a level, and would increase 
very materially the safety of operation. It is estimated that the operating 
capacity would be increased fully 25 per cent, and also that the time of 
construction would be materially decreased. 

The Supreme Court, on Jan. 13, denied the application of 
Joseph Konrad and Daniel Gallagher and Frowan S. Reisen- 
berg for writs of mandamus to compel Judge Lacombe of the 
United States Circuit Court for the Southern Division of New 
York to vacate his orders appointing Adrian H. Joline and 
Douglas Robinson receivers for the New York City and the 
Metropolitan Street Railway Company of New York, and to 
relinquish to the State courts jurisdiction of the matter. 

The fire at Nineteenth Street and Fourth Avenue last Friday 
night necessitated the shutting down of the subway temporarily 
while cribbing could be laid so as to protect the tunnel in case 
the walls of the burned buildings in the vicinity should fall. 
The work was all finished within a few hours and service then 
resumed. The effect of the fire on the surface lines was much 
more serious, of course. 

On Friday the Public Service Commission will hold a public 
hearing on the proposal to change the Rapid Transit act, 
which includes the Elsberg law, but does not include the Public 
Service Commission act. The commission held a similar hearing 
in November, but it was not well attended. One of the features 
that has to be considered is the exempting from the debt limit 
provision of the Constitution of rapid transit bonds. Another 
and very important one is the time for which a franchise may be 
granted. A third is whether private enterprise shall be allowed 
to build transit lines. At the end of its statement of the law 
or laws as now on the statute books, the commission states that, 
the following questions arise : 

1. Whether the city shoukl be confined to municipal con- 
struction only. 

2. Whether the city should also allow main rapid transit lines 
to be constructed by private corporations at their own expense. 

3. Whether franchises for main lines, like that granted for 
the McAdoo tunnel under Sixth Avenue, would be safe. 

4. Whether the twenty-year term of operation of a munici- 
pally constructed rapid transit road should be increased. 

5. Whether the city should be allowed to make contracts for 
operation of extensions of existing subways for as long a time 
as the original contract upon terms. 

6. Whether the city should allow extensions of elevated rail- 
roads and other existing rapid transit lines holding franchises 
in perpetuity to construct extensions at their own expense sub- 
ject to proper terms and readjustment each twenty-five years. 

It is expected that immediately after the hearing the cominis- 
sion will have introduced in Albany such amendments to the 
law as it thinks are necessary. 



THE PENNSYLVANIA STREET RAILWAY ASSOCIATION 



The executive committee of the Pennsylvania Street Railway 
Association has recently issued a circular letter to the street 
railway companies in Pennsylvania, calling attention to the 
many problems now facing the electric railway industry in that 
State and urging the companies to join tlie association. Under 
the new by-laws the initiation fee is $5, and the annual dues 
are $2S. 



CENTRAL ASSOCIATION CHANGES MEETING PLACE 



The meeting and banquet of the Central Electric Railway As- 
sociation, arranged to be held at Dayton, Ohio, Thursday, 
Jan. 23, as announced previously in the Street Railway Jour- 
nal, will be held at the Phillips Hotel, Dayton, and not the 
Algonquin as had been arranged. The programme of the 
meeting was given in the issue of this paper for Jan. 11. A 
meeting has been called of the traffic officials of the companies 
for the previous day, with the idea in mind of forming an 
organization to lie a liranch of the Central .'\ssociation. 



98 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. 3. 



PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD COMMISSION NAMED 



Governor Stuart, of Pennsylvania, appointed on Jan. 13 the 
following members of the State Railroad Commission, created 
by the last Legislature, and which became operative one week 
ago; Nathaniel Ewing, of Uniontown, judge of the United 
States District Court of Western Pennsylvania, Pittsburg, 
chairman, to serve for five years; Charles N. Mann, of Phila- 
delphia, deputy prothonotary of the courts of Philadelphia 
County, to serve for four years ; John Y. Boyd, of Harrisburg, 
retired, a member of the firms which formerly acted as general 
sales agents for the anthracite coal companies controlled by the 
Pennsylvania Railroad, to serve for three years. The com- 
mission is composed of three members at a salary of $8,000 a 
year each, and is authorized to appoint an attorney at a salary 
of $4,000 a year, a secretary at $4,000 and a marshall at $2,500. 
It is also authorized to appoint an acountant, an inspector of 
railroads and an inspector of electric railways. The principal 
office of the commission will be at Harrisburg. 



Judge Nathaniel Ewing was born in Uniontown in 1848 and 
was admitted to the bar in 1871. He was appointed to the 
Fayette County bench in 1887, and was elected for a term of 
ten years in November of the same year. He was defeated for 
re-election by Judge Umbel. His appointment to the Federal 
bench came in 1906, when he succeeded Judge Buffington, who 
was appointed to the Circuit Court. Judge Ewing was presi- 
dent of the Pennsylvania Bar Association in 1893-94. He has 
been president of the National Bank of Fayette County and a 
director of the Finance Company of Pennsylvania, the Pitts- 
burg Life & Trust Company and the Maryland, West Virginia 
& Pennsylvania Telephone & Telegraph Company. He is a 
member of the American Bar Association, and was delegate to 
the Universal Congress of Lawyers and Jurists at St. Louis 
in 1904. 

Charles N. Mann was born in Philadelphia Feb. 14, 1840, edu- 
cated in that city and in the private academy of his grand- 
father, the Rev. William Mann, at Mount Holly, N. J. He 
studied law under Charles E. Lex and in the Law School of 
the University of Pennsylvania, which he entered in i860. Be- 
fore his connection with the prothonotary's office in the early 
nineties Mr. Mann enjoyed a lucrative practice. He is a mem- 
ber of the Union League, Lawyers' Club, Young Republicans 
and many other social organizations. 

John Y. Boyd was born in Danville, Aug. 19, 1862, and has 
resided in Harrisburg since 1874. He graduated at Princeton 
in 1884. Since then he has been identified with municipal affairs 
of Harrisburg. He was formerly a member of the firms of 
James Boyd & Company and Boyd, Stickney & Company, 
wholesale coal dealers, who were agents for the anthracite com- 
panies controlled by the Pennsylvania Railroad. This agency 
was surrendered several years ago and the firms are now oc- 
cupied with coal and iron interests in the South. He is a mem- 
ber of the board of managers of the Harrisburg Hospital, 
Harrisburg Country Club, and the Harrisburg Municipal 
League Executive Committee. He is also a member of the 
University Club, of New York ; the University Club, of Phila- 
delphia; the Ivy Club, of Princeton; the American Forestry 
Association, the National Geographical Society, the American 
Academy of Political and Social Science, the American Insti- 
tute of Mining Engineers, the Engineers' Club of Central 
Pennsylvania, and the Harrisburg Board of Trade. 



CHANGES IN BOSTON ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 

With new power stations coming into use and a general in- 
crease of work in the department of motive power and machin- 
ery, the Boston Elevated Railway Company has since the be- 
ginning of the year been operating with two new departments 
in place of the one mentioned. One is the department of power 
stations, the other the department of rolling stock and shops. 
James D. Andrew is the new superintendent of power stations. 
He has charge of the maintenance and operation of all the 
company's power stations and sub-stations ; is responsible for 
the delivery and distribution of electricity to meet the de- 
mands of the service; controls the coal wharves, with the re- 
ceipt, discharge, and care of coal, and reports to the vice- 
president through the chief engineer of motive power and roll- 
ing stock. John Lindall is the new superintendent of rolling 
stock and shops. He has direct charge of the Albany Street 
and Bartlett Street shops ; shop tools and shop machinery ; all 



repairs to cars and car equipment, and of the distribution and 
collection of coal and supplies by car. Division superintendents 
still have immediate care of the surface cars in the car houses 
of their respective divisions, and the shops and rolling stock of 
the elevated service are in the immediate charge of the super- 
intendent of the elevated division, but the superintendent of 
rolling stock and shops will have general supervision of shop 
work and car house methods, in conjunction with the division 
superintendents, to the end of securing the greatest efficiency 
and economy. 



THE GOVERNOR OF NEW JERSEY ON THE RAILROADS 

The final message of Governor Stokes, of New Jersey, went 
to the Legislature Tuesday, Jan. 14. At the beginning of his 
message the Governor speaks of the great industrial progress 
made by New Jersey since 1870 and of the increased transpor- 
tation facilities in the way of steam and electric railways. He 
says these conditions are invited by the conservative character 
of the state institutions and the unimpeachable integrity of the 
courts. He refers to President Roosevelt's speeh at Indianapolis 
in May last, in which the President, referring to the need of 
increased railway facilities, said: "The want can be met only 
by private capital, and the vast expenditure necessary for such 
purposes will not be incurred unless private capital is afforded 
reasonable incentive and protection. It is, therefore, a prime 
necessity to allow investments in railway properties to earn a 
liberal return, a return sufficiently liberal to cover all risks." 

According to the Governor, the laws for the taxation of pub- 
lic utility franchises result in a revenue of over $626,000 per 
annum. He believes that publicity should be given the reports 
of corporations and banks, and points out that suspicion is 
allayed and confidence inspired by giving the proper amount of 
publicity to statements of the financial condition of these insti- 
tutions. Another suggestion is that a permanent body be 
created for the investigation and examination of the variotis 
state departments and institutions. In conclusion, the Gover- 
nor urges the Legislature to reconsider the bill for the regula- 
tion of public utilities. This bill was passed by the lower house 
last year, but was defeated in the upper house. It provided 
for the regulation and control of public utilities corporations. 
He regrets that the bill did not become a law. 



BILLS INTRODUCED IN OHIO 

At the instance of Mayor Tom L. Johnson, of Cleveland, 
three bills have been introduced in the Ohio Legislature that 
are intended to aid him in carrying out his plans in Cleveland. 
Representative Metzger has presented the old bill that caused 
considerable discussion two years ago. It does away with the 
necessity of securing the consents of abutting property owners 
on a street where a street railway is proposed, and provides 
iliat all questions of franchise shall be submitted to a vote of 
the people, thus taking away all rights of those most affected 
and giving authority to the people in general to say whether 
or not streets shall be used. The bill does away with the 
necessity for bids or applications to City Councils, and the 
routes and terms are to be included in the franchise without 
.•iny preliminaries of any kind. 

Another bill, fathered by Representative Stockwell, amends 
the municipal code in such a way that cities will have a right 
to own and operate street railways. In addition, they may 
purchase and appropriate systems and grant security franchises. 
Under this head public utilities may be taken over by a city, if 
the people desire, and so-called public utility bonds issued to 
secure money to pay for them. Mr. Stockwell introduced an- 
other measure that will allow cities to build and own street 
railway tracks, but not operate them. This is intended to make 
the building of the loops now under construction in Cleveland, 
paid for with the money the Cleveland Electric gave the city in 
return for the use of Central Avenue and Quincy Street after 
the franchise had expired. Under the bill rents may be col- 
lected for the use of these loops and the bridge tracks. 

Under the guidance of Representative Schmidt a bill has been 
mtroduced that will aid Mayor Johnson and his low-fare com- 
panies in the event of a settlement not being reached with the 
Cleveland Electric within a reasonable time. Under it the 
two sections of the statutes relating to petitions and consents 
will be repealed, and where a grant is made for the construction 
of a street railway, either as a new route or an extension of 
an existing route over a street or part of a street, in which a 



January i8, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



99 



line has previously been in operation, it will not be necessary 
for property owners to sign a petition to that effect or for the 
company to secure their consent to the operation of the line. 
If this bill passes, the new companies will not have to secure 
consents on the streets where the franchises of the Cleveland 
Electric have expired. The Mayor has thus undertaken to do 
by legislation what the fight in Cleveland has prevented him 
from doing with the aid of the city administration. 

Representative Shuler has introduced a bill, modeled after 
the Wisconsin law, which will put the control of all public 
utilities in the hands of a commission. Public service corpora- 
tions and municipally owned plants alike will be under the 
control of the board. 

The fact that there is a strong sentiment on the part of some 
of the members in favor of a measure of this kind may operate 
against the other bills mentioned. 

THE STRIKE ' ON THE INDIANA UNION TRACTION 
COMPANY'S LINES 

The general situation in Muncie, Anderson and other cities 
in Indiana as a result of the strike of the employes of the 
Indiana Union Traction Company is greatly improved. The 
members of the Amalgamated Association of Street and Elec- 
tric Railway Employes realize how foolish the position was 
which they took in opposition to the order of interurban train 
men, with which the company had an agreement, and so the 
strike may be said gradually to have petered out. 

Governor Hanly issued a proclamation and special instruc- 
tions to Major-General McKee removing martial rule from 
Muncie Jan. 13, and Major-General McKee immediately pre- 
pared his proclamation giving notice of the suspension of military 
authority and turned the government and control of Muncia ana 
its environs over to the legally constituted civil authorities. 
Major-General McKee, with four companies of troops, will re- 
main in the city for the purpose of aiding the civil authorities 
in cases of emergency until the final order is received from the 
Governor. It is likely that these troops will remain until after 
the first of next week. After martial law was abolished the 
saloon men's organization held a mass meeting and invited the 
civil authorities to attend for the purpose of allowing the re- 
sumption of the liquor traffic, which was stopped by Mayor 
Guthrie thirteen days ago. For an hour the saloon men 
awaited action on the part of the authorities, and during the 
interim several speeches were made, in which the leaders of the 
liquor men's association advocated strict discipline in the opera- 
tion of the saloons. The directors reported that they would 
permit saloons to open under certain regulations. Each saloon 
keeper was sworn in as a deputy sheriff. They were instructed 
to arrest any person who made any sign of trouble in their 
saloons and to do all in their power to suppress any unruly 
spirit that might manifest itself. 



THE T-RAIL RECO MMEND ED FOR DETROIT 

The committee of the Council of Detroit which has been con- 
sidering the question of the use in Detroit by the Detroit United 
Railway for a part of its system of the T-rail has as a result 
of its study of conditions in Grand Rapids, Milwaukee, St. Paul 
and Minneapolis submitted a report to the Council, advising 
that the company be permitted to use the T-rail. The com- 
mittee says : 

"In Grand Rapids the company operating the street railway 
system uses a 91 -lb. T-rail, laid on a gravel foundation, using 
a special grooved granite block, which takes the place of the 
iron groove in the rail used by the local company. In this in- 
stance the granite block is not laid under the head of the rail, 
but a cement mortar is placed against the web of the rail to 
take up the space under the head or top of the rail, and the 
granite grooved block is then laid next to the mortar, which is 
done for the purpose of not disturbing the pavement should 
there occur a depression of the track. 

"In Milwaukee the company operating the railway system 
uses a 97-lb. T-rail, laid on a 6-in. concrete foundation. As to 
the pavement between the track the company uses an arched 
or circular section which gives a crown in the pavement nearly 
equal to the head or top of rail, which construction in the 
judgment of your committee is undesirable. 

"In St. Paul and Minneapolis the street railway systems 
are operated by one company, called the Twin City Rapid 
Transit Company. They use a 91 -lb. T-rail with a 6-iii. base, 



7 ins. in depth, same as other cities visited. A gravel founda- 
tion is used throughout the entire systems, except in the central 
portions of each city, where a concrete foundation is used. 
Granite block is used almost entirely in both of said cities, but 
the same, while grooved, is laid against the web and under the 
head of rail instead of being laid away from rail as is done in 
Grand Rapids, using a flat section across tracks, so that the 
groove of the granite block takes the place of the steel groove 
of the rail used in our city. 

"The sum and substance of the conditions in all cities are 
these: The companies use a 60-ft. 7-in. T-rail, weighing from 
91 lbs. to 97 lbs. per yard. In Grand Rapids, Milwaukee, 
St. Paul and Minneapolis the companies use the cast-welded 
joint, while in Grand Rapids they also use what is called a 
continuous joint. 

"The cast-welded joint is exceptionally well thought of in 
those cities, because of the smooth riding and continuity of the 
track, and also because the pavements have seldom, if ever, 
to be disturbed to bond the rails with copper wire for the con- 
veyance of the electrical current, and it is stated that less than 
I per cent of these joints require any further attention. The 
continuous joint is also held in high regard, but your committee 
is of the opinion that, while both of the methods employed have 
given good results, neither one or the other should be specified. 
Inasmuch as the company has taken the initiative in this mat- 
ter, we believe that they will use whichever joint is best 
adapted to local conditions, and we therefore recommend that 
the commissioner of public works grant said company permis- 
sion to reconstruct the tracks on Jefferson Avenue, from Wood- 
ward to Beaufait Avenues, on the express condition that the 
company use a 60-ft. 7-in. T-rail, weighing from 91 lbs. to 
97 lbs., using granite block between tracks and 18 ins. outside." 


MEETING OF THE EXECUTIVE COJJMITTEE, SOUTH- 
WESTERN ELECTRICAL & GAS ASSOCIATION 

A meeting of the executive committee of the Southwestern 
Electrical and Gas Association was held last month at Dallas, 
Tex. Reports of all committees were received and ordered filed. 
A. E. Judge, treasurer, submitted a report showing the finan- 
cial condition of the association on Dec. i for the years 1904, 
1905, 1906, and 1907. This report showed that the finances ot 
the association were in better condition than ever before. 

A communication was received from W. W. Freeman, secre- 
tary of the National Electric Light Association, New York 
City, suggesting closer co-operation between the various local 
organizations, which would tend to benefit all concerned. 

The president, H. T. Edgar, the secretary, R. B. Stichter, 
and J. A. Myler, Jr., manager of the Dallas Gas Company, 
were appointed a committee of three to arrange for all papers 
to be read at the next meeting, which will be held in El Paso 
in May, 1908. The question of exhibits for the El Paso meet- 
ing was brought up, and it was the understanding of the 
executive committee, and so expressed, that this matter was in 
the hands of a committee of supply men, appointed at the 
San Antonio convention, and that the president take the matter 
up with that committee. 

The secretary was instructed to gather such information as 
directed by the president of the association, regarding taxes, 
both ad valorem and special ; cost of street improvements ; 
donations, etc., as would be of benefit to the association, and 
the executive committee requested that all members of the 
association give the secretary every aid possible in the procur- 
ing of this information. This information is to be filed in the 
office of the secretary for the use of the members of the asso- 
ciation. 



LIMITED SERVICE O N OHIO ELECTRIC RAILWAY 

Effective Jan. 19, the limited service put on between Colum- 
bus and Dayton, Ohio, by the Ohio Electric Railway, will be 
extended to Richmond, making a through run from Columbus 
to Richmond, a distance of 112 miles. Stops will be made only 
at the more important towns. The run will be made in three 
hours and 55 minutes. Reports show that the through business 
between Columbus and Dayton has increased about 300 per cent 
since the limited service was put on between those towns last 
month. If the Richmond service proves as successful, the 
through service will be extended to Indianapolis. The' new 
Richmond service will comprise four limited cars each wav 
a day. 



loo STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. [Vol. XXXL No.- 3. 



A NEW FIRM OF CONSULTING ENGINEERS 

The firm of Manning, Hanchett & Young, consulting, me- 
chanical, civil and electrical engineers, has just been organized 
with offices at 237 Fulton Street, New York, and 824 Equitable 
Building, Baltimore. The firm will also have a laboratory in 
New York. Its members are well known in the fields of civil, 
mechanical and electrical engineering. W. T. Manning, from 
1894 to 1899, was chief engineer of the Baltimore Belt Rail- 
road, and has since been conducting a consulting business in 
Baltimore. He has also held the positions of assistant chief 
engineer of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, engineer mainten- 
ance of way of the Pittsburg Division of the same company, 
and chief engineer of the Staten Island Rapid Transit Railway. 
Mr. Hanchett has conducted a business as consulting engineer 
in New York for the last ten years, previous to which time he 
was associated with several manufacturers of electrical ap- 
paratus. He is the author of a book on the subject of electric 
motors, and has given a great deal of attention to electric rail- 
way engineering. 

Mr. Young was for eleven years electrical engineer of the 
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, and has written several papers on 
the subject of the equipment of the belt line tunnel, for engi- 
neering societies and the technical press. Before becoming 
associated with the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, which was in 
the year 1895, he was on the engineering staff of the General 
Electric Company. 

DECORATIONS FOR TECHNICAL JOURNALISTS 

At a dinner given Jan. 15 at the Aldine Club, New York, by 
the American Museum of Safety Devices, the decoration of 
Officier de ITnstruction Pulilique, given by the French republic, 
was presented to T. Commerford Martin, editor of the "Elec- 
trical World" ; Chas. Kirchhoff, editor of the 'Tron Age," and 
Rev. P. S. Grant. This decoration is one of the important 
French orders, was instituted early in the last century by 
Napoleon, and is awarded by the Minister of Public Instruction 
and Fine Arts for scientific and literary attainments. The in- 
signia consists of two sprays of laurel and bay crossed pendant 
on a purple ribbon. 

Albert H. Gary, chairman of the United States Steel Corpora- 
tion, presided at the dinner, and acted as toastmaster. M. 
LeFarge represented the French government, for whom he spoke 
in the absence of the French Consul. Frank J. Sprague presented 
Mr. Martin for the decoration. He referred to the fact that 
Mr. Martin had been engaged continuously in electrical journal- 
ism since 1883, and expressed the great debt of the electrical 
industry to Mr. Martin and the "Electrical World" for what 
they had accomplished during the past twenty-five years. He 
also spoke of the assistance which Mr. i\Iartin had been to the 
industry in connection with his work as electrical expert of the 
United States Census, as an active member and past president 
of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, for his 
services in connection with the erection of the United Engineer- 
ing Societies Building, in New York, and in many other ways. 
Mr. Kirchhoff was presented in like manner by Mr. Dickson, 
who is second vice-president of the United States Steel Corpora- 
tion, and who referred to him and the "Iron Age" as authorities 
in all matters relating to iron and steel and metallurgy. Bishop 
Potter, of New York City, presented Rev. Mr. Grant. Dr. 
Strong, president of the American Institute of Social Service, of 
whose committee of direction Mr. Kirchhoff is chairman, and 
Mr. Martin, vice-chairman, also spoke and described the pur- 
poses of the museimi in the field of industrial welfare. 

A number of letters of congratulation to Messrs. Martin and 
Kirchhoff were received from this country and Europe. Among 
those who wrote was Andrew Carnegie, who said that "the 
country is fortunate in having such men as Mr. Martin and Mr. 
Kirchhoff; their lives should be an inspiration to the members 
of kindred societies." Prof. W. Ayrton, of London, testified to 
the satisfaction which the electrical engineers of Great Britain 
would feel at hearing of the honor to Mr. Martin, and looked 
upon it as a recognition of the entire industry on both sides of 
the water. Prof. Blondel, of the Ecole Nationale des Fonts et 
Chaussees, spoke in a similar way of the French engineers. 
W. von Siemens, of Siemens & Shuckert, referred particularly 
to Mr. I\Iartin's work on the "Electrical World," whose influ- 
ence, he said, extended to all civilized parts of the globe. Other 
letters referring to Messrs. Martin or Kirchhoff were received 
from Gen. Horace Porter. Sir Hugh Bell. Robt. A. Hadfield, of 
Sheffield, and others. 



STREET RAILWAY PATENTS 

UNITED STATES PATENTS, ISSUED DEC. 31, 1907. 
[This department is conducted by Rosenbaum & Stockbridge, 
patent attorneys, 140 Nassau Street, New York.] 

874,979. Trolley Harp ; William J. Murphy, Bridgeport, 
Conn. App. filed Oct. 31, 1907. The trolley wheel has an in- 
tegral axle and is pivoted between jaw members of the harp 
which are resiliently pressed together, whereby the bearing will 
automatically take up wear. 

875,028. Train Stop for Electric Railways ; Ernst Wolt- 
mann. New York, N. Y. App. filed Feb. 23, 1907. Relates to 
railway installations in which the power is supplied through a 
third-rail constructed in insulated sections for train stop and 
other purposes. Provides connecting bonds for the separate 
sections whereby the third-rail acts as a current-carrying con- 
ductor for the transmission of the power to the system. In 
this way separate copper cables are made unnecessary or greatly 
economized. 

875,057. Railway Tie ; Eli T. Forrester, Washington, D. C. 
App. filed June 29, 1907. A railway tie having a depressed por- 
tion constituting a yoke, said tie including a cushioning means 
extending throughout the length thereof and in the walls and 
bottom of the yoke. 

875.061. Ventilation of Electric Railway Motors; George 
Gibbs, New York, N. Y. App. filed July 24, 1907. A pneumatic 
piping system extending co-axially through the pivots of the 
bogie trucks. 

875,063. Safety Car Signaling Device; George W. Goddard, 
Philadelphia, Pa. App. filed Jan. 15, 1907. Provides means for 
preventing the conductor from ringing the signal bell whenever 
anyone is standing on the car step in the act of boarding the 
car or alighting therefrom. 

875,120. Automatic Electric Block-Signal ; William A. D. 
Short, Lexington, Ky. App. filed Nov. 25, 1905. Adapted for 
systems of that type known as a spindle-operated electric motor 
signal in which the controlling mechanism is located directly in 
line with the spindle on top of the signal post. 

875,198. Electric Bond for Rails; Frank M. Marcy, Wor- 
cester, Mass. App. filed March 3, 1906. The bond is com- 
pressed transversely into two conical blocks by the forcing of 
the blocks into the rails. 

875,215. Trolley Pole; Frederick M. Ross, Newport, Ky. 
.\pp. filed March 4, 1907. Details of a retrieving device having 
latches which are tripped by a sudden movement of the pole. 

875,229. Rail-Joint; James O. Wrench, Beloit, Kan. App. 
filed March 23, 1907. Relates to the construction of the base- 
plate or chair. 




PATENT NO. 875,373 



875,249. Brake-Shoe ; Charles J. Egler, New York, N. Y. 
App. filed May 13, 1907. The brake-shoe is provided at its top 
with a hook adapted to engage a socket in the brake block, and 
a reception socket formed in the brake-shoe adapted to receive 
a diagonally mounted bolt carried by the brake block. 

875,313. Block Signal Apparatus ; Alexander Bevan, Provi- 
dence, R. I. App. filed April 8, 1907. The signals are auto- 
matically operated by a passing car to indicate the presence or 
absence of a car in the block, as well as the direction in which 
it may be moving. 

875,373. Car Fender; George A. Parmenter, Cambridge, 
Mass. App. filed July 20, 1907. Details of construction. 

875.454. Air Brake: Edmund B. Powers, New York, N. Y. 
App. filed Feb. 26, 1907. Provides means whereby the engineer 



January i8, lyoS.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL." 



lOI 



may test the entire length of train pipe for obstructions, and 
result being indicated by a signal in the cab. 

875)536. Electric Controller ; Joseph Ledwinka, Philadelphia. 
Pa. App. filed Aug. 3, 1907. Permits the contemporaneous 
charging of the storage battery and operation of the vehicle 
motors by connection with a railway supply system when the 
current on said system is of such voltage as not to be directly 
applicable to charge said storage battery. 

875,541. Street-Car Fender; Matthew Lund, Grand Rapids. 
Mich. App. filed March 28, 1907. Relates to means for 
tripping an auxiliary fender from the main fender. 

875,543. Automatic Brake ; James Lynch, Van Buren, Ark. 
App. filed June 29, 1907. Relates to pneumatic control and pro- 
vides a brake which is held unapplied by the air pressure in the 
service pipe, but which is applied by spring pressure when the 
pressure in the service pipe is sufficiently reduced. 

875.581. System of Electric-Motor Control; Henry D. 
James, Pittsburg, Pa. App. filed May 6, 1907. A system for 
the control of direct-current motors which are supplied with 
energy from multi-voltage sources. Means whereby a large 
range of speeds can be secured. 

875.582. Multi-Voltage System of Electric-Motor Control ; 
Plenry D. James, Pittsburg, Pa. App. filed May 6. 1907. Re- 
lates to modifications of the above. 

875.585. Method of Control of Electric Motors; Henry D. 
James, Pittsburg, Pa. App. filed May 6, 1907. Additional 
modifications. 

875,584. Multiple-Voltage System of Control : Henry D. 
James, Pittsburg, Pa. App. filed May 6, 1907. Further modifi- 
cations. 

875.596. Trolley Pole Retriever; Luther M. Perkins, 
Tacoma, Wash. App. filed May 6, 1907. A retrieving device 
automatically operated and having a valve which opens to 
admit air to the retrieving cylinder in case the trolley wheel 
leaves the wire. 

875,631. Track Sander; Joseph M. Smith, Worcester, Mass. 
App. filed March 23, 1907. Provides a rotating worm device 
capable of efficiently delivering wet sand and having means 
whereby the sand in a dry state is prevented from being dis- 
charged from the casing when the worm is not turning. 

875,663. System of Control ; Henry D. James, Pittsburg, 
Pa. App. filed May 6, 1907. Arrangement of the circuits of 
the motor control system by which the proper voltages may be 
applied to the operating or controlling magnet windings of the 
separately actuated switches of the control system. 



PERSONAL MENTION 

MR. C. E. PALMER has resigned as general superintendent 
of the Cincinnati Northern Traction Company, of Hamilton, 
Ohio, and will be succeeded by Mr. A. J. Brown, superintendent 
of the Dayton & Western Traction Company. 

MR. ALEX. L. CRAWFORD, formerly a director of the 
Second & Third Street Railroad, of Philadelphia, in the manage- 
ment of which he was prominent, is dead, aged eighty-five 
years. 

MR. ALFRED B. SCOTT, of Scott & Bowne, of New 
York, formerly of that city, but recently of London, is dead. 
Mr. Scott was largely interested in foreign tramway interests, 
being one of the owners, with Mr. Theodore N. Vail, of the 
La Capital Tramways Company, of Buenos Ayres, Argentina. 

MR. JOHN H. KELLEY, for two years inspector on the 
Central District of the Ohio Electric Railway, has been ap- 
pointed ticket agent in charge of the company's Dayton office, 
succeeding Mr. A. Watson. Mr. Kelley was formerly inspector 
on the Central Market lines at Columbus, Ohio. 

MR. THOMAS FINIGAN, formerly connected with the 
North Jersey Street Railway Company of New Jersey (now the 
Public Service Corporation), and who has been assistant pur- 
chasing agent of the United Railroads of San Francisco for the 
past three years, has been appointed purchasing agent of that 
company, vice Mr. C. D. Baldwin, resigned. 

MR. R. M. HOWARD, of Clinton, Iowa, has been appointed 
general manager and superintendent of the Green Bay Gas & 



Electric Company and Green Bay Traction Company, to suc- 
ceed Mr. Geo. W. Kno.x, of Chicago, because it was deemed ad- 
visable to have a resident manager in charge of the property 
in Green Bay. 

MR. R. R. HAYES has resigned as trainmaster of the West- 
ern Ohio Railway Company to accept the position of superin- 
tendent of the Northern Indiana Traction system, with lines 
between Michigan City and Goshen, with headquarters at Elk- 
hart. Mr. Hayes began his electric railway career as a dis- 
patcher six years ago. 

MR. A. L. NEEREAMER, who for several years has been 
general superintendent of the Columbus, Delaware & Marion 
Railroad, with headquarters at Delaware, retired from the ser- 
vice of the company Jan. 15. The company abolished the office 
of general superintendent and the duties have been distributed 
among several other officials. 

MR. C. A. GOODNOW has resigned as general manager of 
the Chicago & .Vlton Railroad and will become president of the 
South Side Street Railway Company in Chicago. Mr. Good- 
now has been with the Chicago & Alton since Nov. 3, 1903. 
He entered railroad service in 1868 as telegraph operator for 
the Vermont & Massachusetts Railroad, when he was fifteen 
years old. 

iMR. JOHN LAHRMER has resigned from the Columbus 
& Springfield line of the Ohio Electric Railway. Mr. Lahrmer 
entered the service of the old Cleveland, Lorain & Sandusky, 
now a part of the Central Division of the Ohio Electric Rail- 
way Company, in November, 1902, as a conductor. He was ap- 
pointed dispatcher a few weeks later and has held that position 
ever since, except for a short period during which he occupied 
the position of assistant superintendent of the Cleveland, 
Painesville & Ashtabula Railway. 

MR. JOSEPH H. HANDLON has been appointed claim 
agent of the United Railroads of San Francisco, vice A. K. 
Stevens, resigned. Mr. Handlon ' has been connected with 
the United Railroads as chief clerk to the late general manager, 
G. F. Chapman, for about five years. Previous to this 
time he held various positions with the North Jersey Street 
Railway Company, of New Jersey, both in the claims depart- 
ment and with the general superintendent ; the Brooklyn Heights 
Railroad Company, of Brooklyn, N. Y., and the Metropolitan 
Street Railway Company, of New York City. 

MR. GEORGE W. WHYSALL, general manager of the 
Columbus, Delaware & Marion Railway Company, announces 
a number of changes in the personnel of the Columbus, Dela - 
ware & Marion Railway Company. Among other offices abol- 
ished was that of soliciting freight agent, the resignation of 
Mr. L. W. Harrington, who occupied that position, having been 
accepted. It is said that the office of general superintendent will 
also be abolished. Mr. C. F. Turner, who has been chief engi- 
neer, has been appointed superintendent of motive power, a 
position that has recently been created. 

MR.^ GEORGE WESTON has been appointed by the Mayor 
of Chicago as a member of the Board of Supervising Engi- 
neers of the Chicago traction lines. He succeeds his brother, 
Mr. Charles V. Weston, who resigned to accept the presidency 
of the South Side Elevated, as noted in this column last week. 
Mr. George Weston was born in Kalamazoo, Mich., in 1861, 
and his first engineering work was as a rodman on the Mis- 
souri, Kansas & Texas in 1880. Fie was engaged in steam rail- 
way work in the Southwest until 1887, when he entered the 
employ of Mr. C. T. Yerkes in Chicago. The construction of 
Clybourne Avenue, Milwaukee Avenue, Blue Island Avenue and 
Halsted Street cable lines was carried out under his charge, 
and later he built 75 miles of electric street railways for the 
West Chicago Street Railway. In 1896 he resigned this posi- 
tion to go with Naugle, Holcomb & Company, constructing en- 
gineers.^ He was in charge of the construction of the Subur- 
ban Railroad of Chicago until 1898, when he was made general 
manager of the company. Until 1901 he was engaged in the 
construction of the Tennessee Central, on the completion of 
which he resigned to engage in consulting engineering practice 
with his brother under the firm name of Weston Brothers. In 
April of this year he was appointed assistant chief engineer of 
the Traction Board, and has since had charge of much of the 
engineering work carried out under the direction of that body. 



I02 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. ^5. 



NEWS OF THE WEEK 



CONSTRUCTION NOTES 



Items in this department are classified geographically by 
States, with an alphabetical arrangement of cities under each 
State heading. 

For the convenience of readers seeking information on par- 
ticular subjects, the character of the individual item is indi- 
cated as follows : 

* Proposed roads not previously reported. 

o Additional information regarding new roads. 

t Extensions and new equipment for operating roads. 

Numerals preceding these signs indicate items referring to: 

1. Track and roadway. 

2. Cars, trucks and rolling stock equipment. 

3. Power stations and sub-stations. 

4. Car houses and repair shops. 

5. Parks and amusement attractions. 

iBIRMINGHAM, ALA. — President Ford, of the Birmingham Railway, 
Light & Power Company, h?s petitioned the City Council for an exten- 
sion of time on a half dozen or more franchises which have been granted 
by the Board of Aldermen. 

ifBERKELEY, CAL. — The San Francisco, Oakland & San Jose Railway 
Company, operating the Key Route system, has applied for a fifty-year 
franchise for the new line projected along Sacramento Street, from (he 
Oakland line all the way to the north end of Berkeley and branching 
through the hill country to the north to the section donated for the pro- 
posed site of the State capital. 

oLOS ANGELES, CAL.— It is reported that Col. J. W. Eddy has lost 
his franchise to build an inclined railway to the top of Harpers' Peak, 
in Griffith Park, the time limit having expired. The failure to begin 
work is due to the delay of the Huntington interests in building a street 
car line to the park. 

ifNAPA, CAL. — The San Francisco, Vallejo & Napa Valley Electric 
Road has formally opened for traffic its extension from Napa to St. 
Helena. 

oPUEBLO, COL. — We are officially advised that the Pueblo & Arkansas 
Valley Electric Railway Company will begin construction work next 
April. The company proposes to construct a standard-gage railway, 53 
miles long, which will connect Pueblo, ."Vvondale, Fowler, Monzanola and 
Rocky Ford, Col. Both steam and electricity will be used in operating 
the road, the latter being rented from the Pueblo Traction Company. It 
is also the intention to operate an amusement park in the vicinity of 
Pueblo. The company has an authorized capital stock of $300,000, and its 
offices are located in the Bryant Building, Kansas City, Mo. The officers 
are as follows: N. Douthitt, Kansas City, Mo., president and general 
manager; M. G. Saunders, Pueblo, vice-president; F. R. Stoller, Kansas 
City, Mo., secretary; F. B. Chappege, Kansas City, Mo., treasurer, and 
N. C. Van Natta, Pueblo, chief engineer. 

itNEW HAVEN, CONN.— It is believed that President Mellen, of 
the Connecticut Company, is about to order the building of the proposed 
electric railway connection between Willimantic and South Coventry. It 
is said the company is to discharge an obligation existing as the result 
of the purchase by the Consolidated Railway Company of the electric 
railway between Willimantic and Baltic by the Willimantic Traction Com- 
pany at an early date as evidenced by the rumor that quotations have been 
asked on a certain number of thousand railroad ties to be used in the 
construction of the proposed extension from Willimantic to South Cov- 
entry. It is construed from the communication that the company intends 
to build at an early date, and from the specifications it is assumed that 
the extension, which will be six miles in length, is to be of heavy con- 
struction on an excellent roadbed, so that there can be trolley freight 
and express as well as passenger service. 

oWILMINGTON, DEL.— The West Chester & Wilmington Electric 
Railway Company, which is arranging to build an electric railway from 
Wilmington to West Chester, Pa., has opened offices in Wilmington. 
Thomas E. O'Connell, who started the project and is president of the 
company, is in charge of the office. 

ifWILMINGTON, DEL. — Arrangements have been completed by the 
Wilmington City Railway Company for opening the new Lobdell division 
in South Wilmington this week. 

itST. AUGUSTINE, FLA.— The St. Johns Light & Power Company 
has received the maps and necessary papers from the war department 
granting this company a right of way through the fort reservation to 
connect the tracks of the electric railway from Bay Street to San Marco 
Avenue. 

oAUGUSTA, GA. — The Atlanta & Carolina Construction Company, 
which proposes to construct an electric railway between Augusta and 



Atlanta, has petitioned the City Council for rights and privileges to lay 
tracks into and through the city of Augusta, and erect terminal stations. 
The matter was referred to the railroad and streets and drains committee, 
to take up with the officials of the company, and report back. The survey 
of the line has been finished some time, all the way from Atlanta to 
Augusta, and the contract was awarded some months ago to a construc- 
tion firm in Montgomery, Ala. Matthew Mason is vice-president and 
general manager of the company. 

tSPRINGFIELD, ILL.— The Illinois Traction system has officially ac- 
cepted the 50-year franchise granted by the City Coucil of Streator 
about a week ago for the Chicago, Peoria & Ottawa Railway, which is to 
be part of the system's line to Chicago. The acceptance of the Streator 
franchise has assured the immediate construction of the Ottawa-Streator 
line. According to the agreement now existing between the city councils 
of Ottawa and Streator work on the construction of the line must be com- 
menced not later than March i, 1908. The expenditure of at least 
$100,000 by the interurban company during the year is also required. 
Orders for rails and other material necessary for the track construction 
have "neen placed. An agreement, contingent upon the acceptance of the 
Streator franchise already exists between the Ottawa Council and the 
interurban interests, whereby a combination bridge is to be erected by the 
company, Ottawa agreeing to pay $35,000 toward the erection of this 
structure. 

IFORT V*'AYNE. IND. — ^The Town Council of Roanoke has passed 
an ordinance giving the Fort Wayne & Wabash Valley Traction Com- 
pany a franchise to do an electric lighting business there for a term 
of 99 years. 

o.SOUTH BEND, IND. — Good progress is being made on the construc- 
tion of the Chicago, Lake Shore & South Bend Railway Company. About 
forty-eight miles of track have already been laid, and it is said that 
thirteen miles more will be completed within a short time, the grading 
having been almost completed for that much. This will make sixty-one 
of the seventy-one miles of track to be built. The turbines for the power 
house have been delivered and will be erected as soon as possible. It is 
estimated that the road will be in operation by July or August. J. B. . 
Hanna, of South Bend, is president of the company. 

oWARSAW, IND. — Work on the projected line of the Winona Inter- 
urban Railway Company's line, between Valparaiso and Fort Wayne, will 
begin at once. The line has been under consideration for two years ani 
the surveys have been completed. The road will parallel the Pennsyl- 
vania road the greater part of the distance. 

i-3-StISHPEMING, MICH.— The Marquette County Gas & Electric 
Company has just completed a new boiler house and installed the follow- 
ing apparatus in its power station: One 500-kw vertical Curtis turbine, 
one 200-kw Buffalo Forge engine direct-connected to a iio-kw, direct- 
current, 5so-volt street railway generator; also a new storage battery. 
The company has in view the construction of about two and a half miies 
of new track and a dancing pavilion. At present the company is in the 
market for a double truck closed car about 42 ft. over all. 

itFARMINGTON, MO.— The St. Francois County Electric Railway 
Company expects to begin construction work this week on the following 
extensions: 2600 ft. spur with siding from main line on the De Lassus 
division and a 2600 ft. extension to the power station of the State 
Hospital, No. 4. Manager Zwart states that all the material necessary 
for this construction work is already on hand. 

3tNEVADA, MO. — The Missouri Water, Light & Traction Company 
will place contracts during the next few weeks for the installation of the 
following apparatus: Two 225-hp water tube boilers, 6oo-hp exhaust steam 
heater, 6oo-hp live steam water purifier and the necessary piping. Hiram 
Phillips has succeeded M. P. Murray as receiver for the company. 

2tBINGHAMT0N, N. Y. — The Binghamton Railway Company is equip- 
ping five of its large cross seat cars with Franklin hot water heaters. 

i-StKINGSTON, N. Y.— The Kingston Consolidated Railroad Company 
is reconstructing its lines with 90-lb. T-rails. The company expects to 
purchase a penny arcade, to be installed in Kingston Point Park. 

i-3tLIMA, N. Y. — The Lima-Honeoye Electric Light & Railroad Com- 
pany expects to place contracts during the next three months for the 
construction oi about thirty-six miles of new standard track. The com- 
pany also proposes to purchase gas engines and considerable other equip- 
ment for a new power station, which will use natural gas for fuel. 

oMINEOLA, N. Y.— The New York & North Shore Traction Com- 
pany made an application to the Nassau Supervisors last week for a fran- 
chise to build an electric railway from Mineola to Westbury, permission 
being sought to build on Maple Avenue and to cross Post Avenue, both 
county highways. 

oNEW YORK, N. Y.— The failure of the New York & Port Chester 
Railroad to make an annual report to the up-State Public Service Com-- 
mission, as required by the public utilities law, necessitated a hearing last 
week, which was given to the representatives of the company by the com- 
mission. William C. Trull appeared as attorney for the Port Chester 
Railroad, and Allen Wardwell for the New York, New Haven & Hart- 
ford and allied interests in the consolidation. The commission desired . 



Street Railway Journal 



Vol. XXXI. NEW YORK, SATURDAY, JANUARY 25, 1908. No. 4 



Published Every Saturday by the 

McGraw Publishing Company 

James H. McGraw, Pres. Curtis E. Whittlesey, Sec. & Treas. 



Main Office: 
NEW YORK, 239 West Thirty-ninth Street. 



Bra'NCH Offices: 
Chicago: Old Colony Building. 

Philadelphia: Real Estate Trust Building. 
Cleveland: Schofield Building. 

San Francisco: Atlas Building. 

London: Hastings House, Norfolk St., Strand. 

Cable Address, "Stryjourn, New York"; "Stryjourn, London" — Lieber's 
Code used. 

Copyright, 1908, McGraw Publishing Company. 



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NOTICE TO SUBSCRIBERS. 

REMITTANCES. — Remittances should be made by check. New York 
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CHANGE OF ADDRESS. — The old address should be given, as well 
as the new, and notice should be received a week in advance of the 
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BACK COPIES. — No copies of issues prior to September, 1904, are 
kept on sale, except in bound volumes. 

DATE ON WRAPPER shows the month at the end of which the 
subscription expires. The sending of remittances for renewal prior to 
that date will be much appreciated by the publishers. 

During 1907 the Street Railway Journal printed and cir- 
culated 427,250 copies, an average of 8216 copies per week. 
Of this issue 8500 copies are printed. 

Parks and Pleasure Resorts. 

Last year two issues of the Street Railway Journal 
were devoted especially to the subject of parks and pleasure 
resorts of electric railway companies. This year we are 
continuing that practice and this number constitutes the 
first of the series. An excuse is hardly needed for giving 
attention at this time of the year to the park situation. 
Street railway managements are almost unanimous in the 
opinion that a park judiciously located and properly man- 
aged is a valuable asset for the company, on account of the 
amount of transportation which it produces. Social econo- 
mists state that there is a marked trend among all classes 



in this country toward giving greater attention to recreation 
and athletics. It is the general concensus»of opinion that 
this is a desirable condition and should result in improved 
health and morals. Whether this is so or not. the 
existence of this tendency at the present time certainly 
cannot be denied. The increasing popularity of the various 
forms of athletics, as well as of the number who partici- 
pate in them, and the avidity with which books on nature 
and wood-lore are read, testify to the existence of a desire 
on the part of the community to get from city streets into the 
country, where there is more opportunity for fresh air, 
exercise and amusement. 

All street railway parks cater to this general demand. 
Many of them do so at a direct loss, when the cost of invest- 
ment is considered; some about pay expenses, and a few 
show a profit. Nevertheless, the increase in number contin- 
ues, indicating that when the indirect advantages of a park 
are considered, and the profit derived from transportation 
is added to the deficit or surplus derived from the park 
itself, a satisfactory sum appears on the right page of the 
ledger. 

In our series of articles this week, accounts are presented 
of some of the most successful street railway parks in the 
country, the leading article being upon Big Island Park, 
of the Twin City Rapid Transit Company. The active cam- 
paign conducted by this company in the promotion of traffic 
was described by Mr. Warnock at the last meeting of the 
American Street and Interurban Railway Association, in a 
paper which attracted great attention. Mr. Warnock con- 
tinues the recital this week by giving in detail some of the 
results secured last year and outlining in a general way the 
plans of the company for the coming summer, so far as its 
pleasure resorts are concerned. In the other articles on 
parks published in this issue an attempt has been made not 
only to describe the parks themselves but also to analyze, 
so far as possible, the factors which have contributed to 
their success. Other contributed articles give experience 
derived from park operation. Accounts of some of the 
new attractions for park resorts follow. 

One of the most common forms of entertainment at street 
railway parks is the theatrical performance, generally tak- 
ing the form of vaudeville, but sometimes embracing more 
elaborate productions. A very large proportion of tlie 
population of every city attends theatrical performances, 
so that during the heated season, when a closed playhouse 
would be almost unthinkable, the open theater, with its light 
form of attraction and low price of admission, appeals 
strongly to the amusement loving public. A few years ago 
only a few of the street railway parks attempted to stage 
any sort of a performance, but many companies are now 
making quite elaborate theatrical plans for their summer 
season. It is needless to say that a great deal of money 
can be sunk in this way unless care is taken. It is almost 
a truism, also, that performances which are successful in one 



I04 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. 4- 



city often meet dismal failure in another, for no apparent 
reason. By-and-large, however, the summer theater has 
proved sufficiently successful to warrant the large invest- 
ments which are being made in this direction by street 
railway park managers. 

Some of the results of combining the amusement and 
transportation business have their humorous side. The 
modern superintendent or manager is forced to become an 
expert upon the.latest theatrical novelties as well as upon 
the newest types of rolling stock, and should know equally 
well which variety will best suit the public to which he has 
to cater. He finds upon his desk requisitions for glass 
target balls, billiard cue tips and balloons, sorted in with 
those for trolley harps and strain insulators. The purchas- 
ing agent is expected to know the current prices on wild 
animals as well as on railway motors and to be as prompt 
to recognize flaws in sarsaparilla as in steel rails. Serious- 
ly, however, the park has come to stay ; it has become recog- 
nized as a legitimate direction for effort on the part of a 
street railway company and one which repays for the energy 
put upon it. 

Order at the Park 

While street railway parks vary greatly in size, design, 
and the expense of the attractions offered there is almost 
universal agreement upon one matter, it is unwise to cater 
to any except the most orderly elements in the commounity, 
and that the sale of alcoholic drinks should be prohibited. 
It appears settled that the resort which attracts the women 
and children will bring the men too; and the latter will be- 
have with more decorum and spend more money for 
sensible entertainment than they would at a "stag" picnic. 

The policy of keeping liquor off the grounds should not 
only mark the inaugural year of a park, but be continued 
despite tempting offers for the bar privilege. Recently the 
manager of an Eastern railway park which had established 
a fine reputation for popularity during its first year of 
operation was offered $5,000 for the sole right to sell 
liquor in the park for one season. The size of the bait 
can be imagined when one considers that the amount men- 
tioned equals 50,000 admissions in a district where not more 
than twice that number are likely to visit the resort In a 
four-months' season. This offer was promptly refused. 
The liquor man was courteously informed that the railway 
company had no desire to see its park business ruined in one 
or two seasons for the sake of a short extraordinary profit ; 
it was in the amusement field to stay and vastly preferred 
to make a smaller profit indefinitely with the satisfaction 
that it was establishing a reputation of orderliness for its 
property. 

Aside from building up a highly desirable class of traffic, 
the total-abstinence park costs much less for policing and 
the danger of accidents on crowded home-going cars is 
greatly diminished, because of the absence of rowdies. 

Depreciation 

This topic has been discussed so frequently at recent 
street railway meetings that the presentation of the subject 
by Mr. Duffy, published on another page, will prove of 
interest. To many companies depreciation signifies simply 
an intangible shrinkage in property values, which is partly 
counterbalanced by a more or less liberal inclusion of the 



cost of renewals in operating expenses, and that any further 
deficit is more than made up by increases in the value of a 
property through the growth of the city in which it operates. 
It is undoubtedly true that any consideration of deprecia- 
tion should include a concurrent regard for appreciation 
where any exists, but to assume that the two always balance 
is unwarranted. 

The rapid development of the industry has complicated 
the situation in two ways. In the first place replacements 
have nearly always involved the introduction of such better 
apparatus or material than that discarded that it has been 
looked upon, and rightly to some extent, as a legitimate 
charge to capital account. Again, much of the original 
material has not been in use long enough yet to wear out. 
A period of twenty years would cover the construction of 
more than ninety-five per cent of the street railway mileage 
in the United States and ten years that of practically all of 
the interurban mileage. Without looking forward to the 
time when renewals and replacements are inevitable, low 
rates have been established which now will pay interest on 
bonds and dividends on stocks with ordinary maintenance 
charges included in operating expenses. With no adequate 
depreciation reserve set aside for future expenditures the 
day must come when the cost of renewals will have to be 
met out of the surplus available for dividends or even the 
prior obligation of bond interest. 

If any railway manager doubts the reality of depreci- 
ation let him employ an engineer to make a valuation of 
the physical property under his charge and compare it with 
the cost of construction. Probably not one road in the 
country which has been in operation for more than five 
years could show a present value of more than eighty per 
cent of its replacement value, and most of them would 
fall below seventy per cent. On the Milwaukee Electric 
Railway & Light Company, where the principle of deprecia- 
tion has been recognized and provided for by a liberal de- 
preciation reserve for the last ten years a tentative valuation 
of the property shows a depreciation of 20 per cent. In other 
words, one-fifth of the original capital invested has been 
used up in service in spite of liberal maintenance and 
deductions from net income for depreciation, with nothing 
to show for it but the good-will of the company as an 
operating property. In his paper on depreciation, Mr. 
Duffy outlines three ways in which a depreciation reserve 
can be maintained, and points out that it should be an actual 
fund invested in interest-bearing securities. He also de- 
scribes the practice of the Milwaukee Electric Railway & 
Light Company, which has paid especial attention to this 
subject. 

Heating and Ventilation Again 

The solution of the problem of the proper method of 
heating and ventilating electric cars seems to be practically 
as far away as ever, if one is to judge by the results of 
such efforts as are evident to the frequent user of electric 
cars of various classes in different parts of the country. 
To be sure, the problem is a hard one. The conditions are 
bad especially for ventilation. Practically the only con- 
stant in a given case is the size of the car, and that size 
is small in proportion to the number of persons contained, 
even if the room were a stationary one. Moreover, the 



January 25, 1908.] 

' speed, which affects both temperature and ventilation, is 
not constant. Even the average speed, including stops, varies 
at different periods of nearly every run. During some 
portions of the trip the doors are opened and closed more 
frequently than at other times, while the number of per- 
sons in the car is constantly changing. 

These conditions, especially the variable ones, obtain to 
a greater degree on city and suburban runs than on inter- 
urban runs, and tend to make any constant heating and 
ventilating arrangements impossible. Changes must be 
made in both, from time to time, to suit the variation in 
conditions, if anything approaching a satisfactory solution 
is attained. ~ The responsibility for making these changes 
in arrangement;s falls to the conductor, who acts either 
upon his own initiative or upon the complaint of a passen- 
ger — in either case the results are more likely to be wrong 
than right. 

The conductor's duties require him to be in and out of 
the car at intervals, and on this account, if the weather be 
cold, his natural tendency is to keep the car warmer than 
is necessary. His frequent excursions into the outside air 
also render him careless or incompetent to judge regarding 
proper ventilation. This is particularly the case on inter- 
urban runs, where conductors have more direct control of 
the heating, and also do not, as a rule, dress so warmly 
as do city conductors, who spend more of their time out of 
doors. The conductor's natural tendency is consequently 
toward uneconomical heating and poor ventilation. The 
secondary influence on his heating and ventilating arrange- 
ments is, as has been said, the complaint of a passenger, 
and unfortunately for the majority of the passengers, it is 
generally the invalid or the crank who makes such a com- 
plaint, which generally results in a car too hot or too cold, 
with too much or not enough fresh air for general health 
or comfort. This also happens more frequently on inter- 
urban roads than on the usually short city runs. 

It is not the intention to discuss here the various appli- 
ances which have been devised for the heating and venti- 
lating of cars. The heating appliances in genieral use are 
probably as satisfactory as the general design of cars and 
conditions of their operation will allow. The common 
ventilating devices are, however, far from satisfactory, 
generally being simply some arrangement for opening tran- 
soms at the top of the car. Unless a great deal of care be 
exercised, the opening of such a ventilator results in a 
strong draft of cold air apparently concentrated on the 
back of the neck of one or two passengers, with little bene- 
fit to the rest of the car. The form of transom hinged at 
one end is, of course, a great improvement over the one 
hinged on a horizontal axis, but a wrong manipulation of 
even the former may . produce quite wrong results. Some- 
thing radically different from the present method must be 
used before ideal ventilation is obtained. 

In the meantime, while we are forced to use the present; 
crude appliances, can we not greatly improve conditions 
by a more rigid instruction of conductors in this mutter? 
There is not so much opportunity for improvement in con- 
ditions on city cars on account of the extreme variability 
of the conditions affecting the problem; on the other hand, 
the average passenger haul is shorter, and consequently 
the need for improvement is not so pressing. Where pas- 



105 

sengers are carried in one car for periods of thirty min- 
utes, an hour, or even two hours or longer, runs that are 
becoming more and more common in interurban work, 
however, there is great need for improvement. On such 
runs the speed is nearly constant for a great part of the 
time, the car doors are opened infrequently, and there is 
apparently no excuse for the abominable conditions so fre- 
quently found. Use thermometers, good thermometers, 
and place them in the car intelligently. Use a type of 
ventilator which does not permit a strong draft of air to 
stfike directly down in one current. Instruct conductors 
thoroughly and carefully in a sane method of using the 
heater and ventilators. Such tactics will result in far bet- 
ter conditions on probably a large majority of interurban 
cars of the country. Not only will traveling "by electrics" 
be better appreciated because more comfortable and health- 
ful, but a considerable saving in coal for car heating 
should also result, in many cases. 

Encouraging Trainmen to Visit the Shop 

On many electric roads the trainmen are seldom seen 
inside the shops where inspection and repairs are made. 
Close relations between the subordinates of the operating 
and maintenance departments are not easily maintained on 
large systems, and even in small companies it is not always 
easy to get the men to take an interest in one another's 
working conditions. There ought to be some way, however, 
of giving the men on the cars the direct benefit of the 
lessons which the equipment teaches to the men in the shop 
as it is brought in off the road. On the other hand, it 
would also be well if the shop force could be made better 
acquainted with the way certain adjustments of the rolling 
stock affect the easy handling of the cars on the road. 

In most cases it takes some little time to bring any better 
way of handling equipment to the train service men's at- 
tention, especially if the system is a long one. Certain 
routine orders and bulletins must be issued as a result of 
conditions which may have been for a long time apparent 
to the shop force, but which have been gradual in their 
approach to the master mechanic's attention. There is no 
question that where conditions permit the friendly inter- 
change of ideas between the trainmen and the shop force 
much good may result. Of course, there must always be 
some centralized operating authority to issue instructions to 
either department, but the need of these instructions .can be 
lessened by encouraging trainmen to get in touch with shop 
conditions periodically, ^.ither through informal weekly 
meetings with shop department heads and picked 
subordinates held during*- the hours of light fratfic, by 
occasional trips to the shop to note the repair methods 
followed in peculiar or unusual trouble cases, and 
in any case by the posting of bulletins in the 
lobbies and recreation rooms giving the causes of con- 
spicuous breakdowns in service, suggestions for over- 
coming trouble and the like. Although the average motor- 
man or conductor is not expected to exhibit much technical 
knowledge, many trainmen are quick and intelligent in ap- 
prehending the causes of mechanical and electrical diffi- 
culties, and as they arc on the spot when breakdowns occur, 
their testimony and suggestions ought to be more generally 
secured. 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



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STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. 4. 



THE STORY OF BEAUTIFUL BIG ISLAND PARK AND 
LAKE MINNETONKA 



BY A. W. WARNOCK, 
General Passenger Agent Twin City Rapid Transit Company, 
Minneapolis and St. Paul. Minn. 



Big Island Park, Lake Minnetonka's Resort Beautiful, 
really had its tryout during the season of igoy"! For while 
the park was opened a short time during the latter part of 



as a picnic resort and as a delightful objective for trips 
from Minneapolis and St. Paul over the two new "Twin 
City" electric lines. Thus, Big Island really came into its 
own when the electric lines were opened to the lake. 

It is a difficult proposition to lay down a hard and fast 
rule for creating and operating a successful park. Condi- 
tions vary widely in different cases and each park must 
necessarily work out its own salvation. The geographical 
location of the park, the length of time necessary to reach 




MUSIC CASINO AND PERGOLA, BIG ISLAND PARK 



the season of 1906, there was no real definite knowledge 
of the place on the part of the public until the past year. 

The history of Big Island Park is so unique and so many 
amusement managers as well as electric railway companies 
are watching its development that the story of our season 
for 1907 may prove interesting, and the facts are here given 
in response to an invitation of the Street Railway Jour- 
nal to tell how we got along last year. 

For something more than forty years Big Island, located 



it, the rate of fare and many other conditions are matters 
of such variation that in the last analysis each park's own 
success must be developed from its own experience. 

Big Island Park is twenty miles from the city of Minne- 
apolis and thirty miles from the city of St. Paul. I believe 
we have one of the most' superb electric lines in the United 
States leading from the Twin Cities to Excelsior on Lake 
Minnetonka. We have double tracks of 80-lb. steel rail 
laid on a perfectly ballasted and graded roadbed, and over 




A PICNIC PARTY AT BIG ISLAND PARK 



in the larger part of lower Lake Minnetonka, and situated 
from the shore a distance varying from one-half to two 
miles, has been a particularly attractive isle of greenery for 
the many tourists who have visited the lake. However, its 
solitude was undisturbed and no attempt was made to pre- 
pare it for the picnicker or merry maker until 1905, when 
sixty-five acres of the most desirable part o'f the island 
were purchased by the "Twin City Lines" for development 



this line our cars speed along at a mile-a-minute clip with 
ease. Of course, within the city limits we necessarily have 
to run slow, but the fourteen miles from the city limits of 
Minneapolis to Excelsior have been made as fast as fif- 
teen and one-half minutes, so that distance is not necessar- 
ily a handicap. Nevertheless, it takes forty-two minutes to 
go from the center of Minneapolis to Excelsior, and ninety 
minutes from the center of St. Paul to Excelsior. The 



January 25, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



trip is a delightful one through the woods, beside the 
brooks, across the creeks and by the lakes for which Minne- 
sota is so famous. The ride is invigorating and refresh- 
ing and altogether invites the traveler to repeat it again 
and again. 

On arrival at Excelsior passengers' are unloaded at the 
dock station and board ferry boats for a two-mile trip to 
Big Island Park. This dock station is very conveniently 
arranged for a loading station, and it is at that point that 
cars connect with the entire fleet of boats operated by the 



p. m., the amount of business they carried to the park was 
small as compared with the business that moved in the day- 
time. It can readily be seen that the time taken to go to 
the park and the time taken to return home would cut out 
the good part of the evening. So we can hardly hope to 
develop much evening traffic from town. 

When we first opened Big Island Park we thought that 
the steamboat ride between Excelsior and the island might 
prove to be an argument against people going to the park 
in any considerable numbers, but last year's experience 



FERRY BOATS PASSING NEAR BIG ISLAND PARK 



"Twin City Lines." Six fast express boats carry cottagers 
to all points around the lake ; three excursion boats do a 
special tourist business and three double-end, double-deck, 
side-wheel ferries, modeled on the lines of the Jersey City- 
New York ferries, perform a shuttle service to and from 
the park. It is only sixty minutes' trip from Minneapolis 
to Big Island Park and a little less than two hours from 
St. Paul. 

Last summer we handled the majority of picnics con- 



taught us that, for the most part, people enjoyed the ferry 
trip. Considering that it is only twenty minutes each way 
between Excelsior and Big Island Park, that the boats are 
roomy, stanch and safe and do not steam far from land at 
any time, this part of the trip appealed peculiarly to many 
patrons who would not care to make a longer water trip. 
During the week one ferry boat performs an hourly service 
between Excelsior and the park. During the rush hours 
of the day an extra boat is put on. On Sundays and holi- 




WALK FROM FERRY DOCKS TO WATER TOWER AT BIG ISLAND PARK 



ducted by Minneapolis churches, Sunday schools, lodges 
and special parties, but owing to the fact that we had not 
yet put on through cars from St. Paul, the amount of busi- 
ness from that city was limited. We discovered that Big 
Island Park is essentially a spend-the-day picnic resort. 
Most of our business leaves Minneapolis before 10 a. m. It is 
either a question of going out before 10 o'clock and return- 
ing to the city about 6 p. m. or leaving the city about 2 p. m. 
and returning to the city about 11 p. m. Although our 
"Excelsior Limited" cars left Minneapolis as late as 7.30 



days the three ferries furnish a twenty-minute service 
throughout the day and they have all they can do to take 
care of the business on that schedule. 

With the intention of making Big Island Park strictly a 
family resort and a place to enjoy an ideal summer day's 
picnic, we have expended a great deal of effort to supply 
enough comforts on the island to make one's holiday pleas- 
ant. Still we have not attempted to improve too much on 
nature. The Almighty made the island and the thoughtful 
person will take counsel before attempting to improve on 



io8 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. 4. 



His handiwork. Big Island Park is an island of majestic 
trees, rolling lawns, knolls and numerous beautiful vantage 
points from which may be enjoyed a variety of vistas of 
water and sky, and altogether it is a most unusual resort 
from a natural beauty standpoint. We have an artesian 
well 400 ft. deep, furnishing a fine water supply, and we 
store our water in a steel tower covered with concrete and 
studded with electric lights. This tower is a close copy of 
the famous tower of Seville, Spain, and makes an attractive 
ornament to the island. At the base of the tower there is 




INTERIOR OF MUSIC CASINO, BIG ISLAND PARK 

a shelter house, and there are attractive walks from the 
ferry docks to the tower. 

Some exceedingly effective architectural features are em- 
ployed on the island, and of these probably the most novel 
is the peristyle following the ridge of the island. It is built 
of concrete and outlined with electric lights. We have 
excellent modern toilet rooms for men and women, as well 
as smaller comfort stations here and there throughout the 
grounds. Four picnic kitchens equipped with ranges and 
tables and built of concrete are located in different parts 
of the island in the picnic grounds so that it is possible for 




TONKA BAY HOTEL, LAKE MINNETONKA 

at least four large picnics to have culinary accommodations 
at the same time. All the buildings on Big Island Park are 
absolutely fireproof with the exception of the temporary 
refreshment pavilion, which we intend to replace at an 
early date with something more commodious and sub- 
stantial. There are no more beautiful picnic grounds to be 
found in all America than those of Big Island Park, and 
it is proving an ideal place for churches, Sunday schools, 
family gatherings and parties, young and old, who wish 
to enjoy themselves amidst the pleasantest surroundings. 



The place makes no pretensions to equalling the fatiguing 
clamor of Coney Island, and the thoughtful mother and 
father can feel that their children may visit the park with 
other children and be free from annoyance or improper in- 
fluences of any, kind. The best order is maintained under 
all circumstances, and last year's testimonials give proof 
that our painstaking care in this matter was appreciated. 

While it is essentially a picnic resort. Big Island Park 
still has some inexpensive and attractive amusement fea- 
tures sufficiently numerous to add zest to the holiday and 
answer the question: "What is there to do here?" We 
have an excellent Figure Eight roller coaster, a carousel, 
a baseball ground, an Enchanted River, a Trip Through 
Yellowstone Park, a postal photo gallery and Pennyodeon. 
The park's main attraction, however, is the $50,000 music 
casino, built of steel, concrete and glass, and seating 1500 
persons comfortably. During the few weeks of the first 
season, 1906, we had Innes' band for two weeks, and last 
year Banda Rossa for five weeks, the Navassar Ladies' 
Band for two weeks, and "Nelson and His Band" with . 
Twin City vocalists for two weeks. We are about con- 
vinced that foreign bands did no larger business for us 
than good local bands. It seems that band music should be 
an incidental matter, anyhow, with no charge for it, and 
I am inclined to think that a good local band, if bands we 
must have, are about as effective as any. At least that is 
the way it worked with us, for "Nelson and His Band" 
from the Twin Cities certainly did as much business in 
proportion, all things considered, as the other bands. 
Whether we will continue using the Casino for bands ex- 
clusively in the future, or devote part of the time to high- 
class vaudeville is a question we have not yet settled, but 
one of these two features will certainly be adopted. A good 
lecturer once in a while can add to a park's popularity. To 
have men of the calibre of Bryan or Watterson lecture at 
a park such as ours would undoubtedly result in securing 
great numbers of people from surrounding towns who 
would necessarily have to use our line and our boats, as 




A BIT OF THE PERISTYLE AT BIG ISLAND PARK 

well as be taken to the Island where the amusement fea- 
tures hold forth. Of course, that opens up the question as to 
whether it is desirable to go after congested crowds of peo- 
ple or cater simply to an even every-day traffic. 

Our regular round trip rate, Minneapolis to the Park and 
return, is fifty cents; for parties of fifty or more persons, 
thirty-five cents. St. Paul rates are ten cents higher. We 
also sell an attractive twenty-five-ride ticket between Minne- 
apolis and any point on the lake reached by our boats for 
$4.50, or eighteen cents a ride. These tickets are 



January 25, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



109 



used by all cottagers and many transients. It was our 
experience last summer that we secured a great deal of 
business in the evening from the many cottagers about the 
lake, and by a convenient system of boat schedules on all 
our express boat routes, we enabled cottagers to leave their 
homes after supper, visit the park, listen to the band con- 
cert and return to their homes at a seasonable hour. We 
secured considerable business from these cottagers at the 
park, in addition to the 20 cents for the round trip on the 
boat, which entitled them to entrance to the island. 

Early in the spring of 1908 we are going to extend our 
present line from Excelsior to Manitou, one and one-half 
miles, and from Manitou we have leased one and one-half 
miles of an old established steam railroad to Tonka Bay. 
This is part of the Minneapolis & St. Louis Railroad and 
we are going to electrify it. We are then going to run 
through cars from Minneapolis to Tonka Bay, instead of 
stopping them at Excelsior as at present, although they will 
continue to make all boat connections at Excelsior. By 
this move the Minneapolis & St. Louis Railroad, which has 
been doing a large picnic business will step out of the 
Minnetonka picnic field and we will have the entire South 
Shore section to ourselves. We also operate a cottage spur 
line from Deephaven Junction to Deephaven on the lake, 
which was formerly a steam line operated by the Chicago, 
Milwaukee & St. Paul and which we have electrified. This 
gives us another line to the South Shore cottage colony. 

When we make our entrance into Tonka Bay next sum- 
mer we are going to find several new problems on our 
hands, which will require solution and which will in many 
ways fit in with the Big Island Park plan very nicely. The 
largest hotel at Lake Minnetonka is the Tonka Bay Hotel, 
located at Tonka Bay. It is some years old, but still is a 
very comfortable summer hotel and beautifully located. 
Its management is going to pass into our hands, and we 
will be prepared to take care of 400 persons under its roof 
very comfortably. Near the hotel, and part of the hotel 
property, is a modern roller skating rink, which is a par- 
ticularly favored resort for the cottagers, young and old, 
arotind the South Shore. When we secure large picnic 
parties hereafter, which will require hot meals, or hotel 
accommodations in addition to the park privileges at Big 
Island Park, we will be able to take care of them at Tonka 
Bay, and, by putting on a boat service between Tonka Bay 




STEAMBOAT DOCKS AT EXCELSIOR 



and Big Island Park, we can shuttle our patrons back and 
forth between the hotel and the island in a very few min- 
utes, and give them all the variety of comforts and accom- 
modations they can possibly ask for. We will thus have 
the business of entertaining all the transient people we take 
to the lake, and with the equipment we will have on hand 
we will be in splendid shape to do so. There are also fine 
picnic grounds around Tonka Bay Hotel, and those who 
do not care to make the water trip to Big Island Park — 



and there are a few of them — will be able to enjoy the car 
trip to Tonka Bay and play baseball, roller skate, dance 
and picnic to their heart's content, with everything to suit 
their taste, and still they "Don't go near the water." 

We offer also a variety of other pleasure to the public 
who take advantage of our car service to Lake Minne- 
tonka from the Twin Cities. We operate what we call 
"The Forty-Mile Lower and Upper Lake Trip," which can 
be enjoyed for the small outlay of 25 cents. By leaving 




ROLLER SKATING RINK, TONKA BAY HOTEL 



Minneapolis at 8.33 a. m. every day in the week during 
the summer, one can enjoy a fine spin to Excelsior, get 
aboard a big, safe excursion steamer and journey all over 
both lower and upper lakes, enjoying their bays, inlets, 
peninsulas, cottage colonies and the great variety of scen- 
ery for which this wonderful body of water, with its 300 
miles of shore line, is famous. From 9.15 a. m. until i 
p. m., nearly four hours, one is on the water and steaming 
all the time. On return to Excelsior at i o'clock there is a 
car waiting to bring the traveler back to the city. We be- 
lieve there is no better or cheaper trip for 25 cents to be 
found anywhere than this scenic tour of the lake. A similar 
trip is made every afternoon. If your time is limited and 
you prefer a closer inspection of the indentations of Minne- 
tonka's shore, for which the lake is famous, and see its 
more secluded charms, you can get aboard one of our 
express boats, of which there are six, and enjoy a round 
trip ranging from one to two hours for the small sum of 
20 cents. We have four of these express lines and they 
have been the means of educating the people to the lake's 
beauties in a way that has never been offered before. Of 
course, the hurried passenger who wants to see it all in the 
least possible time usually makes the forty-mile trip, but 




DOCK STATION, WHERE CARS AND BOATS CONNECT 



our express boats have demonstrated the fact that they 
are splendid feeders for our rail lines, and trailing the 
shores, as they do, they develop a good "point to point" 
business. 

Now about our fleet of boats which is making Minne- 
tonka so famous. Our twelve boats have a carrying ca- 
pacity of over 5,000 persons. The six fast express boats — 
named after cities and resorts on our lines as follows: 
Como, Harriet, Hopkins, Minnehaha, Stillwater, White 



no 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. 4. 



Bear — were built in our own shops in 1906. Like all our 
other equipment, they embody the latest ideas for comfort, 
convenience, safety, speed and beauty and are fine types 
of marine architecture. They were modeled after plans 
furnished by the most experienced designers of the fore- 
most American shipyards, and every detail of their con- 
struction has been considered to make them absolutely sea- 
worthy and comfortable as well as speedy. They are 70 ft. 
long with 14 ft. beam, have torpedo sterns and are equipped 
with the finest machinery, insuring a speed of from twelve 
to fifteen miles an hour. They are fitted up as nearly like 
our cars as it is possible to make them, with easy spring 
cane cross seats accommodating two persons each, as well 
as long side seats for larger parties. Each express com- 
fortably seats 140 passengers. The windows of the ex- 
press cabins are of the same design as in the cars, provid- 
ing for the generous admission of the delightful lake 
breezes in pleasant weather, and these windows can be 
readily closed to insure warmth and dryness in cold and 
stormy weather. The three ferries : Minneapolis, St. Paul 
and Minnetonka, are each 142 ft. long and 39 ft. beam, with 




T-HE FORTY-MILE EXCURSION STEAMER 



a capacity each of 1000 passengers. They are new, having 
been built during the winter of 1906-07. The three excur- 
sion boats include the safe, comfortable stern-wheeler "Ex- 
celsior," capacity 800, and the propellers "Puritan," ca- 
pacity 300, and the "Plymouth," capacity 200. These boats 
are also open to charter to special parties at very low rates, 
so that excursion parties can conveniently include their 
own special boat trip with their other ticket and as a part 
of their day's program. 

Big Island Park is going to be a more popular place each 
year, because we are are going to make it so. It possesses 
all the elements which will appeal to the good, substantial 
people of our popular Twin Cities in such a way that they 
will feel a sense of proprietorship in the place the more 
they visit it. There are a number of things which will 
come to the park in their own time. We expect to have 
first class bathing facilities, a new and more commodious 
refreshment pavilion and some changes and additions to 
our amusement features. Many of our friends ask for a 
bowling alley. Many would like us to play up the dancing 
feature in a high grade way, and still others have requested 
that we put in a roller skating rink. However, as we will 
have a thoroughly modern rink at Tonka Bay, we will prob- 
ably be able to take care of those who desire that form of 
amvxsement at the Bay this summer. All these problems 
will take care of themselves and they will be solved in their 
own time. 

Public sentiment usually settles most questions, even such 
.a matter las running a park, and the careful park manager 



will keep his ear close to the ground and his hand on the 
public pulse in the endeavor to find out the correct thing to 
do at the psychological time. It is a difficult thing for any 
one to sit down and definitely say what should be done and 
what should not be done in any business, and I think as 
we all grow older we become more tolerant and believe 
that possibly we may not know the last word, even in the 
business to which we have been devoting a good many 
years. Of course, age and experience certainly entitle one 
to speak more or less with the voice of authority, but in the 
summer park amusement business particularly it is a diffi- 
cult thing to foretell what is going to be a success and 
what is not going to be a success. When such an astute 
amusement purveyor as Mr. Frohman cannot tell in ad- 
vance whether a play, however well it impresses him, is 
going to make a hit or not — and how many times he has 
discovered after the first one or two acts of a play that he 
has drawn a blank — how are we going to predetermine 
what is an absolute success from a street railway point of 
view and from the public standpoint? The best possible 
course we can follow for our solution is this : Each com- 
pany and each park manager must work out his own salva- 
tion, and, while being in a receptive mood for advice and 
suggestions from others who have made successes of parks 
in other parts of the country, still keep definitely in mind 
all the time that his public may be a trifle diiYerent from 
some other public and that his proposition may be consider- 
ably different from some other proposition. 

Applying the same reasonable business rules to your 
summer park that you would to any other proposition, and 
following this general policy, it seems to me that each man 
can solve his own park problem best. 



HINTS ON CREATING ENTHUSIASM 



BY A PARK MANAGER 

Every electric road has a certain fixed population to draw 
from in the cities and towns and suburban districts along 
the line. I am referring not to amounts as given in census 
figures, but to the fixity, the permanency of residence 
among the greater number of your possible patrons. If a 
company has an amusement resort which is depended upon 
to increase materially the riding each year and for years 
to come, it is to these same people year after year that the 
company must cater. Hence every effort should be made 
to secure for the park or amusement ground the reputation 
of being the j oiliest spot in the whole section for providing 
entertainment or as the objective point of an outing. 

It doesn't take long for a reputation, good or bad, to work 
all the way through the population from which a park draws 
its patronage. Sooner or later one form of advertising, 
despite all efforts with ink, will determine the success of 
the park — the word-of-mouth advertising, or what one per- 
son says to another concerning it, or public opinion. The 
many ways of using printer's ink will inform new additions 
to the population and the summer visitors what they may 
expect to see of the beauties of the park and instill in them 
the desire to go, but once having visited the resort they 
know just what it has to offer, as the regular patrons al- 
ready do. A company's main reliance in the way of ad- 
vertising and popularizing a resort, therefore, after the ex- 
pectant crowds have been transported there, is to treat them 
right, so that the park will get a reputation that will hold. 
If the returning cars never carry a disappointed patron, 
if they all feel that they have been made the objects of an 



January 25, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY 'JOURNAL. 



Ill 



effort to please and have had their money's worth, the man- 
agement has done all that is possible to popularize the place. 
If the returning crowds are angry and disappointed and 
bored it won't be long before this tide will prevail against 
the incoming rush and the resort will see not far ahead the 
limit of its possible future. 

The average fun-follower can take care of himself pretty 
well and doesn't expect to be mollycoddled with attention, 
but there are certain ways of steering his enthusiasm into 
proper — and profitable — channels after he arrives that will 
give him the fun he is looking for and the company the 
nickels it brought him there to spend, and at the same time 
leave him highly pleased with the exchange. That is where 
the provider of amusement has somewhat the advantage of 
the seller of prosaic commodities. 

A car rolls into the terminal station at the park filled with 
people. They have come to be amused, and are in the 
proper mood for it, perhaps a bit eager and expectant. 
Drag them into the center of it the minute they arrive, and 
don't let their enthusiasm get cold for want of encourage- 
ment. It is hard to overcome diffidence once it takes hold. 
Apply the theater clacque on a large scale to the park 
grounds. Pretend to ridicule the custom of "warming up" 
a house as one will; there is nothing really so effective if 
the artificial means by which it is accomplished are not too 
evident. No matter how well the stage tries to please the 
chairs, if the audience is cold from the start everything is 
going to go wrong, and no one is having a good time. Even 
with an indifferent show, if some one starts the enthusiasm 
off -with a swing and stampedes the audience into hand- 
clapping from the first curtain, every one is going to sit up 
and take notice and at the close will declare the show to 
have been a fine one. 

"Fattening up the house" can be done quite legitimately, 
and only the manager indifferent to all his possibilities, and 
the main ones at that, will permit his theater crowd to get 
'"cold." Men connected with the company, motormen and 
conductors and barn men off duty, are usually admitted free 
to the theater if the company has a direct part in running 
it ; and they are usually the severest critics and "bromides" 
of it. Possibly the privilege and their familiarity with it 
breeds an assumed indifference which would consider en- 
thusiasm as too flattering. They are the ones, however, to 
whom it is "up" to plunge in and give an expression to 
their enjoyment. Scattered over the house, their concerted 
action will carry the whole floor with it, and the theater 
will have a reputation for splendid shows that even printer's 
ink won't give it. Their entering into the fun with interest 
is the main thing; the show itself is really secondary to that. 
No show will please members of an audience that, over- 
awed by the silence of a large house, have been allowed to 
slip down into their seats until they are sitting on their 
collar buttons. 

As the people arrive on the grounds see that they are 
greeted by some evidence that fun rules the place. Don't 
set them down in the quiet hush of a sun-barred grove; 
they'll find that later if they want it. Bring them at once 
into the center of the fun. Noise, and plenty of it — the 
kind that shows that somebody is finding enjoyment — should 
greet them. The rumble of the cars on the roller coaster 
and the dull thunder of the balls in the bowling alley; the 
sound of music coming confusingly from several directions 
at once; the enticing harangue of a line of "spielers"; 
shouts of laughter from the smaller fun-making conces- 
sions — all serve to start the excitement that compels them 
to join in. 



Keep the different amusements going somehow. If the 
merry-go-round stands idle temporarily for lack of suffi- 
cient patronage, the park patrons won't demand that it 
start up ; they must be drawn to it. Keep it going and the 
music playing if you have to put somebody on it free. 
When there are no cars going around the roller coaster 
the crowds will certainly pass it by. In some places they 
even send the cars around empty to keep up the appearance 
of business that tends to draw the money. A good hearty 
laugh is certain to draw patronage to the concession from 
which it proceeds, and in one place that I recall a young 
woman who had a penetrating burst of merriment always 
at her command was welcomed to every part of the grounds, 
for there was always a crowd in line at the ticket booth 
where her laugh showed that somebody was finding fun. 
The whole theatrical business is nothing more than simu- 
lation, illusion, yes, even a variety of "fake." Its charm 
lies in the fact that the mask is never dropped for an in- 
stant, although we know that it is all deception, so far as 
fact is concerned. The whole amusement business should 
partake of this same quality. Only give your patrons all 
that the printer's ink promised them and then you can use 
it profitably every time. Providing enjoyment for other 
people calls for the constant keeping up of appearances. 
The old king's jester may have had sorrow in his heart, but 
it could never be read in his face. Keep the same look on 
the face of the park all the time. There is cold business 
underneath it all ; but a sour face is never much of a lure. 

Pull up first all of the "keep off the grass" signs. The 
people were not invited out into the country to be sur- 
rounded with depressing influences. It is only tempting 
them, by forcing the idea upon them, to do the very thing 
they are asked not to do. Park crowds won't ordinarily 
take short cuts through the flower beds. If they start to 
do so the perky little wooden sign won't hold them back. 
"Don't bark these trees" conspicuously displayed has been 
the cause of drawing many a knife from the pocket of an 
adventurous, fun-loving picnicker who would never have 
thought of that outlet for activity if it hadn't been so plainly 
suggested that this was the very thing not to do. Every 
one likes to test the effect of the "fresh paint" sign; it is 
an instinct as old as human nature. And if a sign should 
be posted warning patrons not to overturn the benches or 
not to climb the flagpole, the park management would have 
its hands full preventing it. "Rules and regulations" in 
some parks use up enough square feet of board to provide 
another concession with quarters. 

Police the park and have it well understood that the arm 
of the law is handy in case of emergency: but the main 
duty of uniformed guards will be to direct the crowds and 
answer questions, and they should be made to know that 
this is a matter of business and an important duty lies in 
the manner of doing it. An employe who gets, surly and 
taciturn when called on to answer the same question three 
times in succession should be fired. Cheerfulness is what 
he is being paid for. Platform men at terminal stations 
sometimes handle crowds as if they were loading the Black 
Maria instead of assisting people that the company has 
invited through expensive advertising to be its guests. 
Savageness has no part in duties where firmness and tact 
are called for. Information pleasantly given is so unusual 
as to create a good impression. 

If any signs are displayed on the grounds they should be 
information signs — maps, schedules, time for leaving of last 
cars for all points, clocks and direction boards. If the 
expense does not seem to warrant a spieler at certain points 



112 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. 4. 



set up a phonograph to do it automatically; it's just as ef- 
fective and a good deal more novel. Keep the crowd in 
good humor by having some things, at least, free. Possibly 
a big spectacular act, to give them something to look for- 
ward to and talk about afterwards, and to focus attention 
on for the day. Inexpensive souvenirs, like race track tags, 
are good to hand out to the homegoing crowds. If they 
have had a good time they will advertise the fact. 

The best advertisement and the one to leave the strongest 
impression is to start the patrons for home as soon as they 
are ready to go. Park crowds usually stay until the last 
minute and then the necessity for getting home at a certain 
time becomes urgent. If they can be cared for and started 
for home with reasonable speed the impression of a pleasant 
day will have been clinched. A long wait in the terminal 
station, with crowds restless and impatient, will negative 
whatever good impression has been made. When they are 
ready to go, take them. That's the best time of the day for 
speedy and efficient service. 



ENGLAND'S FIRST " WHITE CITY/' 



American traffic managers have long recognized the 
value of modern amusement parks in connection with 
electric railways in populous districts, but abroad the rail- 
way managements have given the subject little attention. 
It remained for an American park operator, John Calvin 
Brown, of Chicago, to prove that the English people are 
just as fond of the "White City" class of entertainment 
as are Americans, and consequently that such parks can 
be made equally beneficial to the lines serving them. Mr. 
Brown went to England in December, 1906, and after 



diagram. A space of 16 acres was secured on the grounds 
of the Royal Botanical Gardens, which is reached over the 
city lines for a two-cent fare. On Monday, May 30, 1907, 
Manchester's "White City" was opened to the public. 

That the venture has proved a great success is evident 
from the fact that within 12 weeks the park had 866,000 




iitreet Railway Journal 



MAP, SHOWING THE ENORMOUS POPULATION WITHIN 
DIFFERENT FIVE-MILE LIMITS OF "WHITE CITY," 
MANCHESTER, ENG. 

visitors. Among the latter were the Lord Mayor and Lady 
Mayoress of Manchester, so it can be seen that the park 
has enjoyed some high-class patronage. The park soon 
after its success became known was also visited by many 
tramway managers from Great Britain, Ireland and the 




A SCENE IN THE FINE PAVILION OF MANCHESTER'S "WHITE CITY." PROVING THAT THE ENGLISH ARE NOT BEHIND 

AMERICANS IN THEIR LOVE OF DANCING 



careful survey of the conditions concluded that the great 
manufacturing city of Manchester would be a good place 
for the pioneer installation,, particularly in view of the 
enormous industrial population within a 30-mile radius of 
Manchester, as graphically shown by the accompanying 



Continent, who were anxious to study the workings of this 
novel enterprise. 

In taking up this project the promoter did not think to 
ask for financial assistance from the municipality which 
owns the local system. The one privilege asked, that of 



January 25, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



placing advertising banners on the cars, was promptly re- 
fused. The municipality's charge for power also was so 
high that it was found advisable to install a private plant 
of 2000-hp capacity within 60 days before the opening. 
Difficulties of this character are not likely to occur again, 
as the railway officials have discovered how much the 
"White City" has increased their traffic. The Manchester 




IN FRONT OF THE BOX-BALL ALLEYS AND SKATING RINK; 
SHOWING ALSO THE MINIATURE RAILWAY ALONG 
THE LAGOON 



system carried daily an average of 7000 people for 147 
days last season without any complaint from the park 
patrons. Some days the crowds have numbered over 80,000 
and special cars carrying parties of 60 passengers or more 
are quite frequent. AH of this business has been handled 
on the regular double-track line reaching the park. There 
is no storage siding, but a split switch near the grounds to 
give one line past each entrance. 

Following the plan of the American parks, there is a 
general admission charge aside from those for the big 




WATCHING THE WATER SPORTS IN MANCHESTER'S 
"WHITE CITY" 



attractions. In Manchester this charge is the convenient 
sixpence, or two cents more than is customary in this 
country. The grounds are open daily from 12:30 to 11 
o'clock at night, instead of remaining open to 1 130 or 2 
a. m., as is customary in the large cities of the United 
States. While the earlier hour tends to lessen the total 



receipts, it is certainly advantageous from the standpoint 
of maintaining ofder. 

Great caution was exercised in selecting a list of shows 
for the park, that no two should be similar, and to insure 
an assortment which would successfully cater to all classes. 
These shows are divided into three general classes — illu- 
sions, spectacular and motion shows or riding devices. All 
are equally popular. The admission charges vary accord- 




THE OBVIOUS CONNECTION BETWEEN PARKS AND STREET 
RAILWAYS 

ing to the cost of the show, the expense of operating and 
its money-taking power, and run from i penny (2 cents) 
to I shilling (25 cents). The park is arranged to encour- 
age the patrons to attend many times, to see all the shows, 
and on each trip to enjoy the bands and free attractions, 
which are included in the general admission fee, and which 
are changed nearly every week. 

The illustrations of scenes at the park will give a clear 
idea of both the character of the entertainments offered 
and their popularity. The dancing pavilion is a splendidly 
illuminated, roomy structure artistically decorated with 




VISIT OF THE LORD MAYOR AND LADY MAYORESS OF 
MANCHESTER TO THE "WHITE CITY" 



potted ferns and bunting. The park contains a cen- 
tral lagoon around which are a skating rink, nine 
American Box Ball Company's box ball 42-ft. alleys, 
helter-skelter, rifle range, scenic railway, tour-around- 
the world panomara, miniature railway and many 
other features of the type that have made Coney 



114 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. 4. 



Island known everywhere. The quick appreciation the 
English have shown for this style of amusement really is 
remarkable in view of their usual conservatism. The en- 
trances to all shows are equipped with turnstiles which are 
electrically connected with the' ofifice of the manager to 
enable him to see at a glance just what the takings of all 
the shows are at any given time. 

In addition to the "White City," which was built in com- 
bination with Charles Heathcote & Sons, of Manchester, 




THE BOX BALI. ALLEYS BUILDING AT "WHITE CITY" 



Mr. Brown controls "Yorkshire Jungle," Leeds; "Le Jardin 
de Plaisir," at Paris, and other places. He believes that 
amusement parks to be popular and profitable in or near 
large cities should cost between $350,000 and $500,000 to 
permit the installation of enough attractions to keep up 
the interest of the public. Under European conditions 
such parks may be expected to attract 5000 to 8000 patrons 
daily for about 150 days a year. The comparative benefits 
of an undertaking of this size to street railways are sum- 
marized as follows: If three-fourths of the patrons come 
by trolley at an average fare of 4 cents (2 cents each way), 
the electric lines receive £9,340 ($46,680) to £14,960 
($74,800) per season, with little or no added expense. On 
the other hand, the park gate charge is only one-third 
higher and the expense to the park owner is over £20,000 
($100,000) per annum in addition to investment charges 
on five times the last-named amount. 

Mr. Brown's company is in direct touch with more than 
a score of probable parks in England and on the Continent, 
but is unable to undertake them only on account of its 
present limited staff, and does not expect to complete more 
than two others for the season of 1908. However, it is 
securing the necessary managerial assistants to enable the 
company to open many more in time for the season of 
1909. 

This spring will see the opening of the Paris and Liver- 
pool plants, in addition to the one in Manchester. The 
chief handicap has been to secure proper experienced me- 
chanical and show employees. These must be brought from 
the United States, as the business is too new in England to 
have created men with ability in these departments. 

The street traffic officials abroad seem to be quite alive 
now to the value of parks, and the company is con- 



stantly receiving inquiries from this source, to which it is 
attending as quickly as possible. 

The "White City" in Manchester is managed by A. Ellis, 
to whom thanks are due for the illustrations and notes 
embodied in this article. 



PARK OPERATION AT FORT SMITH, ARK. 

Considering the population of the city in which it oper- 
ates, the Fort Smith Light & Traction Company has gone 
rather heavily in the amusement park business. Fort 
Smith has a population of about 15,000, yet the cost of 
the park improvements, exclusive of the land, is in the 
neighborhood of $75,000. The company's policy with re- 
spect to park operation was adopted simply because the 
earlier experiments showed the park to be a paying in- 
vestment. 

The resort operated by this company, known as Electric 
Park, covers 110 acres and is located about 3^^ miles east 
of the business section of Fort Smith. It is reached by 
two car lines, and during the park season, a lo-minute 
schedule is run in the mornings, while in the afternoons 
and evenings a 5-minute schedule is maintained. Of the 
110 acres, 54 on one side of the car line are devoted to a 
general amusement park and the remaining 56, which are 
heavily wooded, are used as picnic grounds. 

Moorish architecture has been imitated In the construc- 
tion of all of the park buildings. The largest on the 
grounds is the auditorium, which measures 240 x no ft., 
and has a seating capacity for 2,200 people. It has a 
fully equipped stage 70 x 40 ft. in dimensions and a 
proscenium opening 30 by 33 ft. The stage is equipped 
with 15 sets of scenery in addition to the drops, and is 
surrounded by 16 dressing rooms. 

The cafe and dance hall is a two-story structure near 
the park entrance. The restaurant occupies a considerable 




AUDITORIUM OF ELECTRIC PARK, FORT SMITH, ARK. 



portion of the lower floor. The remainder is devoted to 
smoking rooms for gentlemen and reading rooms for ladies, 
in all of which are kept on file the daily newspapers and 
current magazines. The upper floor contains a dance hall 
60 x 90 ft., and this opens out on broad balconies at each 
end of the building. The hall is provided with eight ceil- 
ing fans and a piano. A semi-circular band shell is used 
for open air concerts Sunday afternoons and nights. The 
grounds also contain a penny arcade, refreshment stand, 
rest cottage for ladies and building for the park superin- 



January 25, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



115 



tendents. A gieenhouse has been built to care properly 
for flowers during the winter season. 

The park has its own sewer and water system. Water 
is supplied from two deep wells by motor operated pumps. 
There is a total of 5600 incandescent lamps used in illumi- 
nating the grounds and buildings. Current for these, as 
well as for the motors on the grounds, is supplied from 
transformers located in concrete pits under the buildings. 
The picnic grounds are provided with lawn and circle 
swings and small shelters. 

The park is kept open from May i to the middle of 
October. Colored people have a park of their own and 
are not admitted to this. No intoxicating liquors , are sold 
on the grounds. The admission is free. All the features, 
except the penny arcade, are handled by the company. 

The theater is the chief source of revenue in the park. 
During the park season performances are given every 
evening and Saturday and Sunday afternoons. The prices 
are 10, 20 and 30 cents, and it has been found that the 
highest-price seats are in greatest demand. Seats may 
be reserved at the downtown office. The highest class of 
amusements pay best. Vaudeville features are furnished 
by the Western Vaudeville Association. The company 
maintains an orchestra of six professional musicians at a 
permanent salary. All stage hands and ushers are also 
kept on regular wages. 

During the present season, the theater was closed in with 
the idea of giving performances throughout the winter. 
Heat is furnished by natural gas. The company put on a 
stock company of its own, which ordinarily plays every 



During the summer season, the grounds are turned over 
to the Chautauqua association free of charge for a period 
of 10 days. Meetings are held in the auditorium and the 
other buildings are used for smaller assemblages. The 




• CAFE AND D.\A'CE HALL OF ELECTRIC PARK 

company gets its returns from the traffic induced. In a 
like manner conventions of various kinds are tendered the 
use of the grounds. Newspapers, billboards and special 
cars are utilized to advertise the park. 

Carl Berry, as amusement manager, devotes all his time 




ENTRANCE TO ELECTRIC PARK, FORT SMITH, ARK., WITH THE CAFE AND DANCE HALL IN THE BACKGROUND 

night, but at intervals gives way to larger attractions, lo the operation of the park and the financial success of 

Fort Smith is a midway point between Kansas City and the park is no doubt largely due to the fact that one man 

Texas, and because of its location many of the larger gives all of his attention to it. J. Walter Ciillette, as general 

theatrical companies can be secured which would other- manager of the railway company, has general supervision 

wise consider Fort Smith too small a town to stop in. over the park. 



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STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL .No. 4. 



BUSHKILL PARK, EASTON» PA. advisable to turn it over to a lessee for a nominal rental. 

The land, covering 17 acres, main pavilion and animal 

Making a park attractive is not half as difficult as to cages are the property of the railway company, but all the 
make it profitable ; the first requires only the faculty of other structures were put up by the lessee. The question of 
selecting what is known to be the best liked by the average park accounting, therefore, is very simple, since, aside from 
inhabitant, but the second demands careful figuring to esti- advertising, all the railway is interested in is to know how 
mate with a reasonable degree of success that the greater many people are visiting the park. For the latter purpose 

conductors carry a park 
tally slip on which they 
note on each run the num- 
ber of passengers who left 
the car to enter the park. 

Although not directly 
concerned now with the 
management of Bushkill 
Park, the Northampton 
Traction Company carries 
on an active advertising 
campaign during the park 
season in all the news- 
papers for 20 miles 
around. All advertising 
is paid for in cash, in 
addition to which news- 

COMBINED SKATING RINK, DANCE HALL AND BOX BALL ALLEY paper men are given free 

transportation at all times. 

expense of the more elaborate shows will draw more peo- This liberal policy results in the publication oi many favor- 
pie in proportion. The whole question really is a matter able reading notices, which frequently are more effective 
of population. Should the territory served be populous than straight advertising. The cost of this advertising is 
enough to attract thousands daily, then almost any elabora- not entirely chargeable to the park business, as many pas- 
tion is justified, but if the patrons can only be expected in sengers are so pleased with the scenic beauties oflfered by 
hundreds, reliance for success must be placed on a few the ride on this railway, popularly known as the "Hay 
simple and comparatively inexpensive features. Line," that they spend more than the anticipated car fare. 

Bushkill Park, owned by the Northampton Traction In view of the fact that Bushkill Park is in the heart of 





ENTRANCE TO BUSHKILL PARK OVER STONE BRIDGE SPANNING BUSHKILL CREEK 



Company, of Easton, Pa., is a conspicuous example of a 
modestly conducted, profitable playground. The company 
entered the park business in 1902 by purchasing a wooded 
island in Bushkill Creek, 3>4 miles from Easton, and adja- 
cent to the main line to Nazareth and Bangor. This favor- 
able location made it practicable to give a five-cent fare, 
and made it unnecessary to invest even a single cent in 
extra track construction. At first the company managed 
the grounds itself, but as the business grew it was found 



a great manufacturing district, it is worth noting that the 
grounds are conducted to cater only to the best elements. 
Gambling and the sale of spirituous liquor in .any form are 
absolutely forbidden, nor is any individual or association 
permitted to bring quantities of liquor on the grounds. The 
dancing pavilion is kept closed Saturday and Sunday nights 
to avoid the presence of roughs. These peace-insuring 
features are strongly emphasized in the company's adver- 
tising, and in the circular letter bidding for excursions 



January 25, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



117 



sent early every year to the churches, Sunday schools and 
other organizations in this district. 

The park usually is open from Decoration Day to Sep- 
tember, but the glass-enclosed dancing and skating pavil- 
ion is kept in operation during October and November, 
steam heat being provided for the comfort of the patrons. 
The appearance of the grounds and the general character 
of the buildings will be noted from the accompanying views. 
The main building or pavilion is a frame structure used 



for two years. At the end of that time, when the present 
rink was ready, it was found that all the floor needed was 
a little sandpapering to take off the blackening. The floor 
is of hard maple, which has shown itself capable of with- 
standing considerable pounding. Yellow pine should not 
be used for a rink floor on account of its tendency to 
splinter. 

Another popular indoor feature is the moving picture 
theater, combined with solo singing. The only charge is 




BIRD'S-EYE A'lEW OF BUSHKILL PARK ON THE LINE OF THE NORTHAMPTON TRACTION COMPANY 



for dancing, roller skating and box ball alleys, furnished 
by the American Box Ball Company, Indianapolis. The 
dance hall occupies the upper floor, taking up a space of 
60 ft. X 230 ft., and is probably the largest in the United 
States for the population served. Dancing is free, and 
one of the most popular pleasures offered. 

This company was a pioneer in the roller skating revival, 
and is still enthusiastic on that subject. A fine rink is 
maintained on the ground floor of the pavilion, where, for 



the nominal one of 5 cents for reserved seats, the rest of 
the house being entirely free. This performance is given 
twice a day with reels from the Kinetograph Company, 
New York. There are also a penny arcade, restaurant 
and rifle gallery. The children are well looked after by 
a carousel, pony rides. May-poles, swings, see-saws, sand 
piles, etc. The menagerie is also an attractive feature, 
with its goats, deer, rabbits, birds and three large cages 
of monkeys. The latter are secured from William Bartels, 




PAGODA AND OTHER BUILDINGS IN BUSHKILL PARK 



TO cents, patrons may skate just as long as they like. Some 
400 to 500 pairs of skates are kept on hand. All of these 
are Winslow's ball-bearing type, which have been found 
very satisfactory for this rink service. 

Some park managers have complained that a drawback 
about the skating rink is that unless one risks constructing 
a separate building for the sport, the dance floor is sure to 
be ruined. This has not been the experience at Bushkill 
Park, where the present dance floor was used for skating 



a New York animal dealer, under an arrangement whereby 
50 per cent of the purchase price is returned for every 
monkey sent back alive. The little simians are very liable 
to consumption, and it is therefore not advisable to keep 
them in the open except in warm weather. This rebate 
arrangement has proved entirely satisfactory, as it relieves 
the company of caring for the animals the rest of the year. 

Naturally boating is a popular pastime here, as there is 
no lack of water and attractive spots to row to. Steel 



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STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. ^i. 



boats, made by the Michigan Steel Boat Company, of 
Detroit, are used exclusively on account of their safety. 
Drinking water is equally plentiful owing to the presence 
of a spring of pure cold water in the very heart of the 
park. 

Last, but not least, is the free baseball diamond, which is 
always engaged weeks ahead. The games held are between 
uniformed amateurs, such as the local high schools, and a 
good crowd can always be relied upon to be present when 
the teams meet. 

This company has conclusively proved that a "clean" 
park, well managed and free from "hurdy-gurdy" and other 
objectionable features, is sure to meet with success at the 
hands of the public. 

Bushkill Park has some novel features ready for 1908 to 
please the public which at this time the management does 
not desire to disclose. 



SOME OPERATING FEATURES OF DELL WOOD PARK 



The Street Railway Journal for February 23, 1907, 
contained an article descriptive of Dellwood Park at Joliet, 
111., which is without doubt the largest and most completely 
equipped of all the parks operated in connection with an 



200,000 and at times there were as many as 20,000 people 
on the grounds. This attendance, largely from Joliet and 
surrounding towns, was made up of the best people, as may 
be judged by the fact that only one arrest was made during 
the season and this for a minor offense. While at first the 
attendance was largely confined to Joliet people, during 
the latter part of the season many patrons were drawn 
from points distant from Joliet, the attendance being such 
at the close of the season as to lead the management to 
believe that the park will be well patronized by residents 
of Chicago when it becomes better advertised. The time 
from the city limits of Chicago to the park is one hour, 
and people of the southwest section of the city are nearer 
to the park in point of time than they are to several of the 
popular resorts in the city. 

The park company operated practically all of the amuse- 
ment features, which included a dancing pavilion, an elec- 
trife tiieater, laughing gallery, merry-go-round, bowling 
alley, boats and, during a portion of July, vaudeville. 
Such features as the photograph gallery, shooting gallery, 
novelty stands, restaurants and refreshment stands were 
let out to concessioners on the percentage basis. During 
the entire season the "Dellwood Band," consisting of twenty- 
five pieces and permanently employed by the park manage- 
ment, furnished music. Concerts were given every even- 



A NIGHT VIEW OF DELLWOOD PARK 



electric railway system in the Middle West, representing an 
expenditure of about $275,000. It was built and is being 
operated by the Dellwood Park Company, an organization 
having close connections with the Chicago & Joliet Electric 
Railway, and is under the management of J. R. Blackball, 
general manager of the railway company. Although the 
park was open in an incomplete state for a short period 
during the fall of 1906, the past season, which continued 
from May 31 to Sept. 31, may be considered its first one. 
The total attendance during the entire period was about 



ing and three afternoons a week. One feature which 
added to the popularity of the park was the children's play- 
ground which was enclosed in a portion of the grove and 
was fitted up with the old fashioned rope swings, teeter- 
boards, merry wave devices, sand piles and similar con- 
trivances for the amusement of children. No admission , 
fee was charged and a policeman was kept nearby to pre- 
vent adults from monopolizing the ground. Although there 
were at times several hundred children in the playgrounds, 
there was not an accident during the entire season. In 



January 25, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



119 



fact there was not a serious accident in the entire park 
during the season. 

The dancing pavilion was one of the best paying features 
on the grounds. A charge of 5 cents per dance per couple 
was made. After each dance the floor was cleared and 
those wishing to indulge in the succeeding one were re- 

Weatner 



Attractions- Dated at 






Rate 


Number 


Amounts 


1 Gross 
Receipts 













Theatre 


5 




















10 




















15 




















20 




















25 











































DH 







































— 


Carousel 


5 


























































•■ 


DH 






































Toboggan 


5 




















v 








































DH 






































Miniature Railway 





















— 


Cave of Winds 




















House of Trouble 




















Laughing Gallery 




















Cane Rack 














— 




— 


Shooting Gallery 




















Ball Throwing 




















Soda Fountain 




















Slot Machines 




















Cigars 




















Candy 




















Refreshments 




















Photograph Gallery 




















Bowling Alley 




















Dancing Pavilion 




















Jap'n'se Tea Gardens 




















Boats 




















Grand Totals 





















Remarks 

Cashier 



Rentals when due to be reported above General Manager 

FORM OF AMUSMENT REPORT 



quired to deposit a 5-cent ticket at one of the three en- 
trances before being permitted on the floor. 

The Joliet Chatauqua Association held its encampment 
during the first ten days of September in that portion of 
the park provided especially for this purpose. During this 
lime the International Lyceum Association held its con- 




DELLWUOD PARK TOWER 



vention and its members furnished entertainment for the 
Chatauqua assembly. During the assembly three or four 
hundred people lived in tents on the grounds. Next year 
the Chatauqua will be held earlier in the season and it is 
anticipated the attendance will be larger. Preparations 
are being made for an encampment of 2000 people. I'hc 



DAILY RECEIPTS 

.190^, 



ATTRACTION ! TICKETS SOLD 


RATE ! ' AMOU^a 


Scemc Railway 








LaugKland 








Meny-go-Round 








Dancinfc Pavilion 








Electric Theatre 








Vaudeville TTieatre 








Boating 








































Refreshments 








Pop Com 








Crack-a-Jack 








Restaurant 








































































TOTAL 1 




i 



FORM FOR DAILY RECEIPTS 



people living on the grounds are usually from the neigh- 
boring country districts, and are of a class which would not 
attend the convention if compelled to live in Joliet, so that 
no revenue is lost to the car lines by reason of the encamp- 
ment. The only connection between the park management 
and the Chatauqua Association is that the management 
furnishes ihc grounds free of charge. 



120 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. 4. 



During July vaudeville performances were held' in the 
pavilion erected for the Chautauqua meetings. This pa- 
vilion was too far away from the other park attractions 
and as a result the attendance was not large enough to 
warrant its continuance. It is probable that a theater will 
be erected near the main amusement avenue within a few 
years. 

The ball ground was turned over to a loliet ball team 



As the company has double track lines between the park 
and Joliet, and between the park and Chicago, no trouble 
was experienced in providing ample. transportation facili- 
ties for patrons. On Sundays, holidays and evenings three 
to five-minute schedule was run out of Joliet. The regular 
half-hour schedule was maintained between Chicago and 
Joliet except on. Sundays and special days, when the service 
was doubled. When the service required special cars were 



DAILY REPORT OF CONCESSIONS 



.190_ 



Concessions 


Gross Receipts 


Pa Cent 


15 Per Cent 


20 Per Cent 


25 Per Cent 


30 Per Cent 


Gross Percentage 




























































































Toul 































HEREWITH FIND REMITTANCE FOR S- 
REMARKS: 



. AGENT 



which played semi-professional teams from Chicago. All 
the games were well attended and in many instances large 
delegations of Chicago people followed their team. Thirty- 
six row boats were maintained on the lake. These were 
rented for 25 cents an hour, and the fact that there is no 



Dellwood Park Co. 

MANAGER'S REMIITANCE SLIP 

— 801 
DELLWOOD PARK 

Feature 

190 

PARK SUPT'S. RECEIPT 

Ctirrencij, - 

Silver, - • 

Qold, - - - 

Total, 

Received above amount, 

CASHIER. 



Dellwood Park Co. 

MANAGER'S REMIITANCE SLIP 

— 801 
DELLWOOD PARK 

Feature 

190 

CASHIER'S STUB 

Currency, - 

Silver, - • 

Gold, - ■ - 

Total, 

Cashier: 

Hercirith find rettiittaiice as 
above. 



.sent out. The park closed at 11 o'clock at night and the 
majority of the Joliet people usually waited until this time 
to return to their homes. In anticipation of this the park 
management kept a number of cars waiting at the park 
stations. 



Dellwood Park Co. 

MANAGER'S REMITTANCE SLIP 

801 

DELLWOOD PARK 

Feature 

190 

MANAGER'S STUB 

Currency, - ■ 

Silver, - - - 

Gold, ■ - - 

Total, 

Received package said to eon- 
tain above amount, 

MEB8ENCER. 



Dellwood Park Co. 

MANAGER'S REMITTANCE SLIP 
— 801 
DELLWOOD PARK 



Feature 



190 

MESSENGER'S RECEIPT 



Currency, - • 
Silver, - - - 
Gold, - - - _ 
Total, 



Received above amount, 



MANAGER'S REMITTANXE SLIP IN QUADRUPLICATE 



Other boating facilities near Joliet was no doubt respon- 
sible for the unflagging popularity of boating. 

The facilities for picnic parties drew many people from 
Chicago and distant towns. The picnic grounds were pro- 
vided with a pavilion, chairs and tables and running water. 
Coffee could be purchased from the restaurants. Several 
Sunday schools and societies took advantage of the induce- 
ments offered by the picnic grounds and came in large 
delegations. 



To encourage patronage from Chicago a special rate of 
20 cents round trip for children and 45 cents round trip for 
adults was made. The regular fare for adults is 53 cents 
one way. To societies a chartered car rate of $25 was 
made, the car being limited to sixty people. Sunday school 
picnics were furnished with cars at $20, with a limit of 
eighty children to the car. 

In a great measure the success of the park was due to- 
the plane on which it was operated. No intoxicating: 



January 25, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



121 



liquors were sold and there was nothing to appeal to an 
objectionable class of people. The amusement features 
were such that those taking advantage of them left the 
park with the impression that they had received the worth 
of their money. 

The manner in which the park was advertised was no 



be obtained by having the park company operate the re- 
freshment stand, restaurants and similar features. 

A very complete system of accounting and collecting 
receipts was gotten up particularly for Dellwood Park, and 
the system has since been adopted for other parks operated 
by the American Railways Company, which controls the 



TICKET REDEMPTIONS 



.190 



Features 


5c. 
Tickets 


10c. 
Tickets 


15c. 
Tickets 


20c. 
Tickets 


25c. 
Tickets 


Value 


Theatre 














Scenic Railway 












House of Trouble 














Laughing Gallery 














Photograph Gallery 












Bowling Alley 














Dancing Pavilion 














Band Concert 














Boats 














Total 















Total amount outstanding on previous day 

Sales this day - 

Redeemed on this date - 

Total amount outstanding $_ 



TICKET REDEMPTION FORM 



Dellwood Park,_ 



Park Supt. 



1 90 J 



PAY ROLL 


CHARGE , . 


Name 


No. 


Classifi- 
cation 


Hours 


Rate 


Amount 


Order 
No. 
























































Total 


















Work done as follows 






































Weather 














Certified correct 


Total 







Dellwood Park Co. 

UEH'S REMITTUCE SUP 

DEXLWOOD f>^*klC 



AGENT'S STUB 



Currency. 

Silver; - 
CM. - ■ 



Dellwood Park Co. 

tSEKTS REUITTMCE SLIP 

1201 

DELLWOOD PARK 

Fcniur 

.J90- 




Dellwood Park Co. 

UEKTS REWnUCE SUP 

1201 

DELLWOOD PARK 

Feature , - -.. - 



PARK auprs- 9Tua 



Currency, - , 
Sihcr. - . - . 
Gold. - - - _ 

Total,. 
Manager. 



Herewith find rcmitfnncr < 
above. 



AGENT'S REMITTANCE SLIP IN TRIPLICATE 



Joliet, lll.,_ 



.190 





RECEIPTS 


Total- 
Number 
Issued 


Outstanding 


No, 


Value 


No, 


Amount 


5c. Tickets 
















10c. Tickets 
















































Boats 








































Total Outstan 


ding 










Deposits: — 








First National Bank 




















Totals 




1 









PETTY CASH 



RECEIPTS 


DISBURSEMENTS 


Balance 






























Cash on hand 



















Accident Reports, Nos. 



DAILY LABOR REPORT 



Cashier 

DAILY REPORT 



General Manager 



doubt responsible for the large attendance. Cards were 
placed in tlie amusement columns of Chicago papers and 
advertisements were carried and all special features were 
announced in the Joliet papers. In addition, handbills were 
frequently distributed in the neighboring small towns. 
The management believes that perhaps better results can 



Chicago & Joliet Railroad. A universal 5, 10 and 25-cent 
ticket serves for admission to all amusement features and 
is used for purchase at all of the concessions let on the 
percentage basis. In fact the only place on the grounds 
where money can be spent direct or without first purchas- 
ing tickets is at a few of the smaller concessions paying a 



122 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. 4. 



fixed rental. Tickets are on sale at numerous booths, the 
ticket sellers in which are in the employ of the park com- 
pany. Tickets taken in by concessionaries upon being pre- 
sented to the cashier are cashed, after deducting the per- 
centage due the company. 

The system of collecting the money from the ticket sel- 
lers and receipting for it is of interest. The ticket seller 
or agent is provided with a stub book of triple receipts. 
At the end of the day the ticket seller makes up his re- 
mittance and enters the amount on each section of the 
triple receipt. The agent's receipt and the park superin- 
tendent's stub are torn from the stub and turned in with 



DAILY REPORT OF TICKET SALES 




DAILY RKP(3RT OF TICKET SALES 



Collections to the park superintendent. The superinten- 
dent, after checking the amount, certifies to its being cor- 
rect by signing the agent's receipt, which is then returned 
to the ticket seller. 

In transmitting the receipts by messenger a four-part 
receipt is used. For convenience this is so made that two 
of the receipts are doubled under the others and made out 
by the use of carbon paper. Of the four parts of the re- 
ceipt the ticket seller retains the "manager's stub," the 
"park" cashier retains a stub and the other two portions are 
receipts given by the cashier to the park superintendent 
and the messenger. 

The ticket sellers accompany their remittance with a 
daily report of the tickets sold, which gives the opening 
and closing numbers of the tickets, the number of each 
price ticket sold and the gross and net revenue. From the 
returns of the several features the daily receipts from all 
sources are totaled. Another report is made out daily of 
the ticket redeemed from the concessions on a percentage 
basis. There are, of course, many tickets not used on the 
day sold, and it is therefore necessary to carry an out- 
standing balance. This is shown on the ticket redemption 
report. 

The total park earnings for each day are summed up on 
an "amusement report" which shows for each feature the 
number and kinds of tickets collected, the gross receipts, 
the percentage retained from the concessions and the total 
earnings. From all the other reports there is made up a 
"daily" report or balance sheet which gives the day's re- 
ceipts, the outstanding balance, the bank deposit made and 
in addition accounts for the petty cash receipts and dis- 
bursements. 



THE EVOLUTION OF THE MODERN AMUSEMENT PARK 

BY H. I,. COPELAND. 

The evolution of the modern amusement park dates back 
to the success of the World's Columbian Exposition, which 
was held in Chicago in 1893, and was visited by twenty- 
seven million people, many of whom still talk of its won- 
derful beauty and splendor. Because the principal build- 
ings and Court of Honor were finished in white staff, this 



magnificent exposition was popularly known as the "White 
City." It was to this finish that many people thought the 
success of the fair was due ; hence the number of "White 
Cities" that have since been built throughout the country. 
It is well recognized by artists, architects and sculptors, 
however, that the real source of the beauty and splendid 
effects of the World's Columbian Exposition was the fact 
that the designers adopted a uniform module for all the 
buildings, thus bringing all into one harmonious whole. 
It is to the use of this same module or unit of measure 
that the ancient masterpieces of architecture owe their 
lasting fame for beauty and harmonious proportion. The 
masses did not know the reason for it, but rather felt than 
saw the effect, largely on the same principle that they ad- 
mire a beautiful building without knowing whether it is of 
gothic, romanesque or renaissance design. 

1 he designers of the Pan-American Exposition, which 
was held in Buffalo in 1901, fully appreciated the impor- 
tance of this module system of proportion. They also 
realized that white as a color is entirely too cold and life- 
less to enthuse a holiday crowd of merry-makers at an 
exposition. Instead of the classic renaissance in white, 
therefore, they adopted the more pleasing Spanish renais- 
sance with its brilliant wealth of rainbow coloring, and 
it was from this that the Pan-American Exposition came to 
be known as the "Rainbow City." 

As beautiful as this magnificent exposition was by day- 
light, with its brilliant colorings made radiant by the sun, 
its greater glory was at night when it was illuminated by 
thousands of electric lights supplied by power from Niagara 
Falls. The effect at twilight when these lights were turned 
on, first dimly as tiny stars outlining the buildings, minarets 
and the famous electric tower, then gradually growing 
brighter and brighter until they burst forth in all their in- 
tensity, turning night into day, has not been equalled before 
or since. Many persons unacquainted with reasons for the 
artistic success of the BuiYalo exposition attributed it to the 
electric effect alone ; hence the number of "Electric Parks," 
each with a pocket edition of the famous tower, which have 
since been built throughout the country. 

Notwithstanding the patronage received by the famous 
"Midway Plaissance" at the Columbian Exposition, the 
designers of the Pan-American gave scant thought to their 
midway or amusement section ; a mistake which was not 
realized until on Aug. 9, when a "Midway Day" brought 
out an attendance of over 164,000 persons, the largest 
attendance on any one day during the exposition. It was 
in studying the exposition at Buffalo that one of the show- 
men of the Midway hit upon the idea of the modern 
amusement park, which he later built at Coney Island 
and called Luna Park, the first of its kind in this or any 
other country. 

The success of Luna Park at Coney Island was instan- 
taneous from the first, and was due a great deal more to its 
management and the degraded condition of the old Coney 
Island, than to the design of the park itself. It will be 
remembered that prior to the opening of Luna Park the 
major part of Coney Island had degenerated into a low 
resort, where no respectable person would care to be seen. 
The promoters of Luna Park being unable to secure any 
ground on the ocean front were forced to lease a piece of 
low land back about 1000 feet from the ocean. This they 
enclosed with a high board fence, announcing to the public 
that only good clean amusement was to be found within. 
At the same time they shut out the fresh air and ocean 
breezes so much to be desired in a summer amusement 



January 25, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



park. These natural disadvantages were offset by beautiful 
and artistic buildings, well proportioned, painted in bright 
colors and beautifully illuminated at night, thus making a 
veritable fairyland. The park was entirely different from 
anything the public had ever seen before, and this, supple- 
mented by broad and judicious advertising, made it a suc- 
cess. The fakirs have since built "Luna Parks" and 
"Fairylands" all over the country, copying most of the 
faults of the original, even to building on low ground and 
surrounding the paVk by a high board fence, but have missed 
the good points of the first "Luna Park." 

In "Dreamland," where there was a fine ocean view and 
beautiful sandy beach over 400 ft. long, the designers 
entirely missed the value of these most desirable features, 
and cut off the view of the ocean with their dance hall and 
chutes. In this way they sacrificed the one great advantage 
which they possess over their neighbor and competitor, 
Luna Park. They seemed to center all their thought and a 
large part of their funds on an imitation of the electric 
tower of Pan-American fame. 

From what has been said it will be seen that 
the development of the modern amusement park 
has been largely accidental — a condition due to 
the fact that only recently has park design be- 
gun to assume the aspect of a legitimate busi- 
ness, but the time is near at hand when its 
technique will be as well defined and understood 
as any other business or profession. While there 
are many minor details that only one who has 
fqllowed the growth of the amusement park for 
some time can handle, there are many well- 
established principles to be followed in building 
and operating an amusement park which any 
wide-awake traction manaker can grasp and 
which will certainly improve his park and in- 
crease its receipts. 

First, then, we are dealing with the public for the purpose 
of amusing them when they are looking for fur., instead 
of transporting them from place to place as a matter of 
business. Let us see to it then that every visitor to the park 
has a pleasant time that he will remember and want to 
repeat, for it is the continued patronage that swells the 
receipts. 

Provide the necessary comforts for the body, including 
plenty of seats, judiciously placed, and shelter for rainv 
days, both in the park and at the terminals of the road. 

Free attractions should be changed often enough so that 
the public will not tire of them, remembering that above 
all things the public is always looking for something new. 

The grounds and premises of the park and the con- 
cessions should be kept clean and in order that nothing may 
mar the beauty of the whole effect. Neatly uniformed at- 
tendants will greatly add to the attractiveness. 

All the attractions of the park and the concessionaires 
should cater to the better element, that is, the people who 
have money to spend. 

The design and construction of the park itself should 
never be placed in the hands of amateurs or those who 
have not made a thorough study of the many special 
details peculiar to the modern amusement park. It does not 
follow that a man who can build a chutes or a carrousel 
knows anyhing of the art of designing or building a park 
in its entirety. 

It is needless to say that a swamp is no place ti) build 
a park, and no park should be so designed that its fences 
and buildings shut out the air, allowing only the jiot rays 



of the sun to beat dow n on the visitors. Those who have 
been subjected to this experience are very likely to vow that 
they will never come to such a hot place again, no matter 
how good the attractions are. 

The success of a park is not due to the number of acres 
it has covered with unattractive shed-like buildings, painted 
with streaks of color, each clashing with its neighbor. It is 
far better to have a small park well designed with properly 
proportioned buildings than one which depends largely upon 
its size to impress the public. 

Since most of the receipts come from the night visitors, 
the proper lighting of a park is one of the most important 
considerations. Lamps of 4 candle-power and 8 candle- 
power, if used abundantly, will produce better eft'ects than 
the same amount of power used in larger lamps. 

In laying out a park, be sure and make the most of its 
natural features, for they are the very things that make 
your park different from its competitors. If one must 
copy from other parks, he should know whether he is 




COURT OF HONOR AT PROPOSED PARK. NEAR NEW IIAVKN 



copying its successful features or its defects. No 
amusement park should cover over ten or fifteen acres of 
ground. 

Advertise, advertise and advertise, for herein lies success 
in park management. A park may be ever so good, but if 
the public is to appreciate the fact, it must be told, and the 
fact reiterated in every possible way. 

Then there are sure to be the dull days when all the 
helji will stand around with their liands in their pockets 
and the concessionaires will spend their time in saying un- 
pleasant things about the management. These are the 
days that should be converted into special occasions for the 
sunniier outing of this or that society, lodge or Sunday 
school. If necessary, contests could be arranged for which 
the company would offer a few prizes. This plan is worth 
trying to see if it does not pay. 

The accompanying engraving shows a park proposed for^ 
Lighthouse Point, New Haven, Conn., and illustrates what 
can be done in adapting the natural features of a property 
to the needs of an anuisement park. This ]:)ropert\- con- 
sists of seventy acres of rolling land surrounded on three 
sides by water. The beach front on Long Island Sound 
it about 600 ft. long, while the rest of the water front is 
covered with rocks. A large part of the property is covered 
with fine oak trees forming a beautiful grove to be used 
for camping. The plans contemplate that the amuse- 
ment park proper will occupy about twelve acres on 
the Sound side. The long axis of the Court of Honor 
lies parallel with the v\ater from which it is separated only 
by an o\)Qn collonade, which not only lets in the Ijreeze, 



124 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. 4. 



but also affords a shelter from sun or rain. The chutes 
are an ornamental feature instead of a disfigurement as is 
usually the case, and the space under the chutes tower, 
etc., will be used for bath houses. In this way every part of 
the structure will be utilized. 

Most of the buildings have been designed so that they 
can be used for several different kinds of shows or at- 
tractions, without materially changing their structure ; thus 
providing a change for the public with little expense to the 
company. The grand stand for the Wild West Show is 
built over the concession booths, thus saving both space 
and material, while the isolated booths are made to beautify 
the whole instead of to detract from them. The beach 
and the Oriental Gardens afford plenty of space for those 
who do not care to mingle with the crowd in the Court of 
Honor or the Midway. 

In a park of this design, the element of success is assured, 
for the comforts of its patrons are well looked after. Com- 
fort, convenience, elegance and pleasure combine to attract 
its patrons. 



VAUDEVILLE IN ELECTRIC RAILWAY PARKS 

BY EDWARD P. HULSE. 

It is the intention in this article to tell street railway 
men and amusement park managers who are not them- 
selves showmen a few things in detail about vaudeville in 
summer resorts. I do not intend this as an "expose" of 
the business, for there is little to be said along that line, 
the providing of amusement having moved up to a grade 
where it is among the solid and legitimate professions. But 
there are some facts to be drawn from a long experience 
that may prove useful and instructive to those in control 
of summer parks who may not have been able to give 
enough attention to all the details to know just when and 
where they get the best return for their money and how best 
to please their patrons. 

Almost all electric railways own or run to a public amuse- 
ment ground, and the majority of these have summer 
theaters. Generally, the chief attraction on the grounds 
is the theater. This branch of the summer park industry, 
as it may be called, has grown with such amazing rapidity 
during the last few years that even the most alert road 
manager finds difficulty in keeping pace with its develop- 
ments and its possibilities as a money maker. 

The statement was attributed to the singed cat : "I feel 
better than I look;" and anyone who has had much to do 
with the business of providing vaudeville for his summer 
parks, although he won't be a bit worse off for his experi- 
ence, will certainly have accumulated quite a lot of it, and 
he will know just Where he got it and exactly what marks 
and impressions it left. 

It is comparatively but a short time since a few enter- 
prising park managers began the experiment of occasionally 
engaging a few vaudeville features as a special attraction 
for big days at their resorts or to bolster up lagging busi- 
ness. This was only done as a novelty, and without any 
idea of providing it as a regular attraction. The results 
were so immediate and gratifying as to command more 
attention, and vaudeville soon came to be one of the regular 
features at most parks and in many of them the most 
important one. The demand for acts suitable for outdoor 
performances on the primitive platform stages increased so 
rapidly that it exceeded the available supply at first. 
. As a rule, vaudeville is appreciated in almost any park, 
no matter where situated, whether it be in the mining 



districts or in large cities. A frequent mistake of a man- 
ager who decides that vaudeville does not go is in forming 
that opinion too hastily and before he has given sufficient 
thought and observation to the kind of amusement that his 
patrons would prefer. Sometimes he arrives at this con- 
clusion too early in the life of his park, and without "trying 
out" the tastes of his audience thoroughly. Vaudeville 
is of many kinds and many grades and covers a very wide 
range of acts calculated to amuse or interest. 

A few weeks of minstrel performances or musical comedy 
productions, given during the course of a season, say ten or 
twelve weeks long, might also be appreciated by the patrons 
of most parks. But then again, to play a musical comedy 
for one week and change back to vaudeville sometimes has 
the same effect as changing the policy of a regular winter 
theater, and the story has often been told that it is dis- 
astrous. There can be no comparison between the amount 
of entertainment furnished by a minstrel show or musical 
comedy as against vaudeville, for if the vaudeville show 
is properly put together, with careful blending of the acts 
given, it far overshadows the other forms, unless the 
musical comedy company be a thoroughly organized one 
and the roles in the hands of competent people. 

The musical comedy organization, to use a big word for 
it, that is familiarly seen on the stage of a summer theater 
is made up mostly of near-actors who are getting their first 
chance at speaking a part, and whose previous experience 
has been in carrying a spear or bowing low, upper left, and 
mouthing : "M'lud, the carriage waits." In other words, 
while the summer musical comedy company may have no 
more people along with it than the usual vaudeville bill, 
there is a better chance for the agency to charge the street 
railway management a "special price" for that week while 
really paying the individual members less, and getting 
a much larger percentage in the aggregate. Too frequently 
a couple of the actors get the only "salaries" paid and. the 
rest get the "wages" that ambitious longers for experience 
are willing to accept. A couple of leading parts will "make 
the show" and carry the banner and the rest will pad out the 
program with several changes of name and costume. 

With vaudeville it is different. Each individual on the 
bill is there because he can do some one thing, and do it 
well, and he has to "make good." He is getting all the 
attention from the audience while he is occupying the stage, 
and he has to give a good account of himself while using up 
his eighteen or twenty minutes or he won't get much farther 
around the circuit. A vaudeville bill comes nearer being an 
"all-star aggregation" than the more pretentious summer 
musical comedy company with a pirated plot and imitation 
stage business, and there is every reason why it should 
please the park patrons more, as a regular thing. 

An audience's applause and observation by the manager 
of the intentness of their faces are the signs that mark on 
his barometer the kind of amusement that wins their ap- 
proval. He should make this his constant study. He can 
make more in the end by seeing the show himself through 
several performances than by sitting in the box office or 
poking around in back of the curtain. 

Then again, when a musical comedy is being played for 
one week, the extra advertising of this change in the usual 
program entails more expense. Lithograph paper must be 
used and hung, adding to the cost and work, and when 
vaudeville is again put on there is a noticeable falling off in 
the attendance unless the same attention is again given to 
the publicity end to apprise patrons of the second change 
and the re-establishment of the customary kind of attrac- 



January 25, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



125 



tion. One week of minstrel show or opera therefore 
involves a double cost on the advertising end, and when 
the agency has to be paid also a "special price" the receipts- 
less-expenditures may hardly justify the novelty for that 
week. 

What has been said against musical comedy applies only 
to the sporadic company introduced for one week into a 
season of vaudeville and carrying no more members than 
go with the usual daily bill; and the objection to it is not 
so much that the audience would not appreciate it if it were 
really good as that it involves additional publicity for two 
weeks and generally costs more than a week of the average 
vaudeville. There are some places where experience has 
shown vaudeville to be a failure, and where musical comedy 
is the onlv thing to which patrons will respond. These 
theaters have their own stock companies, carefully made up, 
and with twenty to thirty people on the payroll. Just what 
it is that causes vaudeville to fall flat in these localities is 
hard to determine. It isn't always that 
the population drawn from is used to 
the high-class winter attractions of a 
large city, for some of these places 
draw their entire patronage over elec- 
tric lines that reach only small cities 
or towns. It cannot be due to the dra- 
matic and musical education of the 
population as a whole, for their other 
opportunities for seeing good shows 
and hearing the better grade of music 
are entirely lacking except at the end 
of a long steam ride. Yet year after 
year the only attraction that will win 
the support of these people is a real- 
ly meritorious production of musical 
comedy. 

As an illustration of this, Whalom 
Park had its own stock company for 
fully ten years, and it has been the 
biggest kind of a success. The Fitch- 
burg & Leominster Street Railway 
controls it, and its patronage comes 
out of Fitchburg, Leominster, Lunen- 
burg and Gardner, all in Massachu- 
setts. The mention of these places, 
all far from Boston and Worcester, 
shows that it isn't the big winter 

theaters that have educated the people to respond best to a 
really fine musical comedy. Canobie Lake Park, in the 
little village of Salem, N. H., probably named from the 
better known city in Massachusetts, had a stock company 
giving musical comedies and operas that are well known and 
also such extravaganzas as "J^ck and the Beanstalk" and 
"Cinderella and the Prince." The New Hampshire Electric 
Railways, a high-speed interurban line, brought the entire 
audience from cities ten to fifteen miles distant — such shoe 
manufacturing and cotton mill centers as Lowell, Lawrence 
and Haverhill, Mass., and Nashua and Manchester, N. H. — 
and surely the quality in the population that made this class 
of attraction pay was not its dramatic and musical crluca- 
tion. Ponce de Leon Park, in Atlanta, Ga., is on a circuit 
with summer theaters in other southern cities that all season 
long fretjuently give good musical comedies and some of the 
well-known, old-time plays. 

In some of these theaters, where this peculiar fjualilv in 
the population drawn from seems to require sonielliin.^' 
other than vaudeville, vcar after vear the same old round 



of non-royalty plays is seen. "Pinafore," "Chimes of 
Normandy," "Pirates of Penzance, "Fra Diavolo," "Bo- 
hemian Girl," follow each other in succession — maybe not 
with their proper names, but with the familiar old plots 
and the same stage business and under a new headpiece ; 
and they seem to draw the crowds and win the ardent 
applause of an audience that would disregard the best of 
vaudeville bills composed all of head-liners. 

But vaudeville, bright and attractive, will always lead in 
public favor for the summer park as found the country 
over. This summer will be no exception ; but the season is 
a short one, and if if is to be a paying one and add to the 
park's reputation for the benefit of following years the man 
in charge must learn exactly what class of vaudeville his 
patrons care for, perhaps going on the principle applied 
to one other commodity of which it is said that "all is 
good — some better." 

It is very often noted that acts of a certain style are light 




A FINE TYPE OF 



INCLOSED SUMMER THEATER, AT CELORON PARK, LAKE 
AUTAUOLTA, OWNED IJY THE J.\MESTOWN 
STREET RAILWAY 

in certain parts. For instance, a talking act (English) 
would go very well in a closed theater — not meaning by this 
one that is entirely roofed in, but one where the stage is 
inclosed, so as to throw the voice over the auditorium — and 
where they have an audience that understands English. 
In a district where foreigners compose the greater part of 
the population, an act like this would positively be a 
failure. Neither does it do as a platform performance, as 
the voice is lost, and therefore the manager does not get the 
benefit of the act, even though it may have been a big 
success on one of the larger circuits of theaters. 

The man connected with the electric line who has the 
parks under his control should be familiar with the vaude- 
ville business to the extent of being able to tell, when a list 
of acts comes under his eye, what their grade is, what they 
do, about what they get and what the public thinks of each 
act. Some men seem to assimilate this information easily. 
They follow the business closely enough to read the 
dramatic papers, learn what circuits acts are billed on, 
liow llicv stand on the ])rogram and how popular they are. 



126 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. 4. 



They see a good deal of vaudeville in the winter months 
and learn all they can about the business by observation 
and conversation. They get the programs of all the summer 
circuits and find out what other parks are giving their 
patrons for the same money that their own road is putting 
into it, and in many other ways they are able to judge 
when they are getting about what they are supposed to be 
paying for. 

It is hard for any agent booking these shows from a 
large central city to tell exactly what kind of acts are 
required to make this part of the park manager's business 
successful. It requires the attention of the manager him- 
self to the likes and dislikes of his audience. In the vaude- 
ville world there are certain acts wholly unsuited to certain 
sections. In parts of the country where there are many 
foreigners — for instance, the large French-Canadian popu- 
lation that is filling up the mill towns of New England; 
the coal mining population in certain West Virginia towns; 
the parts of Pennsylvania where half the words are of 
German origin; the Poles and Slavs of steel mill towns in 
Ohio ; the 'Scandinavians of the northern central states — ■ 
rapid-fire talking acts, straight musical acts, monologues 
filled with slang and idiomatic English, character sketches, 
etc., are to be avoided the same as a high-class singer who 
counts upon technique. In these sections rough comedy, 
tumbling and. gymnastic feats, hoop rolling, barrel jumping, 
mysterious acts and others to please the eye are the ones 
to program. 

Sometimes a monologist speaking in the language of a 
majority of the audience makes the biggest kind of a hit, 
and an animal act is always safe. A word of caution here, 
parenthetically: Before performing dogs, monkeys or seals 
are engaged it is a good thing to see where they can be 
most effectively housed. Lack of this precaution will create 
an emergency when they are unloaded suddenly at your stage 
door, and you will have to give up a dressing room to keep 
them ; and in succeeding weeks all performers who have to 
use the same room will be able to tell you something about 
your previous attractions for that season. 

In illustration of the unfitness of acts to certain localities, 
it may be said that sketches do not seem to go in New 
England; the Jew comedian is a failure in the South, 
because the character is not well enough known there to 
have the points of his stage business and make-up and 
accent recognized and appreciated, and it is lost ; the coster 
singer would die flat among an audience that had never 
heard of Great Britain. 

As to what style of act will go best, the selection must be 
guided entirely by the wants of each locality and to what 
it is accustomed. This can be arrived at just as a head 
waiter in a large restaurant who knows his customers 
and their tastes can satisfy by suggesting certain dishes. 
It is a matter for the park manager himself more than 
for tlie booking agent. In each contract there is a 
cancellation clause through which an act can be shipped 
back and one more appropriate put in its place, if it fails 
to suit; though this 'is bad lousiness, after the program has 
been published. It is better for the manager to use his 
blue pencil, guided by his knowledge of the vaudeville busi- 
ness, when a list is first submitted to him, and to make sure 
that the agency supplying him knows just the limitations 
that mark out what is not appropriate for his stage. 

Simply because an ast is a big hit in one section can be 
taken as no criterion, for every city and town furnishing 
the audience for a summer theater has its tastes, the same 
as the large cities in the winter circuits, where each 



manager is permitted to select his own acts, and does so 
with an exact knowledge of just what he wants. This is 
even easier in the smaller cities, where the theater-goers 
are brought into daily contact with each other and have a 
chance to exchange their views on acts, whereas in the 
larger cities the inhabitants are in a sense strangers to each 
other and do not digest the program in the same manner. 
The make-up of a show must be gone about in the same way 
that a baker prepares a cak,e, that he knows, by a certain 
recipe, will turn out palatable. The make-up all depends 
upon the section of the country and its requirements being 
considered. 

It is difficult, for this very reason, to give an illustration 
of what would constitute good variety in the bill. Where 
there is an inclosed stage for the performance to be given 
on, the bill should contain, say, a feature act (com- 
posed of one or more persons), a comedy sketch' 
team, a dancing team, a monologist or singer and 
an acrobatic act to open or close each show. This 
would give the audience a good variety, and it would 
be easy for the manager to get the opinion of his patrons 
as to what class and style of acts they care for. Another 
good test program might be composed of a sketch team, a 
single singer or soubrette, a musical act with two members, 
a monologue or eccentric and a comedy acrobatic or animal 
act. 

Comedy and sensational acts are always made the foun- 
dation of summer shows. 

At a park where there is no stage other than a platform, 
there should be no talking or singing acts, but the entertain- 
ment should be confined strictly to acrobatic (straight and 
comedy) and sensational acts. Too much stress can hardly 
be laid on the comedy part of the program, as it is this part 
that puts the audience in good humor after the show to go 
and look around the resort in search of other amusement. 
All programs should have enough comedy, but not too 
much; it is for the manager to know just how much is 
enough, and to have that much on his bill. The booking 
agent cannot help you much here. 

In advising the booking agent as to the putting together 
of a vaudeville show the manager of the park ought to be 
something of a showman. Even with the best of inten- 
tions in the booking office his acts may come to him listed 
in a way that will kill his whole bill and leave his audience 
cold. For instance, two dancing acts should not come to- 
gether; nor should a coon shouter (white) be put on be- 
fore or after a colored act. Two teams doing comedy 
sketches should not follow each other. The feature act 
should not ,be put in the early part of the program, but 
should come next to the closing performance. The place 
for an acrobatic or sleight-of-hand act, such as magic, jug- 
gling or acrobatic tumbling, should, as a general rule, be at 
the closing or opening of the program. 

The piano player is a very important part of a vaudeville 
show, for a good series of acts, with the best of talent 
engaged, can be reduced to nothing by a poor piano player. 
He always adds another number to the program by his 
overture, and if his accompaniments are good the singing 
act is going to be more of a hit. He can spoil any musical act, 
and if he has had a quarrel with any member of the com- 
pany at the Monday morning rehearsal he will be strongly 
tempted to "rag" the accoirfpaniment, and satisfy his per- 
sonal "grouch" at the expense of the park and the audience. 
It is easy to tell when this common state of affairs exists : 
even those actors most indifferent to any lagging or speed- 
ing up of tempo by the piano player will give in to the 



January 25, 1908. J 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



127 



extent of dropping an angry glance into the orchestra 
when they are tripped. The park manager who is "on the 
job" will be able to see when his interests are suffering. 
The piano player can add immensely to any comedy act 
or sketch by his incidentals and "trap" work. 

The manager who knows something of the vaudeville 
business will be able to tell when any single act or team is 
"cutting." The act may call for a bit of heavy work or a 
difficult fall, and if the weather is warm and the allurements 
of the park have already tired the performer he may fake 
through. Performers getting ready to change their act, 
and cover the winter circuit with something new the next 
season, will take frequent opportunity during the summer 
to "try out" jokes and bits of stage business to see how the 
applause goes and where the laugh comes in best. Some- 
times, though not often, they will "ring in" their whole new 
act for a rehearsal at your expense. The piano player 
traveling with them, and who generally acts as a sort of 
manager, may permit it under certain circumstances. He is 
supposed to make a weekly report to the agency after each 
opening Monday as to how the acts are going, and if he is 
not conscientious or if the park manager is not able to 



special pianos, and if the piano player cannot transpose 
there is going to be trouble. 

As a rule, international pitch is the best to adopt, being 
in general use throughout the winter circuit. All reed, 
wind and string instruments can adapt themselves to this 
pitch, and the musical concerns to-day, in making such in- 
struments as xylophones, marimbaphones, staff bells, etc., 
all turn them out at this pitch. At the same time, a high 
soprano might prefer the more brilliant tone of the concert 
pitch. This is also true, say, of a violin or 'cello soloist. 
The first thing he will do on arriving at the park will be to 
try the pitch of the piano with that of his instrument, and 
if he prefers concert pitch (as most high-class soloists do) 
and your piano is at international, he is going to wrinkle 
liis forehead and genius will be very much disturbed. 
If the piano player can transpose without too much labor, 
he is going to do much toward pleasing the performer and 
assisting to a better number. 

The permanent piano player, in addition to his musical 
duties, can also act as a business manager for the summer 
theater, so far as the show is concerned. The large agen- 
cies, that can assure performers of work for ten to fourteen 




A \\ EL1.-P,.\L.\NCED SUMMER V.'VUDE\' ILLE BILL 



add his suggestions or to make a report direct he may 
have some "citrus limoneum" on his bill without being- 
able to recognize it. 

Very frequently the piano player is made a permanent part 
of the theater force, and stays there all summer long. In 
this way he can be of material assistance to a manager in 
making the vaudeville performances at the park a success. 
There are many places where such piano players with 
theatrical experience are engaged from season to season, 
and oftentimes they become a part of the park management 
which is practically indispensable. If the "professor" can 
read and also transpose with facility, so nuich the better. 

The necessity for this latter accomplishment is caused 
by the different pitch of pianos. Some are tuned to what 
is known as international pitch and some to concert pitch, 
the difference being that concert pitch is, say, a semitone 
higher than international. Most pianos come from the 
factory tuned to the latter pitch, but tuners have their own 
forks or pitch-pipes and, unless you specify what pitch you 
want the piano tuned to, you won't know just what is being 
done to it. This is a very important matter. I know 
places where two pianos have to'be kept handy for wheel- 
ing onto the stage to accommodate different performers. 
Artists cannot ]je expected to carry nuisic written for 



weeks in summer, make up their l)ills far enougli ahead to 
l)e able to send managers the program at least five to ten 
days in advance. The manner of billing the show for 
advertising purposes is fully explained, the order of pro- 
gram is given and the scene that will be required. The 
press notices for the reading columns and photos for display 
also come far enough ahead, and, where the contract calls 
for it, the billboard paper, the dasher signs and tack cards, 
and the fliers, or hand-bills, are sent early enough to be put 
out effectively. All that is necessary, in some cases, for 
proper advertising is to adhere to the instructions from the 
agency. The salary list is sent to the auditor or treasurer 
of the company on the opening day of the show for that 
week or the amount is specified as a whole. 

The manager of the park should review at least the first 
performance each week to find out if there are any ob- 
jectionable parts in the program or whether an entire act is 
unsuited to the audience, and to notify the act to remove 
the objectionable part or, if the whole act is Ijad, to cancel 
the act. Generally each contract allows of such cancella- 
tion. For instance, if you are drawing your audience from 
a population of a certain nationality, and an act shouM 
burlesque that type of citizen too offensively, you would act 
with judgment if you got it oft' your stage as speedih- as 



128 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. 4- 



possible. If the character is only a light burlesque and 
there is nothing offensive, it might be the strongest sort of 
a drawing card, especially if some of the predominating 
language is worked in. Double entendres and doubtful 
jokes should meet with the manager's disapproval and 
should be cut. 

If an act goes well, the manager should bear it in mind 
and give it a return the following season, that is, if it is 
really strong enough to warrant it. He should always 
remember that it is the public and not himself that he is 
trying to please and attract to his park, and when a per- 
former or group of performers become favorites they 
should be re-engaged. It is not policy to play an act for a 
return date the same season, especially in a small town, 
for if an act appeals strongly enough it is always witnessed 
more than once during the week by the devotees, and unless 
the same performers can return with an entire change the 
act suffers. Then again, after a date has been played as a 
return, a similar act that might follow, and would otherwise 
be a strong favorite, fails by comparison. 

A great many parks have found it a good idea, where it 
sometimes seems hard to draw the public to them, to give 
what is termed a free act, such as a trapeze or other acro- 
batic stunt, a high-wire bicycle or balance walking per- 
formance or even a balloon ascension. This will tend to 
■draw the people to the park, and after the free act is over 
will help to fill the theater ; as there is always a certain per- 
centage of people who object to paying to see a show, but 
a large number of those that see a free show will buy admis- 
sion tickets to the theater. 

It is a great mistake for park managers to try and book 
independently. In the first place, they do not know until 
their rehearsal is over on the opening day of each week 
whether they have a show or not. And until the trunks 
of the performers are actually back of the stage they cannot 
tell how much telegraphing they will have to do to make 
up a complete bill with the accustomed number of acts. It 
is the shortest cut known to heart disease. They positively 
■cannot depend upon a great many of the acts when booking 
independently. Performers can hardly be. blamed for can- 
celing an engagement for one week's work made long be- 
fore the season starts, especially when they get an offer 
from an agency working a circuit of many theaters that 
will assure them ten to fourteen weeks in the dull season. 
A great many of the troubles of a park manager hinge 
around the non-appearance of acts booked and advertised 
to appear, and when he has an agency to depend on he is 
more certain of satisfaction for t!ie grievance than he would 
be with only an irresponsible performer to hunt down and 
punish. All this trouble is done away with by booking 
through a circuit where special attention is paid to pro- 
viding parks with entertainers. 

It is also a positive fact that acts booking direct with the 
manager very often demand and receive more salary than 
they would get if they were booked through a circuit with 
the agency commission added. A booking agent having a 
■circuit of parks in the locality of any particular park can 
offer an act several weeks' work, insuring such an act 
against loss of time, and also cutting down on the cost of 
the transportation as he can give the exact amount of 
transportation that it will cost to travel from one park to the 
next one, thus being able to figure closer and save the park 
a considerable sum every season on this item alone. 

On one circuit of twenty-one summer parks, nineteen 
■of them last season never had to change their program, 
mot having a disappointment or cancellation. When an 



agency big enough to book the year around provides the 
performers for a summer circuit, it is able to insist on the 
same service that the winter houses get, even if the act is 
working for the summer at a reduced salary. Such an 
agency is able therefore to give the summer circuit the 
same acts that the big city houses get in the cold season, 
and can provide, with more certainty, a good, evenly bal- 
anced entertainment every week, educating patrons up to 
the fact that they can always depend on seeing a good show 
free from annoying disappointments, clean and up to date. 

A manager booking independently for his park has, as said 
before, little recourse when an individual act disappoints 
him. Vaudeville performers belong to one or the other of 
two organizations — the Comedy Club and the White Rats. 
But their purpose and objects do not necessarily comprise 
straightening out tangles between performer and park 
manager such as arise from the failure of an act to appear. 
They are both protective organizations, the Comedy Club 
with a small membership and the White Rats with perhaps 
a broader one. If a performer "pirates" another's act, that 
difficulty may be taken to the organization, or if the player 
has difficulty with a manager that his contract covers there 
may be some point on which the organization would take 
action. But the summer park manager's best assurance, 
when he is booking directly, is to see the express wagon 
bringing the engaged performers' trunks from the station 
and to have the people actually on the stage for a Monday 
morning "run through" with the piano. Until that hour 
comes he will feel a tightness in his chest. 

There is no set price for the cost of a show ; it may run 
all the way from $250 to $1,000 a week depending on the 
size of the patronage and the class of attraction demanded. 
As a rule, a park in the East will pay from $250 to $300 a 
week for four to -five acts, with very often a piano player 
included, and quite a few go up to $500 weekly for their 
vaudeville attractions. There are seldom more than five 
acts, not counting the overture, and as they run from 
eighteen to twenty minutes each, this makes the usual after- 
noon and evening performance in summer about an hour 
and a half long, giving a park audience a chance to see the 
other features of the resort while there. 

Taking in the country over, most of the summer theaters 
are roofed. In New England the major portion of the 
theaters are open to the air. Throughout New York, 
Pennsylvania, and Ohio, at least, the theaters are covered. 
This is so in the South also. By covering a theater as well 
as inclosing it a means is provided of holding up car' traffic^ 
on rainy or cold nights, as the people know they will be pro- 
tected from the elements. Some of these inclosed auditori- 
ums are very well constructed, and a number are exceedingly 
handsome and attractive. Jamestown, N. Y., East Liverpool, 
Columbus and Toledo, Ohio, have summer theaters that 
might even be placed on Broadway with credit. 

In the sudden development of the summer vaudeville busi- 
ness innumerable park booking agencies sprung into 
existence all over the country. This condition was made 
possible by the fact that the old established vaudeville 
agencies, whose business was confined to the booking of 
regular vaudeville theaters that were open from September 
until June and were closed during the summer months, 
failed to realize the extent and importance of the summer 
park business. During June, July and August the agent 
expected that his business would dwindle to practically 
nothing, and laid his plans accordingly. The inevitable 
result of this condition of affairs was that the manager 
of a summer park found himself besieged with offers from 



January 25, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



129 



innumerable agents to supply him with talent, and the 
experience of some parks in the past has been such as to 
cast odium on the term "booking agent." Some managers 
found themselves bound by contract to pay big prices for 
worthless material, the "talent" engaged being without 
merit or drawing power. 

These conditions have continued to exist to a greater or 
lees extent up to the present day, and the big agencies are 
just beginning to realize that they have been neglecting or 
ignoring a most important and lucrative branch of their 
business. The same process of elimination that has been 
going on in the big theatrical promoting companies has 
lately been forced through the centers of supply for summer 
vaudeville, and it would appear that, perhaps, better things 
are in store for park managers this season. The big 
agencies are awakening from their lethargy and are ap- 
parently putting forth efforts to be in a position to supply 
suitable outdoor talent. 

It is quite certain that a number of names perennially 
familiar before the snow was ofif the ground each season 
will no longer be heard from, and that some of the heavy- 
weights in the theatrical ring will go after the business this 
year, very much to the benefit of the park manager, it may 
again be said. This action on the part of the big fellows 
will cause quite an awakening this summer, and a general 
scrarnble for business and a readjustment of some circuits 
along new lines may be expected. When the large concerns 
that handle the winter business begin to crowd in for some 
of the profits in this branch of the business it can only 
result in the establishing of wholesome competition which 
will work a wonderful change for the park manager and 
place him in a better position than he has ever been so far 
as securing vaudeville talent is concerned. 

Among the big ones who are already announcing their in- 
tentions, the United Booking Offices, in New York, have 
organized a park department with Jules Delmar, who has 
had long experience in just this line of work, in charge. 
The U. B. O., it will be remembered, books exclusively for 
more than 200 vaudeville theaters, including Keith, Proctor, 
Williams and Hammerstein houses. 

William Morris, the big independent, with offices in New 
York and Chicaga, has started such a special department 
vmder the control of William Josh Daly, himself an agent 
of years of experience. 

The New York Vaudeville Company, Harry Kaufman, 
manager, is strongly in the summer field. 

The southern circuit of parks will not show much change, 
the Wells-Dunne-Harlan, New York, management having 
given so much satisfaction. 

Walter Plimmer, New York, will add to his New England 
circuit, and take on some new parks in the Eastern states. 

The Prudential Vaudeville Exchange, of New York, 
under the management of W. S. Cleveland, is reported to 
have up to date contracted to supply ninety-one state and 
county fairs during 1908. The acts which this agency 
handles cover the entire field of vaudeville. 

J. W. Gorman, of Boston, will, as heretofore, cater 
especially to the New England parks. He has for years 
satisfactorily supplied many of the prominent parks in that 
territory. 

T. T- Flvnn, of Boston, is another in the New England 
field." ' 

The Des Moines City Railway Company, of Des Moines, 
has announced that it will probably establish a health 
resort on its Fort Des Moines line, where an artesian well 
was recently struck. 



THE NATIONAL AMUSEMENT PARK ASSOCIATION 

Street railway men throughout the country have ob- 
served, with no small degree of interest, the announcement 
that the proprietors and managers of outdoor parks have 
recently formed an association. This new organization, 
known as the National Amusement Park Association, is not 
a trust, but is an exchange for ideas, where its members 
may meet and discuss subjects of vital interest to them- 
selves, securing information as to the booking of acts and 
the general conditions surrounding park enterprises through- 
out the country. Indeed, its purposes are best told in the 
following words taken from its constitution : 

The object of the association shall be to secure unity of 
action, to promote a more friendly intercourse among its mem- 
bers, to adjust differences between them, to diffuse reliable com- 
mercial intelligence, to foster business and protect it against un- 
just or unlawful exactions, to reform abuses, collect statistics 
and generally to advance the interests of the owners and man- 
agers of places of amusement on the North American continent. 

Recently, in New York City, a permanent body of officials 
was elected, the members being: President, James R. Pratt, 
United Railways & Electric Company, Baltimore, Md. ; vice- 
president, A. S. McSwigan, Kennywood Park, Pittsburg, 
Pa., and secretary and treasurer, C. H. Oberheide, White 
City, Trenton, N. J. These are the directors: Len B. Sloss, 
Luna Park, Scranton, Pa. ; J. J. Weaver, Lagoon Park, 
Cincinnati, Ohio ; A. J. Voyer, Altro Park, Albany, N. Y. ; 
A. J. Pizzini, Jr., Idlewood Park, Richmond, Va., and J. J. 
Higgins, Wonderland Park, Boston, Mass., with Francis B. 
Lee, counsellor at law, Trenton, N. J., as corporation agent. 
The New York office of the company is in the St. James 
Building, Twenty-sixth Street and Broadway. 

The need of effective organization among amusement 
park people has been apparent for a long time, and has 
become absolutely imperative. Out-of-door parks are a 
necessity, as is shown by the fact that hundreds are scat- 
tered over the country and that $180,000,000 capital is in- 
vested in such enterprises. The close relation that exists 
between the parks and the street railways, involving matters 
of cheap, safe and speedy transportation, construction of 
rural lines outside the city and commuting zones, handling 
of crowds at entrances, the preservation of good order on 
cars and at gates, street-car advertising and the establish- 
ment of traffic managers' departments, are subjects that are 
naturally suggested by the community of park and railway 
interests. In fact, it is fundamentally true that, while the 
street railways could live without parks, upon the other 
hand the very existence of the parks depends upon the 
street railways. 

How dependent the parks are upon street railways may 
be shown in the matter of the refusal or neglect of street 
railway companies to provide decent park service. Absolute 
cars, breakdowns, failure to move the park patrons promptly 
and cheaply will sound the deathknell of the best-managed 
park in the v^^orld. Otherwise the willingness of trolley 
transportation corporations to do their duty to' the public, to 
the parks and to themselves is a prime factor in the success 
of those most interested. 

The National Amusement Park Association has a wide 
field for its endeavors. It is the intention of its officers, and 
particularly of its statistical committee, composed of Messrs. 
Sloss, McSwigan and Oberheide, also of the directorate, 
that hitherto unavailable information shall be collected from 
its members, later to be compiled in card-catalogues and be 
available for those wishing either general or special infor- 
mation relating to ])arks. Statistical sheets, containing 



ISO 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[\ ()L. xxxr. No. 4- 



forty questions, have been sent to all members of the asso- 
ciation. These questions relate to the location, topography 
and sanitation of each park, method of control and general 
financial condition, character of population in zone of 
patronage, transportation, advertising, provision for care 
and comfort of women and children, excise and Sunday 
opening, pass-issuing and solicitation for patronage. These 
are questions conceriTing the type and cost of attractions 
most pleasing to patrons, the attractions being scientifically 
classified under the general divisions of aerial, aquatic, sur- 
face races, winter sports, special devices, theatre, music, 
amphitheatre, shows, parades and carnivals. The theatrical 
queries deal with light opera, vaudeville, price of admission, 
physical conditions of house and stage, while inquiries con- 
cerning bands relate to percentage or flat price basis of 
employment. The subject of concessions and character of 
restaurants, whether American, European or Oriental, are 
treated at length, as is the matter of fire insurance and sea- 
son attendance. These statistical sheets are said to be 
among the most complete ever prepared in this countr\'. 

There are a number of extremely interesting lines of work 
that will be pursued by the association. The organization 
recognizes that the principle of pleasing the public is based 
upon furnishing rest and recreation from which a third "R" 
— revenue — will result. The association will be guided by 
the idea that parks, to be successful, aside from the element 
of obtaining the best transportation, must be free from 
rowdyism and vulgarity, that women and children must be 
cared for, that good attractions must Ix- offered and that an 
atmosphere of freedom without license or vulgarity must be 
prevalent. Such were the conditions existing at the Tren- 
ton White City, which Mr. Oberheide successfully managed 
last sunnner, and which he, as one of the leading spirits of 
the new association, belie\-es to be the very life of any park 
— big or little. 

Another very important matter that will be a feature of 
the association will be the securing of bands, vaudeville acts 
and other attractions for the members of the association. 
The primary idea will be that a bureau of information will 
l)e established where attractions may be booked and from 
which names of players and the character of their acts may 
be sent by circular or by a magazine to all association mem- 
bers. It is not the plan that the association shall control 
performers, but rather assist them in securing dates and in 
other ways proving materially helpful to employers and 
employed. 

The association will also take up matters relating to gen- 
eral advertising, the status of the park in the municipality 
in which it is located, regarding details of tax assessment, 
the personnel of the local magistracy and constabulary, dis- 
posal of sewage, the obtaining of pure water, adornment of 
grounds, the establishment of an employment bureau and of 
providing a nurse or competent caretaker for children and 
the protection of women. 

The program of the association is broad, but inasmuch 
as the organization will not interfere in c^uestions of purely 
local management, howe\-er, offering suggestions upon 
mooted questions, if desired, it is not too broad to be of 
great value. There is an opportunity for the growth of the 
association, which indicates that the organization will be- 
come a tremendous power in the outdoor amusement world 
and wield an important influence in street railway circles, so 
far as street railways have business relations with parks, 
whether owned by such common carriers or otherwise. 

Mr. Oberheide and his fellow officials are devoting much 
time to preliminary matters and will have the association 
thoroughly effective before summer. 



CLOSING OF THE CHICAGO WATER CHUTES PARK 



The Chicago Water Chutes Park has been closed due 
to the expiration of the lease of the ground on which the 
park is located. The ground is owned by the Chicago 
Union Traction Company, and it will probably be utilized 
as a building space when the system is reconstructed. The 
park, which was operated by the Chicago Water Chute 
Company, was established in 1894 and was moved to its 
present location in 1896. It was probably the first one 
established along the lines of what is now generally known 
as an amusement park. The paid daily admissions at times 
ran as high as 28,000 to 30,000, although the park would not 
hold more than 10,000 or 12,000 people at one time. It was 
a money-maker from the start, and during its twelve years 
of existence paid more than 500 per cent in dividends, 
notwithstanding the fact that amusement devices were 
changed every few years. For this reason, probably an 
account of its operation may be of interest. 

The park was located on acres of ground at Jackson 
Boulevard and Kedgie Avenue, in the western portion of 
the city. It was surrounded by a better-class residence and 
church district. A Catholic church was located within a 
stone's throw and the spires of about fifteen churches could 
be seen from the top of the chutes. Because of its location, 
it was necessary to operate the park on a high moral plane 
and it was also considered advisable to do feo from a busi- 
ness standpoint. At any rate, intoxicating liquors were 
not sold, dancing was not permitted and questionable or 
fake games and those embodying the idea of chance were 
kept out. As an evidence of the park's reputation, it may 
be mentioned that at one time park advertisements were 
carried in the calendars of twenty-seven churches. 

Amusement devices were depended upon almost entirely 
to draw the people, and together with the admission fee of 
ten cents, to sustain the park. Music was supplied by good 
l)ands, but high-priced ones were never featured. People 
attracted by good music alone, it was believed, were of a 
class from whom gate receipts only would be obtained. 
.Special open-air acts, likewise, were never featured for the 
same reason. The park made a feature of riding devices 
and particularly amusement devices with action, or those 
that required action on the part of the patro'nizer. A 
theater was opened for a time, but with indififerent success. 
The amusement devices were the best obtainable. Because 
of the limited space in the park to provide room for new 
ones, it was necessary to tear out the older devices as soon 
as their novelty had worn off. At its close, all the amuse- 
ment features had been in but two or three years. Of the 
devices, tho.se of the coaster type proved the best paying 
ones. The Katzenjammer Castle probably returned the 
greatest amount, considering the investmertt. On one 
Fourth of July, between 7:30 p. m. and 10:30 p. m. this 
device took in $429.00 and the patronage on this occasion 
was limited to the ability of the ticket seller. Two "loop- 
the-loop" devices operated for three years gave good re- 
turns, but at the end of that time the receipts began to fall 
off. The loops were installed largely as an advertisement. 
They were not expected to be money-makers, and the man- 
agement was very agreeably surprised at the manner in 
which they were patronized. They were finally taken out 
to make room for newer attractions. 

During the entire history of the park, there was not a 
serious accident in the operation of the amusement devices. 
In all. less than $1,000 was paid for damages, and this was 
largely for injury to clothes by paint, pinched fingers and 
similar complaints. This excellent record was due partly 



January 25, 1908.] STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. , 131 



to the manner in whicli the riding devices were constructed 
and partly to the care exercised in their operation. Journal 
boxes, axles, wheels and other parts of cars and structures 
subject to heavy stresses were built of crucible steel or the 
best phosphor bronze. Stresses were carefully computed 
beforehand and a liberal factor of safety was used in de- 
signing the apparatus and inspectors were kept on hand to 
note the condition of the cars, track and other apparatus. 
While the loop-the-loops were operated, two inspectors 
spent two hours in examining the structure and cars every 



THE EQUIPMENT OF PLEASURE RESORTS 

It has been customary in the park issues of the Street 
Railway Journal to publish notes of some of the novel 
attractions designed especially for street railway parks to 
he brought out during the coming year. To this end the 
accompanying information of new entertainments and 
allied industries, obtained in large part from the manu- 
facturers themselves and giving their claims, has been 
compiled : , * 





VIEW OF CHICAGO WATER CHUTES PARK 



day previous to their being put into service, and while* 
running, an inspector underneath examined the wheels and 
l)oxes for defects and heating every time a car passed. 



At Norumbega Park, in Massachusetts, last season, the 
recipts for reserved seats in the steel-covered theater were 
50.10 per cent of the total capacity of the theater for 
the entire season. The entire capacity was sold six nights ; 
90 per cent thirteen nights; 80 per cent twelve nights; 60 
per cent twenty-five nights ; less than 50 per cent of capa- 
city, twenty-two nights ; 75 per cent of capacity, twelve 
nights. Performances were given ninety-nine nights. The 
total attendance at the park was practically 400,000. There 
was not an accident, and there were only five arrests. The 
receipts per capita averaged about 22 cents gross. The park 
was open for a season of sixteen weeks and four days, in- 
cluding seventeen Sundays. The average weekly attendance 
was 23,878. During the season, the animals, in addition to 
hay, grain, vegetables, fruit, bread and miscellaneous feed, 
were fed 11,924 lbs. of beef. Out of a total of iii days, 
there were 36 fair, 21 partly cloudy, 39 cloudy, 20 rain, and 
5 showery. Although Sunday amusements are prohibited bv 
law, the Sunday patronage totaled 53,226. 



MOVING PICTURES. 

Of the inexpensive amusements there is none more 
popular than the moving pictures. They can l)e readily 
given either in the open or in an auditorium, and best of 
all, the bill can be changed frequently. Again, the subjects 
are unlimited. They can be mixed to suit a motley crowd, 
a sparring match being made to follow an illustrated senti- 
mental song, with a jocular piece later. In view of the 
recent disaster at Boyertown it may not be amiss to say a 
word here about the fire hazard. Moving picture machines 
can hardly be considered as dangerous since devices are 
provided to prevent the film from taking fire. The chief 
danger from fire is possibility of panic and for this plenty of 
exits is the only safeguard. It makes little difference 
whether the show is a moving picture one or a drama. At- 
tention might be called, however, to recent improvements 
taken to prevent fires by the Nicholas Power Company, 
of New York, makers of the Power's Cameragraph. One 
of these is called the "New York Approved" cquipmen: 
The magazines in this machine arc square, and are made of 
tlie heaviest grade of Russia iron, mounted on malleable- 
iron castings. The magazine vah'cs are designed to provide 
fireproof construction and reduce friction on the 



132 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[\'0L. XXXL Xo. 4. 



film to a minimum. The shutter does not open until after 
the film has attained a proper exhibiting speed. When the 
movement of the film ceases the shutter closes instantly 
by gravity and cuts the light off the film. The film shields, 
two in number, are provided to protect the loops of film 
between the intermittent sprocket and the top and bottom 
sprockets. The upper film shield extends upward almost 
into contact with the upper film magazine and affords 
complete protection for the upper loop of film. The lower 
film shield is hinged upon the baseboard of the mechanism 
and is held normally in contact with the film gate, or door, 
of the mechanism, thus shielding entirely from the rays of 
the lamp all of the film between the film gate and the 
lower magazine. The lamp house is of exceptional height 
so as to accommodate extra long carbons, and has a hinged 
top or hood, which may be raised to afford convenient 
access to the upper carbon and carbon holder. The rheo- 
stat is non-adjustable and cannot be over-loaded by cutting 
out coils; it is enclosed within a cover of heavy perforated 
Russia iron. 

The O. T. Crawford's Film Exchange Company, of St. 
Louis, Mo., announces that this season it has inaugurated 
a system whereby it will supply parks with films of the 
latest subjects at a special rate that will bring them well 
within the reach of all. 

THE ELECTRIC FOUNTAIN. 

The electric fountain with its many changes in water 
designs and its myriads of colored electric lamps holds its 



the same results as the original one can now be erected for 
about one quarter the cost of the Washigton Park fountain. 
The fountains can be had as low as five hundred dollars. 
They are particularly suited to conservatories, lawns, and 
the centers of large flower beds where the surroundings 
are dark, being automatic in their action and needing no 




HUMAN ROULETTE WITEEL 





■ . < I 




f\ ! 













ELECTRIC FOUNTAIN AT KANSAS CITY 

own as an attraction. Since the building of the first foun- 
tain, at Washington Park, below- Philadelphia, eleven years 
ago, C. A. Dunlap, the inventor, who now is president of 
Electric Park, Newark, has made many very important 
improvements, and has simplified the construction and the 
operation to such an extent that a fountain giving exactly 



water supply or drain. A view is presented herewith of a 
fountain long in service in Kansas City. 

HUMAN ROULETTE WHEEL. 

An amusement attraction that meets the demand of the 
hilarious element that goes wild over such things as Coney 
Island's tickler, the great divide and the rattan slide which 
shoots out of its hopper an endless stream of people is the 
human roulette. Of this attraction it can truthfully be 
said there was nothing more popular in its way at Coney 
Island last year. The device is made by the Amusement 
Company of America, of New York. It consists of a 
rotating platform 18 ft. in diameter, provided with 
sloping connections with the main floor. The sides of the 
floor II ft. from the wheel also have an incline to prevent 
the passengers from being injured. While the table 
is being loaded with its human freight it is sta- 
tionary, but when all are aboard it is revolved with 
increasing speed for a fixed time, such of the human 
freight as cannot maintain a position on it being^ 
scattered willy-nilly head formost, sidewise or feet fore- 
most. The tangle of human beings and the comical efforts 
of individuals to regain their lost seats and win out in the 
ride against the wheel, keep a crowd of onlool:ers closely 
packed about the rails in a constant gale of laughter. In fact, 
it is a device that people will pay an admission to watch. The 
roulette finally attains a high speed, and then, unless one 
has struck the dead center and allows himself to be spun 
around like a top, it is absolutely impossible to stay on. 
Slow speed runs are given exclusively for womeii. who are 
certain to be scooted off, but not with such abandoned effect.. 

The roulette wheel at Steeplechase Park, Coney Island, 
acording to Mr. Tillyou, the proprietor of the resort, took 
in more than $53,000 up to the time the park burned out on 
July 28. Atlantic City put one in and the crowds were- 
so great that it became necessary to raise the price from; 



January 25, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



133 



10 cents to 25 cents. Paragon Park, Massachusetts, does 
a select business drawn from Boston, but its wheel also 
met with great success. Another wheel, placed in Hill- 
side Park, Newark, N. J., put in late in the season did a 
good business from the start. One advantage is that the 
device is comparatively inexpensive to install and operate. 

NEW FORMS OF OLD AMUSEMENTS. 

There are several amusement attractions whose popu- 
larity never wanes. Among them are the carousel, the 
scenic railway, the roller coaster and the chutes. The 
carousel and the scenic railway are susceptible to yearly 
modification, whereas the coaster and the chutes are more 
bound by convention. Still there are inherent in all of them 
virtues that in a way negative the necessity for change. 
By some it was thought several years ago that the gamut 
of variation had been run in the merry-go-round, but those 
who had come to this opinion were put to .shame by the 
Rounders at Coney Island, in which figures of chickens 
were substituted for the lions and horses of former years. 
In the scenic railway the opportunity is al¥orded of chang- 
ing each year at slight expense the subject of your cave. 
This year the scenes may be based on Dante's Inferno; 
next year a peaceful village in the Alps may be the subject, 
or a setting may be taken from the Land of the Midnight 
Sun. It is as a rule a construction company that must be 
turned to for these things, although in the case of the 
merry-go-round there are manufacturers that confine them- 
selves to one line. Such a company, for instance, is the Cin- 
cinnatti Merry-go-Round Company. On the other hand, there 
are several builders who make any number of attractions. 
Among them are the T. M. Horton Company, Ingersoll Con- 
struction Company, Breinig Construction Company, Twen- 
tieth Century Construction Company and the Folks Amuse- 
ment Company. The Horton Company builds and operates 
Figure Eight toboggan slides, carousels and Ferris wheels. 
The Ingersoll Construction Company, for the most part 
builds Figure Eight roller coasters and scenic railways. 
The Breinig Construction Company builds Figure Eight 
coasters, scenic railways, shoot the chutes, and a new riding 
device which has made a great hit, known as "The Jollier." 
The Twentieth Century Company builds scenic railways, 
Figure Eight coasters, scenic rivers, chutes, etc. The 
Folks Amusement Company builds what is known as the 
Mystic chute, a combination of the Venetian canal and 
chute ideas. 

AIR SHIPS. 

Another sensation of the air is offered in Captain Bald- 
win with his California Arrow. This is an airship which 
has taken many prizes. The original machine had an 
interesting history, and for this reason a brief review of the 
events in which it and its successors have figured may prove 
of interest. Five weeks after the silk for the original 
Arrow was hung up to dry at San Jose, Cal., the completed 
airship was shipped to Oakland, where, on Aug. 2, 1904, 
at 6 a. m. four flights were made, as a result of which many 
letters were received asking that the Arrow compete for the 
$100,000 prize offered in St. Louis. Roy Knabenshue made 
the trip for Captain Baldwin, piloting the machine over 
St. Louis and landing across the Mississippi River in 
Illinois. In all the Arrow made six flights in St. Louis 
and won the honors. The following Christmas in Cali- 
fornia, the airship made a fifteen-mile return trip against 
a 10 to 14-m. p. h. breeze. Feb. 12, when the Arrow was 
but seven months old, it made the trip from Los Angeles 
to the Raymond Hotel, Pasadena, in thirty minutes. The 



airship was then taken to the Portland Exposition, where, 
during the exposition, out of twenty-five starts, with Lincoln 
Beachy in command, it made twenty-three return flights. 
During the San Francisco disaster Captain Baldwin had all 
his airships destroyed, but immediately constructed a new 
outfit. During 1906, fifty-three starts were made, out of 
which the machine returned thirty-one times to the exact 
starting point. During 1907 the airship made ninety-one 
trips. At the balloon races held in St. Louis, Oct. 21, 
Captain Baldwin made five flights, returning each time to 
the starting point. He entered two airships, one for the 
exhibitions, and one for the race. 

MENAGERIES. 

People in the larger cities are not likely to be attracted 
by an animal exhibit, but the case is different in the town 
that shuts down for a holiday when a circus performance 
is on. There animals are a novelty and a permanent exhibit, 
though small, is likely to prove a good drawing card, 
especially because of its educational value. Such companies 
as the Old Colony Street Railway Company, Milford & 
Uxbridge, Connecticut Company, operating all the electric 
railways in Connecticut controlled by the New York, New 
Haven & Hartford Railroad, the Kingston Consolidated 
Railway Company, of Kingston, N. Y., the Omaha & 
Council Bluff Street Railway Company, the San Antonio 
Traction Company, to mention just a few that have been 
supplied by Wm. Bartels, of New York, have found that 
animals attract and hold attention. Mr. Bartels makes a 
specialty of monkeys, but is prepared to furnish anything 
in the animal line from white mice to elephants. His plan 
with monkeys and birds is to take them back at the end of 
a season for 50 per cent of the original price. On other 
animals the same general rebate scheme is in vogue, but it 
varies according to the animals wanted. Monkeys especially 
are liable to consumption, and by agreeing to take the 
animals back at the end of the season the park management 
is relieved of the worry and expense incident to their care 
during the winter. Indirectly animals are a source con- 
siderable profit to such venders as the peanut man, for the 
children are always anxious to feed the beasts. Mr. Bartels 
further is prepared to furnish expert attendants where it is 
so desired. 

BAND CONCERTS. 

Music lovers are everywhere, and it is almost needless to 
dwell upon the value of the band as a drawing card. Even 
where other attractions are multifarious, as at Luna Park, 
Coney Island, and Dreamland, concerts are given. At 
Brighton Beach and Manhattan, thousands of people attend 
the concerts. At Willow Grove Park, Philadelphia, the 
case is the same. In the last three places the concerts 
are practically the principal feature. The manager of the 
small park remote from a large city frequently is confronted 
with a serious problem in determining on a band best 
suited to meet his requirements. The great band organiza- 
tions are of course out of the question as far as he is 
concerned. Another question is the repertoire. His people 
must be given what they want. Of the traveling bands 
which cater especially to the park, one of the best known 
is the Texas 5,000,000 Club Concert Band, which has been 
selected as the ofiicial band for the coming diamond jubilee 
to be held in Texas in 191 1. This organization has Iieen 
equipped by the Lone Star State, and sent by it en tour as 
the representative of the state, to be judged on its merits 
alone. It is composed of forty professional musicians and 
has a very large library of music. It is under the direction 



134 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[\^0L. XXXI. No. 4. 



of ^V. T. Cox. A special feature offered by tlie organiza- 
tion as an extra attraction is the famous Dixie Quartette, 
in wiiicli is featured song hits of the day and Southern 
niekxlies. 

BALLOON ASCENSIONS. 

The spectacular feats offered by balloonists are as 
various as the products of a certain Pittsburg food 
■■foundry" famed over all the world. Ed. R. Hutchison, 
of Elmira, has succeeded in introducing a novel feature 
through the element of competition. Mr. Hutchison and 
Miss Retta Danzelle, who, on the posters, is referred to 
as the queen of the clouds, offer a double parachute race 
which affords a spectacle that has caused audiences to go 
wild with excitement. Not less striking is the feat of Mr. 
Hutchison himself, in which the aeronaut is incased in the 
inner tissue of the balloon to prex'ent him from being 
injured and the outer part is exploded in mitl-air. After 
dropping three or four hundred feet the parachute opens 
and the descent is made. Mr.' Hutchison varies his 
performance by making a triple parachute leap in which 
red, white and blue parachutes are used. 

ROLLER SKATING. 

JiKjuiry among the leading manufacturers of roller skates, 
such as Barney & Berry, of Springfield, Mass., the Union 
Hardware Company of Torrington, Conn., and the Richard- 
son Ball Bearing Skate Company, of Chicago, indicate that 
the ])Opularity of this sport continues as strong as it has 
been during the last few years. Roller skating is particu- 
larly adapted to street railway parks because very few 
attendants are required and the rink can be made of large 
size without involving the large investmeiTt in ground which 
would be necessary in a city. A number of companies have 
followed with success the plan of using for rinks the halls 
which were previously devoted to dancing. This can usually 
Ije done without sacrificing any features which would inter- 
fere with the return of the hall to its original purpose, if for 
any reason that should later seem desirable. 

AUTOMATIC PHOTOGRAPHING MACHINES. 

Among the automatic devices one of the most popular 
is a picture machine, e.xhibited for the first time at the 
Actors' Fair, in New York, last spring, and with a season 
of profit to its credit at Luna Park, Coney Island. This 
machine automatically takes, makes and delivers a direct 
positive photograph on celluloid in less than a minute. No 
skill is required to operate the device. The picture is a 
stamp black and white likeness and perfect in detail. The 
exposure is almost instantaneous — about a second and a 
half. When the picture is delivered from the machine it is 
complete. At the Actors' Fair a record of 60 pictures an 
hour for six hours were made. The machine is encased 
in a handsome oak cabinet 5 ft. high. It is made by the 
Photo Machinery Company, of New York. 

BOX BALL. 

There is no need of dilating upon the popularity of bowl- 
ing. It is one of the oldest of sports, and is as popular 
with the ladies as with the men. It is true that for a time 
it did not seem to grow in favor, but that was not the fault 
of the game, but rather w-as due to the limitations imposed 
by the facilities for following it. The last few years have 
witnessed a marked change in the housing of alleys, and 
consequently this form of athletics has been given the 
needed impetus. In fact, in the larger cities, buildings have 
in some instances been built which are devoted entirely to 
the game. At all the seashore resorts it is a decided 
favorite. 



From the standpoint of the amusement park the greatest 
drawback of the regulation game is the expense involved in 
maintaining the alleys. The initial expense could be borne 
in many cases, but the later charges are often prohibitive, 
for alleys deteriorate rapidly when not in use. As an 
inexpensive substitute for the regulation game there has 
recently come rapidly into public favor box ball. In this 
game the alleys themselves are portable and the pins are 
reset by the player by means of a lever, thus doing away 
with the pin boys. The balls return of their own accord 
by gravity. Wherever the game has been installed it has 
proved exceedingly popular. Two instances of installations 
of the American Box Ball Company, of Indianapolis, 
furnish criteria. At Euclid Beach Park, in 1906, the com- 
pany installed fourteen 42-ft. alleys, and in 1907 received 
an order for fourteen more, thus doubling the equipment. 
When it came to the question of amusements for England's 
first White City, of which an extended description appears 
elsewhere in this issue, box ball was decided upon, and 
has fully proved its value as a drawing card. Nine 42-ft. 
alleys were installed in this instance, although bowling is 
not as popular in England as it is here. 

CONTRACTORS. 

.\mong the contractors who are making a specialty of 
the park business this year are the Colonial Sign & Insu- 
lator Company, of Akron, Ohio, manufacturers of electric 
signs of vitrified porcelain; Clarence E. Runey Printing 
Company, of Cincinnati, Ohio, which supplies programs, 
announcements and display bills ; Eugene E. Stern, who 
designs and builds all of the various popular attractions; 
the Botanical Decorating Company, of Chicago, whose 
specialty is decorations, Japanese lanterns, festoons, etc. ; 
Cagny Bros., of New York, who are actively in the market 
with their miniature railway; White & Langever, of Fort 
Worth, Tex., who have a marine illusion known as 
"Steamboat Tours of the World;" the American Seating 
Company, which makes settees, and Wm. H. Oesterle, of 
New York, who supplies attractions of various kinds. 


BALTIMORE COMPANY PRAISED 

President Willam A. House of the United Railways & 
Electric Company, of Baltimore, has received several letters 
of congratulation as a result of his frank avowal of the 
purpose of the company to deal openly with the public. 
Mr. House declared that the best asset a public service 
corporation can have is the good will of the people in 
general. One of the letters which he received was from 
Capt. F. M. Colston, of the banking house of Wilson, 
Colston & Company, in which the writer referred to Mr. 
House's statement. The letter, in part, was as follows : 

"For some little time past I have intended telling you 
what I have told a great many people, in the course of meet- 
ing with them, both in business and social life, and that is, 
as a Baltimorean, I am proud of the service and manage- 
ment of your street railways system, and I believe that 
every honest observer of conditions in other cities will agree 
with me. I mention particularly the two cities of New 
York and Chicago. In New York the service has been 
going from bad to worse. The cars are unpainted, unclean, 
and the conductors (largely foreigners) are themselves 
dirty and ill kept, and generally rude and unobliging. The 
conditions in Chicago are even worse. For several years 
past it has been a pleasure to me to return to Baltimore 
after trips to other cities, to enjoy the really fine service 
aff'orded by your street railways system." 



January 25, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



135 



GASOLINE-ELECTRIC MOTOR CAR FOR DELAWARE & 
HUDSON RAILROAD 



A test run was made Jan. 15 of the new gasoline-electric 
car designed and built by the General Electfic Company 
for the Delaware & Hudson Railroad. The car dilTers 
radically from the earlier gasoline-electric car built by the 
same company some two years ago and described in these 
columns. 

The car body is of the combination type, and comprises 
one ordinary passenger compartment, a smoking room, bag- 
gage room, engine room, toilet and observation compart- 
ment. The car is single-ended, having the controlling ap- 
paratus situated in the engine room. The principal dimen- 
sions are as follows : 

Length over all, 50 ft. 

Length of engine room, 9 ft. 6 ins. 

Length of baggage room, 5 ft. 8 ins. 

Length of smoker, ^7 ft. 11 ins. 

Length of passenger compartment, 18 ft. 6 ins. 

Width over all, 8 ft. 8 ins. 

Height over all, 12 ft. 10^2 ins. 

Seating capacity, 44. 

Total weight of car and trucks fully equipped, 31 tons. 

This car was designed throughout with special reference 
to the service required, the main object in view being to 
secure the maximum carrying capacity, with a mininnun 



The seats are handsomely upholstered in green leather. 
The interior is lighted with individual lamps, there being 
one light for each seat in addition to those in the vestibule, 
toilet and engine room, while a head-light is also provided. 
The steps are arranged in such a manner that the bottom 
one folds up automatically as the vestibule door is closed. 
The car body was built by the Wason Manufacturing Com- 
pany, Springfield, Mass., in accordance with the designs 
of the General Electric Company. 

GENERAL SCHEME OF OPERATION. 

The gasoline engine is direct-coupled to a 90-kw, direct- 
current generator, which furnishes current at a variable 
potential. This current is fed to the motors through the 
medium of the control system by which the voltage of the 
generator may be governed according to the requirements. 
The two motors are of the GE-72-A type, each rated at 
60 hp. 

ENGINE. 

The engine was designed and built by the General Elec- 
tric Company with special reference to the requirements 
peculiar to gasoline electric cars. Very special attention 
has been paid to the simplification of the engine ; the num- 
ber of parts and weight have been reduced to a minimum. 

\\'hen running at 550 r. p. m. the engine develops 100 




SIDE VIEW OF GASOLINE-ELECTRIC MOTOR CAR 



weight, and at the same time to have a car of great 
strength. The shape of the ends is parabolic in order to 
reduce the air resistance to a minimum when traveling at 
high speed. The general shape of the car will be seen by 
reference to the illustration. The frame work of the roof 
and sides is made of T irons bent to the required shape 
and braced diagonally. The exterior of the car is of steel 
plate, while the interior is finished with selected Mexican 
mahogany. No wood is used in the engine compartment. 
The floors of the passenger and baggage compartments 
consist of two layers of wood with paper between, armored 
on the under side with steel plates. The roof, which is fire- 
proof, is of a plain oval shape ; the monitor construction 
was not employed, as it would have added needlessly to 
the weight. Special attention has been paid to ventilation ; 
12 ventilators of the globe suction pattern are furnished 
in the roof. The under framing is of a very rigid con- 
struction; the center sills consist of 6-in. "I" beams, and 
the outside sills are 6-in. channels, and these are braced 
diagonally to lend greater rigidity. 



horse-power and has a greater capacity at increased speeds. 
There are eight cylinders, each of which is 8 ins. in 
diameter and has a stroke of '7 ins. The cylinders are 
placed at 90 degs. to one another, or at an angle of 45 degs. 
with the vertical. Each cylinder is composed of one piece, 
being a casting of very soft, fine grain cast iron. Each 
casting is self-contained and includes the water jacket. 
It is worthy of note that special attention was paid to 
provide an extra large cooling surface around the valves 
to eliminate any excessive temperature at the valve seats. 
There is one admission and one exhaust valve for each 
cylinder, which are arranged in such a manner as to permit 
the inspection of both valves by the removal of two nuts. 
The pistons are of the trunk type ; they are made of cast 
iron and are rendered gas tight in the cylinders by the 
provision of three split piston rings. The connecting rods, 
which are made of chrome nickel steel, are connected to 
the pistons by means of hollow pins shrunk into the body 
of the connecting rods. The crank shaft is made in one 
forging of 40 carbon steel; it is a four-throw crank having 



136 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. 4. 



an angle of 180 degs. All of the crank pins lie in the same 
plane, the two center pins occupying the same angular posi- 
tion while the two outside crank pins are set at 180 degs. 
to the center crank pins. This arrangement of cranks, with 
cylinders set at 90 degs. to one another, gives a very satis- 
factory system for balancing purposes. Two connecting 
rods are coupled to each crank pin. 

Each cylinder is fastened to the engine base by means 
of six bolts. The engine base proper is made of one cast- 
ing of Parson's manganese bronze, the form of which is 
clearly shown in the illustration. The crank casing, which 
is made oil tight, is of aluminum. All of the valves, both 
admission and exhaust, are actuated by one cam shaft 
which is driven from the main engine shaft by two gear 
wheels with the customary 2 to 1 reduction. This cam 
shaft is entirely enclosed in a circular tunnel which runs 
the entire length of the engine base; the tunnel is formed 
in the main casting. The fact that the valve rods are all 
operated from this one shaft has greatly simplified the 
design of the engine, '{"here are two carburetoi"s of the 
float feed type. The ignition system is of the high-tension 
type; a separate coil is provided for each cylinder. These 
coils are energized by means of a small accumulator. The 
sparking at the correct instant in each cylinder is effected 
by means of a roller commutator. 

Considerable difficulty has been experienced in starting- 
gasoline engines of this size heretofore, but in the present 
instance a special breech-block mechanism has been pro- 
vided which fires a charge of black powder into one of the 
cylinders, and this has proved a most ef¥ectual way of over- 
coming these difficulties. The cooling system for the cylin- 
ders operates on a thermo-siphon principal. The radiator, 
which is situated on the roof of the car, is divided into 
four separate nests of radiating tubes; these, being of the 




END VIEW OF ENGINE 



spiral-finn pattern, give a maximum cooling area per unit- 
length. 

The total cooling surface amounts to approximately 1300 
sq. ft. Each pair of engine cylinders is connected to one 
nest of tubes and the four nests are in turn connected by 
means of three copper pipes. The water jackets are con- 
nected to the radiator by means of pipes running vertically 
from the engine ; these pipes pass through the roof and the 
circuit is completed by means of other pipes leading from 
the radiator to the cylinder jackets. This system forms 



the most simple cooling arrangement possible, as it entirely 
eliminates the necessity of using pumps or cooling fans, 
and it has the further advantage of being easily drained 
and of being filled from the side of the car. 

It is of interest to follow the course taken by the gasoline 
from the storage tank to the carburetor. The gasoline is 
stored beneath the car in a large steel tank having a 
capacity of 90 gals., and is raised to a small auxiliary tank 
in the cab by means of a diaphragm pump. The gasoline 
is filtered in transit from the tank to the pump. The 
auxiliary tank is provided with a float to register the height 
of the gasoline, and a glass tube, somewhat similar to a 




SIDE \ lEW OK ENGINE 



sight feed lubricator, is provided so that the operator can 
see if the diaphragm pump is working. The gasoline is 
fed by gravity to the carburetor. 

The oiling system has been very carefully designed. 
Forced lubrication is used, and for this purpose there is a 
nest of pumps operated from the main shaft. One pump 
is provided for each of the main bearings and another oils 
the cams and cam mechanisms, the duty of this latter pump 
being to keep the cam shaft tunnel filled with oil; the oil 
on leaving the tunnel flows over the reduction gears and 
thence to the crank chamber. All of the oil used for lubri- 
cating purposes similarly flows to the crank chamber from 
which it can be drained. The big ends of the connecting 
rods are lubricated by scoops which dip into the oil in the 
bottom of the crank chamber, the oil being forced to the 
crank pin as the crank shaft revolves. 

GENERATOR. 

The generator is a General Electric, 90-kw, 8-pole, sepa- 
rately excited unit, which has been specially designed with 
a view to procuring the lightest possible machine for the 
necessary output, and at the same time keeping the temper- 
ature rise to within a reasonable figure. It is provided 
with commutating poles, which, in conjunction with the 
potential type of control, gives a great flexibility of cur- 
rent output. 

The advantage of this arrangement will be readily ap- 
preciated when it is pointed out that at starting the field 
excitation is weak, and that large currents are required to 
give the necessary starting torque. The normal pressure 
when running at 550 r. p. m. is 250 volts, at which time 
the current will amount to 360 amps., but at starting a 



JANL■AR^■ 25. n>o8.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



137 



current of 800 amps, can be secured at a corresponding 
decrease in voltage. It would be impossible to commutate 
so large a current in a machine with so great a kilowatt 
capacity per pound without the use of commutating poles. 

The total weight of the generator, including exciter, is 
only .2740 lbs., \\'hile a standard machine of this output 
weighs 8800 lbs. As is only natural in a machine where 
the weight has been so materially reduced, the temperature 
rise is higher and the efficiency lower than in standard 
apparatus of the same output. The higher temperatures 
are fully provided for by the type of insulation employed; 
there is no paper or muslin used anywhere in the machine. 
The armature coils are insulated with mica, the interpole 
coils with asbestos and the field coils are wound with 
enamelled wire. The armature leads to the commutator 
*are riveted as well as soldered, although the precaution has 
been taken to use pure tin for soldering, which has a melt- 




CAR ON TRIAL TRIP 



ing point of over 200 degs. C. Air ducts of ample dimen- 
sions are provided to insure a large volume of air being 
circulated through the core. The efficiency is 88 per cent, 
being only about 3 per cent lower than a standard machine 
having a temperature rise of 35 degs. C. 

The exciter is a 3-kw, 70-volt, shunt-wound macliine, 
with its armature mounted directly on the armature shaft 
of the main generator and its field yoke supported by the 
bearing brackets, enabling it to fit under the back ends of 
the generator armature windings. The illustration of the 
engine, generator and exciter assembled shows far better 
than a written description the neatness and compactness of 
this generating set. 

CONTROL SYSTEM. 

The speed of the motors is governed by a potential con- 
trol, the generator being separately excited and the termi- 
nal voltage of the motors being varied by means of a 
rheostat in series with the exciting circuit. The simplest 
explanation of the controlling system is arrived at by con- 
sidering the circuits separately. The armature circuit of 
the main generator comprises the armature — fuse — two 
contactors in series, reverser, and the two motors. The 
motors are connected in series or in parallel, according to 
the position of the controller handle, and they are gounded 
to the truck framework, while the solenoid coils for oper- 
ating the contactors are energized by a storage battery 
foating across the field circut. The reverser is operated 
as usual by a separate reverser handle on the controller. 

The current from the exciter passes around the field of 



the main generator and through the rheostat; the function 
of the controller is to cut in and out this rheostat as occa- 
sion demands. 

A storage battery which floats on the exciter circuit is 
used for supplying the lighting circuits and its charging 
and discharging is controlled by means of a reverse current 
relay which permits the lights being supplied directly from 
the exciting circuit or from the storage battery according 
to the voltage of the exciter circuit. A Tirrill regulator 
is employed for regulating the voltage on the lighting cir- 
cuit. These arrangements enable the car lights being used 
wheif the engine is at rest. 

The master controller, which has some unicjue features, 
is of type C-44, and gives seven steps with the two motors 
connected in series and eight steps with the two motors 
connected in j^arallel. It is provided with four handles, 
three of which are mounted one above the other on con- 
centric shafts. The function of the top handle is to ad- 
\-ance and retard the ignition of the engine, the second 
controls the throttle of the engine, while the third handle 
controls the generator field resistances and the contactors, 
which establish the circuit for the motors, besides trans- 
posing the motor connections from series to parallel. The 
fourth handle operates the reversing switch and controls 
the direction of rotation of the motors. 

The car is heated by passing part of the exhaust gases 
through pipes suitably located in the car body. 

BRAKES AND TRUCKS. 

The car is provided with a straight air brake equipment 
and the air is supplied by means of a compressor which is 
direct connected to the engine. The working pressure is 
60 lbs. per sq. in. and this is kept constant in the storage 
tank by a mechanical governor. Hand brakes are also 
provided. 

The trucks were constructed by the American Locomo- 
tive Company. They are of the swing bolster type, and 
have wheels 36 ins. in diameter. One motor is mounted 
on each truck. The journals are of the MCB standard 
pattern. 

The interior of these cars can be designed to suit any 
requirements or service. Cars of this type are available 
for use as private cars, with sleeping and dining accommo- 
dation, as inspection cars, wrecking cars, and baggage cars, 
etc., etc. 

TRIAL TRIP. 

On its trial trip the car received its passengers in the 
nearly completed new U^nion Station at Schenectady. The 
route selected made a circuit of about seventy-eight miles 
in length, including Albanjr, Cohoes and Mechanicsville. 
It contained its full capacity of passengers. A total of 
twenty-three stops were made in addition to many unrecord- 
ed slowdowns due to signals and other yard restrictions, 
the average length of a stop being slightly less than one 
minute. The engine, however, ran continuously during the 
trip. 

The speed of the car varied from 23 m. p. h. on a 1.3 
per cent up grade to 56 m. p. h. on a >4 per cent down 
grade, except where traffic conditions and road regulations 
required lower speeds. Where traffic conditions permitted, 
a speed of 50 m. p. h. was recorded on level track and 
from Albany to Mechanicsville a speed of 47 m. p. h. was 
sustained on a steadily rising grade. The eight-cylinder 
gas engine developed at times 150 hp. and the 60-hp motors 
were under such perfect control of the operator that the 
aceleration was noticeably smooth and free from jerks. 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. 4. 



THE PROMOTION OF TRAFFIC* 

The question of traffic, and its promotion, is an important 
one to the interurban railways, and has been the subject of 
reports from committees at the meeting of the American 
Street and Interurban Railway Association conventions, 
both in Columbus and the more recent one at Atlantic City 
last October. Traffic is the means by which the interurban 
and street railways receive the revenue to operate and keep 
up their equipment and pay dividends to their stockholders, 
and may be said to cover all the business done by a railway. 

Street car lines have grown until they have become 
railways, handling passengers, freight and express in compe- 
tition with the older and longer steam railroads. The steam 
roads long ago conceded to their electric rivals the local 
business but still dispute the long haul. The local business 
rightfully belongs to the electric railway, and with the 
proper kind of service it will always have it. The ad- 
vantage of being taken from the center of one town and 
landed in the center of another is offered by no other means 
of interurban transportation. The rates of fare should not 
be lower than the steam road to obtain and hold this travel, 
except for the round trip. The accommodation, which in- 
cludes the advantage of being landed "up town" besides 
the frequency of service appeals to the traveler and secures 
him with anything like reasonable and comfortable service. 

People living in the rural districts can board the cars 
near their homes and get ofif in front of the courthouse 
at the county seat in less time and cheaper than they can 
hitch up. However, while this business belongs to the 
electric railways, it must not be conceded that any kind of 
accommodations for' local business will suffice. The local 
business should be fostered, for it is a valuable asset and 
should be accommodated with comfortable waiting sheds 
at all stopping points in the rural district, frequent service, 
clean cars, fast time and warm cars in the winter. 

Changes in schedules should be avoided as much as 
possible. People living in the country become accustomed 
to a regular time for their car. Then there is a change 
and it takes some time to get them used to the new order 
of things. No matter hojtv well you advertise the change 
before it goes into effect, there will be a loss of business 
for a while. After it does go into efifect, there may be 
complaints about the service not being as satisfactory as 
formerly, and the result is that some of your former 
patrons may use some other means of transportation for 
a time, although not quite as handy as the trolley. They 
will come back gradually, but a regular schedule the year 
round can be handled much better by the electric lines than 
the steam roads, because the short days do not necessitate 
running trains later in the morning or earlier in the eve- 
ning, as the electric cars run every hour. 

The development of the country along electric lines for 
suburban residences should be encouraged. Commuters' 
rates should be reasonably low and the service such as to 
encourage the every-day travel. Secret societies, lodges, 
theatrical parties, basketball, football and baseball do much 
toward increasing the revenue. Along our line the members 
of the various L O. O. F. lodges are now making trips 
every week or ten days to some other town, putting on the 
work and contesting for a prize which wiU be awarded the 
latter part of February. They never go in less than car 
loads and return early at night, always before the time 
arrives for shutting down the power. Any suggestions 



*Abstract of paper by Chas. F. Price, general passenger agent of the 
Western Ohio Railway Company, at the Dayton meeting of the Central 
Electric Railway Association, Jan. 23, 1908. 



for rates for theaters, parks, etc., would probably be out of 
place here, as those matters are governed entirely by the 
local situation and conditions, and I only intend to touch 
upon the subject of promotion of traffic as a general 
proposition. 

The commercial business of the electric lines is con- 
stantly increasing. When I say this, I do so with regard 
to our line, which handles baggage on every car and checks 
150 lbs. free with every ticket costing over $.20. We 
are handicapped on interline business, however, by the 
different ways baggage is handled. Some lines still charge 
$.25 a piece for baggage and only have two or three cars 
during the day that baggage can be hauled on. This service 
is no inducement to the traveling man. Other lines charge 
a different rate per hundred because their rate of fare is 
lower. The baggage matter should be uniform and the 
line which charges $.25 a piece for baggage should accept 
its prorate of the revenue received when it takes baggage 
from a line that charges excess. 

Then the question of handling 150 lbs. of baggage free 
came up after the legislature of Ohio passed the two-cent 
bill for steam roads, making their rates the same as that 
on the Western Ohio. At first we seriously considered the 
advisability of making the change, but we are more than 
pleased with the result since we adopted the baggage rate 
in effect on steam roads. Our rates of fare and baggage 
rates are the same as our steam road competitors, yet our 
baggage receipts from excess baggage are larger than ever 
and we are hauling the one-trunk passengers going on a 
visit that we did not get before. It is just as important to 
deliver a piece of baggage at its destination as it is the 
passenger. Records by checking and receiving agents, as 
well as conductors, are a great help in tracing lost baggage. 
Employees handling baggage ought to be impressed with 
the importance of its prompt forwarding and sure delivery. 

Last season we ventured into the excursion business on a 
much larger scale than usual, having for several years sold 
excursion boat tickets from connecting points as far south 
as Dayton on the Dayton & Troy. There is a great future 
for the summer boat business, judging from our experience 
last summer. On two different occasions w^e joined the 
Detroit & Cleveland and Cleveland & Buffalo boat lines in 
a cheap excursion to Niagara Falls. We had one just before 
the steam lines had theirs and one immediately afterward. 
We made the same rate as the steam roads and had two 
car loads the first time and three the last, every passenger 
on the first one being a living advertisement of the 
excellent service. We had nearly a carload from one town 
on our line where they took the car at 4 o'clock a. m. and 
made 131 miles to reach the boat. In both instances the 
excursion party was landed in Toledo by 9 o'clock in the 
morning, before the heat of the day, making a cool, clean 
and pleasant trip. 

We consider the success of the Niagara Falls excursions 
the very best kind of advertisement for our lines, and in 
addition to the advertisement we made a nice profit on the 
business. Excursions of this kind, where they can be run, 
help in the work of educating the public to the use of 
electric lines. We run several excursions each season to 
Cleveland, issuing an exchange order on the Nickel Plate 
road good at Mortimer. I am a believer in the most 
liberal form of advertising. For our Niagara Falls business 
we occupied half pages in the daily papers along the line, 
using a large cut of the City of Erie, one of the Cleveland 
and Buffalo steamers, and large display type; we also get 
out bills in two colors. We reserved berths upon applica- 
tion. After the excursionists returned, we took the pains 



January 25, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



139 



to inquire how the trip was enjoyed and did not have a 
complaint from a single one of the several hundred persons. 
Everyone in the two parties was a talking advertisement 
for our service, and hereafter we can be relieved of the 
expense of a large amount of advertising we were com- 
pelled to do last season to induce the public to try the elec- 
tric way for business which had heretofore been monopo- 
lized entirely by the steam roads. We have also stimplated 
travel by getting business men in the towns along our lines 
to run "Shopping Excursions," which have proved very 
satisfactory revenue getters. 

The roads which constitute the Lima Route, the Toledo 
Urban and Interurban, the Western Ohio and the Dayton 
& Troy, have in effect, what we term "week end" rates 
to Dayton, Toledo and Springfield, from all stations on the 
Western Ohio, and from Dayton, Springfield and Toledo 
to all points on the Western Ohio. These rates are a fare 
and a third for the round trip, good going every Saturday 
and Sunday and returning including Monday following date 
of sale. Prior to putting these rates into effect, we had a 
one-fare for the round trip, good going and returning on 
Sundays only, but we tried the experiment of increasing the 
rate and making a more liberal time limit. Not only did 
our revenue increase, but more tickets are sold than under 
the former arrangement. We also check baggage on these 
tickets. 

For the long haul a reduction, if only a slight one, will 
bring additional business, provided the road giving it is 
prepared to offer the passenger an easy, comfortable ride, 
free from delays. The time need not be as fasf as the 
steam line, but the equipment should be such that he can 
enjoy just as easy a trip. The keeping of the trains on 
time is an important item in local as well as in limited 
service. The time should be fast, but with enough leeway 
to enable the cars to make the time should they be held 
up from any unavoidable cause. A schedule so fast that 
cars cannot be kept reasonably on time should be changed. 

Party rates are a means of developing a considerable 
amount of business. Some lines give a rate for ten or more 
passengers going on regular cars ; others have twenty-five 
the minimum number to secure reduced rates. Our line has 
always witheld making any reduced rates except to parties 
of fifty or over, which includes special car service if 
desired. Granting a reduced rate of fare to a small num- 
ber of passengers is unwise because the people usually go 
anyhow. If the party lacks in numbers, my observation 
has been that the revenue to the company amounts to more. 
I think an electric railway with hourly service should value 
that as an inducement, together with the fact that parties 
can return home earlier at night, and nearer to their homes 
than by the steam road. The argument is all in favor of 
the electric lines ; then why disturb your rate except for an 
unusual number? 

The long haul business will never be successfully handled 
until cars for this business are run in trains, and the 
time is not far distant when all of the through business will 
be so handled. The great drawback to the present manner 
of doing through business over foreign lines is that the 
motor cars, like the steam engines of the other railroads, 
have to be at their own shops each day for inspection. 
This sometimes necessitates changing cars and results in 
unsatisfactory service. Trailers would obviate this annoy- 
ance, and the time is approaching when motor cars will 
haul trains of several cars from as many different points 
to junction points, where they will be transferred to as 
many destinations, several hundred miles from the starting 
point. When this is accomplished, it will be common for 



passengers to go to and from Buffalo, Cleveland, Toledo, 
Detroit, Dayton, Columbus, Cincinnati, Indianapolis, Chi- 
cago, Louisville, St. Louis, and intermediate points. The 
public does not patronize the electric lines because of their 
greater love for them but because of the convenience. 

Agents and conductors should be courteous, patient and 
considerate. If an excited individual rushes up to the 
ticket window and asks what time the eleven o'clock train 
goes, the agent should not give way to his feelings, but 
should tell him. When cars are late, they should keep those 
waiting informed. The men should be posted on the time 
of the steam roads, the location of hotels at the different 
towns and other things about which the traveling public 
requires knowledge. Our line supplies conductors with a 
schedule giving the time of every connecting steam road 
at every station, so that he is prepared to answer the 
frequent questions of that nature. This schedule contains 
the time of our competing steam roads also. The traveling 
public should have any information it desires and you will 
make a friend out of the traveler sooner than by the con- 
ductor or agent telling him "I don't know." 

The public is entitled to every confidence in reference to 
the matters which concern it, some of which have been 
mentioned above. The closer this relationship between the 
public and railways is drawn the more considerate the 
former will be. The public should be made to feel that its 
patronage is appreciated and sought and the more this can 
be infused through courteous and painstaking employees 
the better will be the showing in receipts. 

For the information of the traveling public, we have 
placed in our ticket offices large bulletin boards with a 
blackboard in the center, and rows of boxes on each side 
for the time folders and advertising matter of our own and 
other electric lines. On the blackboard we make announce- 
ments of excursions, attractions and other matters of interest 
to the public. We find this way, and the hanging of bills 
in our cars, the best way to reach our regular patrons, but 
for any extra occasion we use the newspaper liberally. 

Electric lines can do a good business in handling the- 
atrical companies, and that class of business is increasing 
each year. We are probably better equipped to handle it 
than some roads, because we do a heavy freight business 
and have freight motors and trailers which we press in use 
for handling the scenery and baggage whenever occasion 
demands. 

In interline or through business it is not justifiable to 
make a rate much below the steam road, the frequency of 
the service being worth something. On the "Lima Route," 
we meet the steam road rate between Toledo and Dayton 
and from all stations to either of these places. The Lake 
Shore Electric Railway has put in a thirty-day rate of 
$1.50 from Toledo to Cleveland. This is considerably below 
the steam road rate and the result will be interesting to 
traffic officials. 

More interline business could be obtained, even though 
the electric mileage is much longer in some instances, if 
the rate was made to meet the steam road or short line, 
and the revenue prorated per rate where there is a 
different rate per mile, than by the roads holding out for 
their local fares. The sooner electric lines get out of the 
rut of doing business on street car line methods and follow 
the steam road plan, which is the, result of years of experi- 
ence, the more they will add to their revenue. The recent 
movement to organize a traffic association among the elec- 
tric railway traffic officials should solve this question in a 
manner satisfactory to all. 

In advertising, too wide a circulation cannot be given 



140 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXI. No. 4. 



time cards, maps, etc. Anytliiiig with the name of your 
road on is a good advertisement and a promoter of traffic. 
During the past two years the roads constituting the "Lima 
Route" have several times covered the states of Ohio, 
Indiana and Michigan with advertising matter, placing large 
time cards, maps, etc. in eveay depot and hotel and other 
public places. It is true that all of the matter put out 
does not stay permanently, but some of it does, and that 
which does not sta}' remains long enough to do some 
good. We have absolute knowledge that a great deal of 
business has been brought to our lines through the means 
mentioned. The public needs to be educated to use the 
electric railways. True, they have been in operation for a 
number of years, but so have the steam roads, and they 
advertise more and more each year. 

Not all, however, depends on the advertising matter put 
out. Your road ought to give better service than it 
advertises and never give poorer. The service should al- 
ways keep ahead of the patronage. The Lake Shore and 
Pennsylvania railroads did not wait to see if their New 
York-Chicago limited would pay hy first putting ordinary 
trains in the service and then the luxurious trains they have 
now. They built the trains first, put them into service and 
offered them to the public for their approval. The result 
was that when one of the lines recently announced an 
intention of lengthening the time, the public raised such 
a clamor that the railroad abandoned the idea. Why? 
Because the public had been educated to use the luxurious, 
high-speed train. So it is with the electric railway. People 
have become educated to the advantages of its local service 
and attention must now be turned to the proper develop- 
ment of the through business. 



SIGNAL SYSTEMS FOR ELECTRIC RAILWAYS * 

The development of our electric railways for interurban 
service has been so wonderfully rapid as to cause astonish- 
ment not only at home but abroad as well. Such prestige 
as this deserves to be carefully safeguarded, and in pur- 
suance of such a course is it not wise and timely to take 
a careful inventory of every single feature which is a part 
of your operating system? What an added satisfaction it 
would be to you to know that you have taken advantage of 
every available means in providing for the safe and efficient 
handling of the lives and property entrusted to your care. 

There are accidents occurring on the electric railways in 
the Central West as well as other parts of the country cost- 
ing hundreds of lives and thousands of dollars that could 
have been averted by expending $1 per month per station 
for insurance against such a happening by adopting a signal 
system. I cannot consistently advocate an automatic block 
signal, for on many of the single-track lines the traffic 
is so heavy that such a system is wholly impracticable, if 
not an impossibility, because it is not sufficiently flexible 
to meet the conditions. On the other hand, on lines where 
the traffic is light and conditions possibly favorable to such 
a system, the revenues are not such as to make adoption 
possible, for it must be borne in mind that only about 20 
per cent of the electric roads in the United States are divi- 
dend earners. This very fact has been an incentive to 
inventors to perfect a signal for interurban lines of suffi- 
cient flexibility to permit its successful use on the heavy 
traffic line, and sufficiently low in cost to bring it within 
the reach of all. 

From the train dispatchers' standpoint let us consider 

*Abstract of paper by Chauncey P. Button at the Dayton meeting of 
the Central Electric Railway Association, Jan. 23, 1908. 



the conditions that obtain on the steam road and compare 
them with the electric railway. The dispatcher on the 
electric railway usually has a great many more trains under 
his watchful care than has the dispatcher on the steam 
railroad and issues about twice or three times as many 
orders. They are more brief, to be sure, but every one 
has the same stamp of importance to it. The dispatcher 
on the steam railroad has a means of getting in touch with 
the train crew at practically every switch on his line by 
instructing the telegraph operator to throw a semaphore 
signal against the train and then issuing the orders through 
the medium mentioned. The dispatcher on the electric rail- 
way has no such advantage and should have just as reliable 
a means of getting in touch with his trains, for schedules 
are disarranged here as on the steam road and traffic fluctu- 
ates to an even greater extent. To be sure the road has 
a telephone which enables the train crew to communicate 
with the dispatcher, but what a one-sided arrangement ! 
The dispatcher should, by all means, have as great or 
greater power to stop any train in his district and issue 
such instructions to them as conditions may necessitate. 

The movement of neither people nor cars is regular 
on interurban lines and some little mishap on the line may 
cause the dispatcher's best built castle to be quickly shat- 
tered and it must be as quickly rebuilt. The method of 
having reporting stations is not adequate to the needs on 
such occasions, therefore the dispatcher should have a 
means of throwing a semphore signal to danger at any 
selected point. 

Experience has shown that the greatest danger of col- 
lisions between opposing trains is due to the motorman 
overrunning his orders, that is to say, running beyond 
the siding which the dispatcher has named as the meeting 
point for the two trains. Man is not infallible and it is 
not a reflection on the railroad official that his men fre- 
quently overrun their meeting point, for very often it is 
the most reliable man in the service who thus errs ; however, 
it is a reflection on the railroad official who does not pro- 
vide a means to avert such occurrences when the conse- 
quences of forgetfulness are brought to his attention al- 
most daily. 

It can be consistently held that a signal system is an 
essential safeguard in handling trains by telegraph or tele- 
phone dispatching system. It should be within the power 
and the duty of the dispatcher to set the signal to danger 
at the siding at which the trains are to meet the moment he 
fixes a meeting point other than the regular meeting point 
provided for on the time table. Then, when the motorman 
forgets his order, as he will frequently, and the conductor 
fails to check him, as he will frequently, your dispatchers' 
signal stands at danger at the meeting point, a preventa- 
tive against accident and a monument to your wisdom. 

The first car to arrive at the meeting point finds the signal 
set in a horizontal position, indicating danger. The con- 
ductor or motorman quickly communicates with the dis- 
patcher by telephone as follows: "Stanley and Thompson 
at No. 3, or Troy," the dispatcher in turn reminding them, 
of their order to meet a certain train at that point and 
further instructing them as to restoring" the signal to clear 
or otherwise. 

Here is provided a means of enforcing obedience to your 
dispatchers' orders. The American Railway Association 
Rules require the placing of the "middle order" in the hands 
of the operator at the meeting point when practicable as a 
means of reminding the crews and enforcing obedience to 
orders. This, of course, is not possible with a telephone 
dispatching system with no operators at the meeting points. 



I 



jAxr.\K\- 25, 1908.] 

but by having your dispatcher place the signal at danger 
at the meeting point, you are taking a step in advance of the 
American Railway Association. 

A telephone dispatching system with a reliable signal 
under the control of the dispatcher is the best, safest and 
quickest means of dispatching trains. Comparative to the 
actual need, but little thought has been given to this branch 
of the service, but during the past year, the Central Electric 
Railway Association, aided by the electric railway papers, 
has stimulated thought upon the subject. Indeed it was the 
well-known need of an adjunct to your telephoyie dispatch- 
ing system, together with the encouragement and active in- 
terest of the members of this association, that caused this 
signal to be perfected to meet your practical requirements. 

About two months ago an electric railway in the state of 
Illinois suffered a head-on collision which caused the death 
of seventeen persons and injury of many more. The 
damage claims filed thus far amount to $219,000. It might 
be timely to say the Telegraph Signal Company's signaling- 
apparatus for preventing head-on collisions could have been 
rented and operated for the $219,000 on that particular line 
in Illinois for 1500 years. There is a fact worth noting. 

That I have the proper signal to meet the requirements 
thoroughly is the natural claim which you expect of me and 
I earnestly hope I may be able tu convince you accordingly. 

To throw a signal to danger at some point on the line 
the dispatcher simply turns a two-point switch to connect 
with a 200-voIt circuit, this being brought from the trolley 
line if desirable and reduced by resistance coils from 500 
or 600 volts. He then inserts a plug in hole No. 3 for 
instance, throws the two-point switch, and a few seconds 
later semaphore No. 3 on the line is released and gravitates 
to danger. Immediately following this the device records 
the number of the semaphore that has operated by cutting 
the exact number of holes in the tape corresponding with 
the number of semaphore that has operated. The response 
is given, not by the operation of the master machine in 
the dispatchers' office or the line machine at the distant 
station or the releasing trip at the distant station, but by the 
semaphore actually gravitating to the full danger point, 
this in turn causing the device to record the fact by wire 
automatically. 

As it is physically impossible for the main office to get 
the indication until the semaphore blade has reached the 
full danger point, danger of false indication is eliminated 
and if other than the desired signal has operated from any 
error in dispatcher inserting the plug, no deceptive response 
is given for only the number of the particular signal which 
has operated is received and no other. 

This signal is operated from central energy, requiring no 
dependence on a local battery along the line. Oil or electric 
lights as desired may be used on semaphores. We require 
one bare, galvanized-iron line wire. You can have an 
unlimited number of signals on a circuit, fifty if you like. 
The signals have been in use quite a few months on the 
Indiana Union Traction Company's line, Anderson to 
Wabash, and that they have satisfactorily acquitted them- 
selves I think can be vouched for by the president of your 

association, Mr. H. A. Nicholl. 



The Western Ohio Railway Company has adopted the 
system of carrying two red flags on the rear of trains, in- 
stead of the green flags heretofore used. At night two red 
lights will be used. This is the system adopted by the 
Central Electric Railway Association, but the Western Ohio 
for some reason has held to the old idea until the jirescnt 
time. 



141 

ANNUAL CONVENTION OF THE INDIANA ENGINEERING 
SOCIETY 

The twenty-eighth annual convention of the Indiana 
Engineering .Society was held in Indianapolis, Jan. 16, 17 
and 18. Reports and papers were presented on a wide 
variety of subjects, including a committee report and three 
papers on electric railways read Thursday, Jan. 17. The 
report of the committee on electric railroads, which was 
offered by the chairman. Robert P. Woods, was mainly 
a summary of electric railway progress in Indiana and 
included the data in the following paragraph : 

On Jan. 1, 1908, there were thirty separate systems in 
operation with a total mileage, exclusive of city street car 
lines, of 1539. The smallest, the French Lick & West 
Baden Railway, is but 1.09 miles long, while the largest, 
the Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction Company, 
has 351.40 miles of road. During the last four years 835 
miles of lines have been built, of which 286.71 miles were 
constructed during 1907. There are now eleven- interurban 
lines entering Indianapolis. During the year a total of 
99,2423/2 passenger-car round trips were made by them. 
Probably more than five and a half million people were 
carried. The express and freight business is showing a 
marked increase. Probably 12 or 15 per cent of the general 
gross earnings of interurbans is in this class of service. 

The committee also referred briefly to recent work in 
heavy electric traction elsewhere, and mentioned the in- 
creasing demand for reliable scientific data on matters per- 
taining to the technical side of electric railway operation. 
It recognized that such tests would involve considerable 
expense, but the theme was a worthy one, and the committee 
hoped the subject would be taken in hand by the Federal 
and state governments in co-operation with technical uni- 
versities, traction companies and the electric railway 
associations. 

J. P. Moore, of Indianapolis, read a paper entitled "The 
1200-volt Direct-current Type of Interurban Railway." 
This related entirely to the Indianapolis & Louisville Trac- 
tion Company, whose system was fully described in the 
Street . Railway Journal of Jan. 4, 1908. Chas Heron, 
of Indianapolis, offered an interesting paper on "Types 
of Traction Cars." As this paper contains numerous 
formulas and curve sheets, its publication must be deferred 
until a later issue. 

CITY TRACK COiNfSTRUCTION FOR INTERURBAN CARS. 

A paper entitled "Track Construction in Streets for 
Interurban Service" was presented by T. B. McMath, of 
Indianapolis. The writer said that instead of an arbitrary 
tie spacing of 2-ft. centers, he would suggest a specifica- 
tion to make the space between the ties the same throughout 
to secure a roadbed of more uniform supporting qualities. 
Mr. McMath considers the T-rail the best shape for heavy 
interurban cars on city tracks. For streets paved with 
brick, any section deep enough to provide a sand cushion 
under the lirick is satisfactory. The 80-lb. standard section 
with a depth of 5 ins. can be successfully used, also the 
high T-rails. Many of the old high T-sections, however, 
are not adapted for heavy loads, due to weakness in the 
web, as they were designed for lighter loading. If used, 
the bending of the web throws a crushing strain on the 
])aving, which is forced to give way. The 7-in. T used in 
fndianapolis was es[)ecially designed with a web stiff enough 
to support the load, the 9-in. girder section having failed 
utterly in this respect. 

The rail requirements are of sufficient width of head to 
l)rotect paving from the wheels, sufficient height to permit 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



142 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL 



[\\)L. XXXL No. 4. 



paving and a base wide enough to sustain and distribute 
the load. The web should be thick enough to resist the 
bending moment of the wheel load when applied at the 
extreme edge of the head. Clay or loam requires heavy 
ballast. A good foundation can be made by putting in a 
layer of stone or gravel ballast, laying the track and tamp- 
ing with ballast, and then filling with concrete to the 
height required by the paving. Concrete makes the best 
foundation and ballast, but to be useful it must be over 
I ft. thick under the ties. A cheap natural cement can be 
used with safety and keep the expense within reach. The 
subgrade should be excavated to a depth of 6 ins. below the 
bottom of the ties. The track should be laid on this sub- 
grade and raised up to grade, and lined on blocking. 

The concrete should be in the proportion of 1-23/2-7 with 
natural cement, tamped specially under the ties and base 
of the rail and levelled at the proper grade for the brick 
surface. This construction makes a rigid road bed and if 
proper time be given for setting, will give a first-class 
road bed and is preferable to any type of concrete beam. 

The reconstruction of streets having tracks on which 
traffic must be maintained during construction can be ac- 
complished by the use of dry concrete as a foundation. 
Excavate and lower the track until a depth of 6 to 8 ins 
below grade is attained. Then mix cement, sand and 
gravel in the proportions of 1-2-6, using no water. Throw 
the mixture in the track and raise track and tamp ties to 
grade the same as if ballast were used. Tamp until ties are 
solid under passing cars. When the track has been properly 
surfaced on the dry concrete, line up the track and finish 
concreting with wet concrete. Some five years' experience 
with this type of work has shown that work so done will 
hold to suriace and line as well as if laid on wet concrete 
without traffic. Excavations made show that the concrete 
has set, perhaps not 100 per cent of the strength of properly 
wetted concrete, yet if liberality has been shown in the 
amount of cement used, such dry concrete will be ample. 

The feature accomplished is that the track is in operating 
condition all the time and at the end of six months an 
expert could hardly tell upon excavating whether or not 
the concrete had all been given the same mix. Portland 
cement gives better results than natural cement, but the 
cheapness of the latter allows a liberality in its use which 
is necessary when dry mixing is done. 

The writer has excavated gravel from a bank with a 
half yard orange-peel excavator, thrown the cement on too 
of the bucket of gravel, dumped the bucket in his \'o. 2 
Drake mixer, which discharged the nii.x directly into the 
ballast cars. The extra cost of 100 yds. of mixed material 
is $67.00 above the cost of ordinary ballast. In this case 
the dry concrete cost about $1 per cubic yard ready to 
spread and tamp. However, gravel-pit conditions did not 
permit this kind of work for more than three weeks, after 
which it was impossible to reach the mixer directly with fjie 
excavator and a second handling was necessary 


ORGANIZATION OF TRAFFIC ASSOCIATION IN THE 
CENTRAL WEST 

Pursuant to a call by H. A. Nicholl, president of the 
Central Electric Railway Association, the traffic managers 
of Ohio, Indiana and Michigan met at Dayton, Jan. 22, 
to organize an electric railway traffic association as an 
affiliated organization of the Central Electric Railway 
Association. The meeting was held at the Phillips House 
in Dayton, and representatives of the traffic departments 
of twenty-two interurban electric railway companies were 
present. The meeting was called to order by F. D. Norviel, 



of the Indiana Union Traction Company, who stated briefly 
the objects of the proposed association. J. H. Crall, of the 
Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction Company, 
was then elected temporary chairman, and R. A. Crume, 
auditor and purchasing agent of the Dayton & Troy Electric 
Railway Company was elected secretary of the meeting. 
A committee consisting of A. G. Kelly, C. G. Lohman, F. D. 
Norveil, W. S. Whitney, and G. F. Price, was appointed 
to draw up a constitution and by-laws for the afternoon 
meeting. The meeting then adjourned for lunch. 

At the meeting on Wednesday afternoon the committee 
on constitution and by-laws presented its report. After 
considerable discussion of the prop' sed constitution the 
committee was instructed to confer with a committee of the 
Central Electric Railway Association, consisting of F. J. J. 
Sloat, C. N. Wilcoxon, F. D. Carpenter, R. T. Gunn and J. 
F. Starkey, and to report back at the meeting to be held 
Thursday morning. The principal point to be considered 
by the joint meeting was the question of methods and the 
division of expenses of the work to be conducted jointly by 
the two associations in compiling and publishing tarrififs. 
Up to the time of going to press the committee had not 
reported and further action on the adoption of the constitu- 
tion and the election of officers had been deferred until 
the report was received. 

A report of the meeting of the Central Electric Railway 
Association which was held at the Phillips House, Dayton, 
on Jan. 23, will appear in the next issue of this paper. Two 
papers presented at the meeting are published this week. 


NEW TRAMWAY LAW PROPOSED FOR NEW ZEALAND 

New Zealand proposes more completely to control the 
working of its tramway lines. To this end it is proposed 
lo amend the present statistics by a new measure. The 
amendment provides that every driver of an electric tram 
nmst have a certificate issued by a board of examiners to 
be appointed by the minister. Power is also given to the 
Minister to authorize any proper person to inspect a tram- 
way, whether in course of construction or open for traffic, 
and the rolling stock in use or to be used, and if such per- 
son reports that any alterations are necessary to insure the 
safety of the public or the employees, or to meet the reason- 
able requirements of the traffic, the Minister may order 
them to' be made accordingly. If the order is not com- 
pleted within the specified time, the promoters of the tram- 
way will be liable to a fine not exceeding £20 a day. No 
tramway is to be opened for traffic until the Minister has 
intimated to the promoters that he has received from an 
engineer appointed under the Public Works Act a certifi- 
cate that the undertaking is safe and fit for traffic. The 
maximum penalty for a breach of this provision is £20 a 
day. Power is given to the Governor (which is the Gov- 
ernment in this case) by Order-in-Council to make regula- 
tions providing for the inspection and licensing of tram 
cars, prescribing the maximum number of passengers that 
may be carried on any carriage on any particular route or 
grade, prescribing the maximum distance at which car- 
riages may follow one another, and the limit of speed on 
any particular route or grade, appointing stopping places 
providing for the use of signs indicating by day and by night 
the destination and route, providing for a fine not exceeding 
£20 for a breach of any regulation so made, and providing 
for such other matters as the Minister thinks fit to secure 
the safe working of the tramway. Further, the Minister 
is given power to inquire into any accident and to suspend 
the driver or cancel his certificate. The power of licensing 
cars is transferred from the local authority to the Minister. 



January 25, iyo8.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



NEW SLEET SCRAPERS AND SLEET WHEELS 



Two devices for freeing wires from sleet that have 
met with success are illustrated herewith. One is a scraper 
to be fastened to the regular trolley wheel by means of a 
spring. It can be attached in a moment, and as readily 
removed after it has served the purpose. It locks the wheel 
and effectively scrapes all sleet and ice from the wire. It 
is simple and inexpensive, and is preferred for use where 
only an occasional sleet storm may be expected. The other 



A NEW SECTION INSULATOR 

A new type of section insulator has recently been put on 
the market by the Ohio Brass Company, of Mansfield, Ohio, 
and is shown in the accompanying illustrations. Great me- 
chanical strength is claimed from the fact that the direct 
pull exerted by the trolley wires is borne by two wood 
break strain insulators, one on each side of the suspension 
bar and runner piece as shown in Fig. i. These wood 
break strains are similar in construction to the manu- 






SLEET SCRAPER AND SLEET WHEEL 



SECTION INSULATOR WITH TWO WOOD BREAK STRAIN IXSULATORS 



is a wheel which takes the place of the regular wheel, and is 
intended for those sections where sleet storms are of fre- 
quent occurrence. If the storm comes during the night, one 
of these wheels on the car that makes the first morning trip 
is sufficient to clean the wire for the day's traffic. During 
heavy storms cars equipped with wheels should be run 
every fifteen or twenty minutes. Both devices are made 
by the R. D. Nuttall Company, of Pittsburg, Pa. The 
scrapers are made in two sizes, 4 ins. and 6 ins. The wheels 
are made 4 ins. in diameter, 1J/2 ins. through hubs, and 
ins. in diameter, ly?, 2 and 3 ins. through hubs. 



PLANNING FOR THE OPENING OF THE COLUMBUS. 
DELAWARE & MARION RAILWAY 



General Manager, George Whysall, of the Columbus, 
Delaware & Marion Railway Company, states that the 
officials have not given up the idea of being able to operate 
the line of the Columbus, Marion & Bucyrus Railway be- 
tween Marion and Bucyrus by April i, although 
weather conditions have not been at all inviting 
for construction work for some time past. There 
are two short stretches of grading, aggregating 
less than a mile, yet to do. The rails are down 
and the overhead work completed for a distance 
of nine miles, approximately half the distance be- 
tween the two towns. The road will be ballasted with 
crushed stone, which will perhaps be secured from one of 
the largest crushing plants in the country. This plant is 
located close to the line and connected with it by a spur 
approximately 1500 ft. in length. This will make the 
work convenient and the construction men may always be 
sure of the quality of the ballast. 

The Columbus, Marion & Bucyrus line will be supplied 
with power from the Columbus, Delaware & Marion Rail- 
way Company's power house at Stratford, connecting with 
the present transmission line carrying 20,000 volts at 
Marion, where the sub-station will be located. This sub- 
station will be operated in connection with the one now 
operated by the Columbus, Delaware & Marion, and a 
second sub-station will be located at a point eleven miles 
from Marion. Inasmuch as the Columbus, Delaware & 
Marion is using 600-volt D. C. current on the trolley, the 
Columbus, Marion & Bucyrus will do likewise. 

The business of the Columbus, Delaware & Marion con- 
tinues to show an increase from montli to montli, under the 
new operating organization. 



facturer's regular wood break strain insulator, that is, the 
malleable iron cap-castings are compressed over the ends 
of the wood member by hydraulic presure, which distributes 
the stresses evenly throughout the entire piece. The malle- 
able iron cap-castings of the wood breaks are provided 
with internally threaded lugs, and are fastened to the end- 
castings of the section insulator by machine bolts which 
pass through holes in the end-castings and engage the 
threads in the lugs. Lock washers prevent these bolts from 
being loosened by vibration. Since each of the wood 
breaks has an approximate ultimate strength in tension of 
7000 lbs., it is possible to break the largest sizes of trolley 
wire without injury to the insulator. The wood breaks 
being situated in the same plane with the trolley wire they 
are subjected to no bending moment, being subjected to 
direct tension stress only. 

The suspension bar and runner piece are of hard wood 
and are separate as seen in Fig. 2. The ends of the sus- 
pension bar, which is ij^ ins. x i 1/16 ins. x 9^ ins., fit into 




INSULATOR WITH SUSPENSION BAR AND RUNNER PIECES OF 
HARD WOOD 

recesses in the faces of the end-castings, and a top suspen- 
sion is provided for attachment to a hanger with a ys-hi. 
threaded lug. The runner bar is of the same dimensions 
as the suspension bar, the under edge being rounded to fit 
the groove of the trolley wheel. It is driven tightly into 
the recesses in the end-castings beneath the suspension bar 
and is further held in place by cotter pins as shown in 
Fig. I. This runner bar may be easily renewed. 

By inspection of the illustrations it will be noted that the 
end-castings terminate in long grooved ears for the recep- 
tion of the wires. These ears are each provided on the 
upper edge with two threaded lugs, 1^4 ins. in diameter, 
the lugs being bifurcated. A wedge with a grooved and 
serrated edge, shown in detail in Fig. i, fits into the 
l)i furcations of each of the lugs and is clamped down upon 
tlie trolley wire by nuts which fit the lugs. About midway 
l)ctwen the lugs there is a projection or lump in the bottom 
of tjie groove in the ear, so that when the wedges are 
clamped down the wire is given a crimp, rendering it 



1-44 



STREET RAILWAY -JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXI. 



No. 4. 



impossible for the wire to pull away. The grooves in the 
ears will take round, figure 8 and grooved wires. 

At the tops of the end-castings %-in. holes are drilled 
for feeder wire fastenings, and clamping bolts are provided. 
The length of the section insulator is igl4, ins. over all. 

A NEW AUTOMATIC CAR GAINER 

A new improved automatic car gaining machine, spe- 
cially designed for use in car and bridge construction, or 
wherever heavy gaining is required, is being made by the 
J. A. Fay & Egan Company, of Cincinnati, Ohio. It is 
substantially built, and has a capacity for timbers up to 




AN IMPROVED GAINING MACHINE 



20 ins. thick and 24 ins. wide. The frame is a heavy-cored 
casting with a broad, substantial base, supporting the work- 
ing parts without vibration. The gaining arbor and head 
are supported on a large and powerful automatic ram, that 
is gibbed to the top of the column in planed ways. The 
machine has a horizontal travel of 26 ins. The arbor frame 
is gibbed to the front of the ram, and has a vertical adjust- 
ment of 21 ins. to suit various thicknesses of stock and 
depths of gain. To facilitate this adjustment, the arbor 
frame is counterbalanced. The expansion gaining head is 
16 ins. in diameter, and will cut gains up to 5 ins. deep. 
The construction of the heads is^ such that it will make a 
perfectly clean cut whether feeding forward or backward. 
The head furnished regularly with the machine will ex- 
pand to gain from ins. to 3 ins., but special heads may be 
obtained which will gain up to 9 ins. wide. The feed is 
driven by heavy-cut gears actuated by miter friction. The 
gears are mounted on shafts running in separate self-oiling 
bearings. After the outward stroke, the ram returns auto- 
matically, or may be stopped at the end of the forward 
stroke and set to another gain on the return stroke. There 
are three speeds to the ram drive, viz., 15 ins., 22^^ ins. and 
30 ins. per minute. The timber carriage is made of steel 
I-beams and has automatic friction feed, under constant 
control of the operator. For accurate adjustments, the car- 
riage is operated by the hand wheel shown in the illustra- 
tion. The carriage is provided with adjustable stops for 
regulating the distance to the carriage and, as regularly 
furnished, is 14 ins. long, but may be made any desired 
length. The vertical boring attachment is supported by 
brackets on the main column, and has an adjustment across 
the carriage of 18 ins. and a vertical stroke of 18 ins. The 
tight and loose pulleys for this attachment are 10 x 43/^ in. 
face, and should make 750 revolutions per minute. 
^ 

THE MUKDEN TRAMWAY 

Extensions are proposed to the Mukden Tramway by the 
owners, the China-Japan Horse Railroad Trading Com- 
pany, Ltd. This company has about 2J/2 miles of track 
which is operated by horses, although the rails are heavy 



enough for electric or steam traction. It is proposed to 
build a 5-mile extension, which will bring all parts of the 
city and suburbs into direct rail communication with the 
four lines of railroad which meet at the junction now con- 
trolled by the South Manchurian Railway. The local man- 
ager is Kyohei Kakehi. 



NEW FORM OF VESTIBULE HEATER 

The Twin City Rapid Transit Company has ordered 100 
heater equipments of a novel type from the Peter Smith 
Heater Company, of Detroit, Mich. This heater was made 
up especially to meet conditions in the Twin City cars, and 
will be known by the manufacturers hereafter as their 
Type C heater. The heater is designed to be placed in the 
car vestibule and not to be too high to obstruct the view of 
the pasengers. Consequently its height has been kept down 
to 44 ins. and its diameter to 20^ ins., yet it has ample 
capacity to easily heat city or interurban cars up to 40 ft. 
inside measurement. This heater is of the magazine type 
and has capacity enough to run 18 hours without re- 
coaling. ^ 


SEMI-CONVERTIBLE CARS F OR CLINTON, IOWA 

The American Car Company has just completed a number 
of Brill semi-convertible cars for the Clinton Street Rail- 
way Company, generally similar to those furnished by the 
same builders when the lines in Clinton were operated by 
the State Electric Company. The Clinton Street Railway 
Company assumed control about two years ago and practi- 
cally replaced the old system with a new one. Twenty-foot 
semi-convertible cars are standard in Clinton, although the 
American Car Company has supplied cars of the regular 
open type. 

The platforms of the new cars are panelled around and 
closed on one side and the 21-E truck, on which the cars 
are mounted, has an unusually long wheel base — 8 ft. The 
seats, which are of Brill make, are all transverse. Some 




SEMI-CONVERTIBLE CAR FOR CLINTON 



of the dimensions are as follows : Length over end panels, 
20 ft. 8 ins.; over crown pieces, 31 ft. 8 ins.; width over 
sills including sheathing, 8 ft. ins. ; height from floor to 
ceiling, 8 ft. 5 ins. ; from under side of sills over trolley 
board, 9 ft. 2^ ins.; size of side sills, 43/i ins. x 7 ins.; end 
sills, 3J'2 ins. x 6% ins. 

The system over which this new rolling stock will be 
operated comprises 16 miles of track, the greater portion 
of which is on Second Street, connecting Clinton proper 
with Lyons, formerly a separately incorporated town, but 
now part of Clinton. The two towns have a combined 
population of about 25,000. There is a spur on the Second 
Street line which reaches Eagle Point park, operated by the 
railway company. A crosstown line on Sixth Avenue 
serves the western portion of Clinton and the Iowa & 
Illinois Railway Company enters Clinton over these same 
tracks. 



January 25, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



145 



FINANCIAL INTELLIGENCE 



Wall Streef, Jan. 21, 1908. 

The Stock and Money Markets 

There has been a further universal relaxation in the money 
markets of the entire world, and this has constituted the chief 
factor in financial circles during the past week. Practically 
all of the business done in call loans on the New York Stock 
Exchange has been at or under 3 per cent, while accommoda- 
tions on time have been freely offered at 5 per cent for all 
dates, with some exceptional transactions reported as low as 
4/2 per cent for four months. Moreover, borrowers were not 
at all disposed to pay even the comparatively low figures quoted 
and lenders are generally inclined to make concessions. Where- 
as Wall Street only a few weeks ago was in dire distress be- 
cause of the inability to borrow funds either on call or on 
time at any figure, is now threatened with an over supply of 
money and the banks in many instances are experiencing diffi- 
culty in finding employment for their surplus funds. This 
condition of affairs has of course been brought about largely 
through the enormous return flow of currency from interior 
points, and which was reflected in a most remarkable gain in 
actual cash by the local banks, as shown by their statement 
of last week. The exhibit disclosed a combined increase in 
specie and legal tenders of over $26,000,000, of which $16,500,- 
000 was added to the surplus reserve, raising the amount held 
in excess of legal requirements to over $22,635,475. From 
present indications the surplus reserves of the New York banks 
will continue to expand in practically an unprecedented man- 
ner, consequently the prospect is that still greater monetary 
ease will develop before long. 

An advancing tendency in the foreign exchange market has 
led to some talk of possible gold exports in the early future, 
in which event some of the current ease in the local money 
market would in all probability be lost. However, gold ex- 
portations are rather a remote possibility, especially as dis- 
counts in all the European markets are now on a declining 
scale. Apart from the further heavy gain in cash and surplus 
reserves, the principal development of the week has been the 
wholesale retirement of Clearing House certificates. During 
the height of the recent panic the amount of such certificates 
outstanding approximated about $75,000,000. Now, however, 
only about one-quarter of this amount is out, and bank officials 
express the belief that within a fortnight at the latest they will 
have all disappeared. In response to these several encouraging 
forces the stock market during the fore part of the week took 
on increased strength and prices advanced more or less sharply. 
The rapid rise, however, induced a great deal of profit-taking 
on the part of those who had purchased stocks at materially 
lower levels and this selling, together with some extensive 
bearish operations among professionals, brought about quite a 
pronounced reaction, which by many close observers was looked 
upon as a very good thing for the market as a whole, as in their 
judgment the general list had been moving up too rapidly. 
The stock of the American Smelting Company was one of the 
greatest sufferers in the general recession and special pq-essure 
was directed against it. However, pretty much all classes of 
securities were inclined to run off imder the influence of the 
selling referred to, and while there was not much in the way 
of actual liquidation, the market was rather weak in contrast 
with the pronounced strength which has lately characterized it. 

The local traction stocks held up somewhat better than the 
general run of railway and industrial shares, chiefly by reason 
of special causes affecting these companies individually and 
collectively. The Intcrborough Company now reports a larger 
traffic than ever before in its history, which is explained in 
considerable measure 1)y Ihe opening and successful operation 
of the East River Tunnel. The Brooklyn Rapid Trarisit like- 
wise reports traffic fully up to what it was before the opening 
of the tunnel, which ;s accepted as conclusive proof that this 
company is bound to benefit vastly from this source in the 
long run. As has been the case for some little time, this class 
of securities still finds much favor among investors. 



Philadelphia 

Although there was no material increase in the volume of 
business transacted in the local traction issues during the past 
week, the general tone continued strong and in several instances 
further substatial gains were recorded. Consolidated Traction, 
for instance, after selling at 65^, advanced to 69, while United 
Companies of New Jersey rose from 239 to 240. Philadelphia 
Company common advanced i/^ to 37^4 and the preferred ad- 
vanced a point to 38. Philadelphia Rapid Transit was by far 
the most active feature of the group, but the price movement 
was extremely narrow. Opening at 1734, it advanced to 18, 
and later, on profit-taking sales the price eased off to 175^. 
Philadelphia Traction, however, moved up to 88^, and Union 
Traction rose from 51 to 51 V-,. American Railways was firm, 
with transactions at 43 and 

Baltimore 

Trading in the Baltimore traction issues was comparatively 
quiet, but the general trend of prices was toward a higher 
level. Interest again centered largely in United Railway issues, 
all of which scored substantial gains. The 4 per cent bonds 
advanced to 87, and the incomes to 49^/2. The funding 5s sold 
i»t 75/4 and 75. City & Suburban 5s were conspicuously strong, 
scoring an advance of H to 106J4. Richmond, Traction 5s sold 
at 100^ and Baltimore City Passenger Ss at 97. 

Other Traction Securities 

Very little interest was manifested in the Chicago traction 
issues during the week, but such transactions as were recorded 
were generally at higher prices. Metropolitan Elevated pre- 
ferred advanced a point to 48 on reports that the directors of 
the company would resume dividend payments on the stock 
in the near future. South Side Elevated sold at 70. The 
feature of the Boston market was a sharp advance in the price 
of Boston Elevated to 140, and the highest figure attained by 
the stock for several months. Massachusetts Electric issues 
were reactionary, the common declining from 12 to 11, and fhe 
preferred from 49H to 49. West End common advanced 2 
points to 82, and the preferred sold at 99. Boston & Worcester 
preferred was very quiet, but steady, at 59^. 

Cleveland Electric stock advanced to 42, buyer sixty days, 
on the Cleveland Stock Exchange last week, with cash at 40 
and 40j^ on a few small lots. Northern Ohio Traction & Light 
has varied from 195^ to 20 through the week, with' a number 
of -small lots sold at both figures. Aurora, Elgin & Chicago 
preferred has remained around 71 for some time, but within 
the past time a' few blocks changed hands at a better figure, 
some of them going as high as 73. Washington, Baltimore & 
Annapolis pooling certificates were in good demand most of 
the week at 10 and one or two points lov^'er. 

Security Quotations 

The following table shows the present bid quotations for the 
leading traction stocks, and the active bonds, as compared 
with last week : 

Jan. 15. Jan. 22. 

.\nierican Railways 43 43^^ 

Boston Elevated 129^ 136;^ 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit 44-J4 44M 

Chicago City ...aiso ai.so 

Cleveland Electric — — 

Consolidated Traction of New Jersey 64^ 68 

Detroit United iSyi 37 

Interborough-Metropolitan yVs yVi 

Interborougli-Metropolitan (preferred) 20 I9')4 

International Traction (common) 30 35 

Internatieonal Traction (preferred) 4s 6t.^ 64^ 

Manhattan Railway T23 T23 - 

Massachusetts Elec. Cos. (common) ji'j 12 

Massachusetts Elec. Cos. (preferred) 49 47!^ 

Metropolitan Elevated. Chicago (common) ai7'j 17 

Metropolitan Elevated. Chicago (preferred) 45 ' j 46 

Metropolitan .Street 20 22 

North American 53 14 4/^2 

Philadelphia Company (common) 36'A 37/^ 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit 18' 14M 

Philadelphia Traction 85!/, 87.^ 

Public Service Corporation certificates 54 54 

Pulilic Service Corporation, 5 per cent notes 85 85 



146 STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. [Vol. XXXL No. 4. 



Jan. 15. Jan. 22. 

South Side Elevated (Chicago) 68 67 

Twin City, Minneapolis (common') 861/2 8654 

Union Traction (Philadelphia) 51 54 49 

a Asked. 

Metals 

The "Iron Age" says that the question uppermost in the 
minds of furnacemen and steel makers alike is that of the 
prices for Lake ores for the coming season and it is possible 
that it may be settled at an early date. It is realized that 
these prices lie at the base of the whole structure, and there is 
a strong feeling in favor of maintaining prices. While the 
majority of sellers of pig iron are adhering to recently estab- 
lished prices, there is a sufficient number of producers who are 
willing to accept prices $1.00 to $1.50 per ton less to establish 
the market. 

Copper metal remains quiet and unchanged at 13-54 @ 14c. 
for lake, 13-)^ (a} i3J4c. for electrolytic, and 13^-^ (§} 1354c. for 
castings. 



NEW DIRECTORS OF WASHINGTON RAILWAY & ELECTRIC 
COMPANY ORGANIZE 



ANNUAL REPORT OF AMERICAN LIGHT & TRACTION 
COMPANY 



Organization was eftV-cted by the newly elected directors of 
the Washington Railway & Electric Company, Saturday, Jan. 
18. Notwithstanding the previously expressed expectation that 
either George Truesdell or William Loeb, Jr., would be made 
president, the directors re-elected Allan L. McDermott. It was 
understood, however, that Mr. McDermott's tenure of office 
will be only temporary on account of his ill health, and in his 
speech of acceptance he stated his desire that such should be 
the case. Providing" for an active local head of the company 
in Mr. McDermott's absence the directors created the new posi- 
tion of first vice-president, and elected Clarence F. Norment 
to fill it. Gen. George H. Harries was made second vice- 
president, and his duties will continue the same as heretofore. 
Other officers elected were : H. W. Fuller, general manager ; 
F. J. Whitehead, secretary, and W. F. Ham, treasurer and con- 
troller ; executive committee, Allan L. McDermott (e.x-officio) ; 
Clarence F. Norment, George Truesdell, Woodbury Blair and 
Ward Thoron. As the same directors also represent the 
various companies subsidiary to the Washington Railway & 
Electric Company, they also elected the same officers for each 
of the railway companies, as well as for the Potomac Electric 
Power Company. There was an exception in the case of the 
latter company in the selection of E. S. Marlow to be treasurer 
and L. E. Sinclair to be general superintendent. The directors 
of the company are : Woodbury Blair, Allan L. McDermott, 
Clarence F. Norment, George H. Harries, William Loeb, Jr., 
George Truesdell, and Ward Thoron. 



T^HE QUESTION OF WHAT CONSTITUTES A STREET 
RAILWAY TO BE SETTLED IN CANADA 



Representatives from Ottawa, Montreal, Toronto, Winnipeg, 
Brantford and other places were present last week at the meet- 
ing in Ottawa of the Union of Canadian Municipalities. Among 
the many subjects discussed at the meeting was the protection 
of municipal rights in Victoria, Calgary, Winnipeg, Fort Wil- 
liam, Port Arthur, Brantford, Hamilton, Toronto, Montreal 
and other places. Certain amendments to the Railway Act were 
suggested. The Railway Act provided that a street railway 
must make terms with any municipality with respect to running 
rights over any street or highway within the corporate limits 
of such municipality. The development of electricity, the crea- 
tion of the suburban electric roads and the changes in the 
methods of transportation have raised the question whether the 
term "street railway" in the Railway Act applies to an electric 
road outside the municipal confines of a city. The executive of 
the union therefore suggested to the Minister of Railways that 
it should be made clear in the Railway Act that municipal con- 
trol over "street" railways should be made applicable to all 
roads operated by electricity or cable. As a result it has been 
decided to introduce an amendment to the Railway Act this 
session which will have an important bearing on such bills as 
the Hamilton Radial and the ^Montreal & Southern Counties 
Railway Companies, now before Parliament. 



The American Light & Traction Company has issued its an- 
nual report for the year ended Dec. 31, 1907. The earnings for 

the last two years compare as follows : 



Earnings on stock of subway com- 



Miscellaneous earnings, improvements, 
etc 



Expenses 



Reconstruction reserve. 



Surplus $502,683 



1907. 


1906, 


$2,236,261 


$2,070,507 


226,897 


193,228 


$2,463,158 


$2,263,735 


36,563 


48,000 


*$2,426,595 


$2,215,735 


1,242,912 


1,173,969 


$1,183,683 


$1,040,766 


681,000 


680,500 


$502,683 


$361,266 



*After allowing for 6 per cent on the $14,236,200 preferred 
stock outstanding, the balance, $1,572,422, is equal to 23.25 per 
cent earned on the $6,760,700 common outstanding. 

The profit and loss account compares as follows : 

1907. 1906. Changes. 

Previous surplus $2,490,144 $2,128,878 Inc. $361,266 

Year's surplus 502,683 361,266 Inc. 141,417 



Total profit and loss 

surplus $2,992,827 $2,490,144 I 

The condensed balance sheet as of Dec. 31, 1907 
follows : 

ASSETS. 

1907- 

Invested account $26,671,756 

Treasury stock i 

Certificates of indebtedness 7,890,777 

Earnings received, subway companies. 3,388,408 
Bills received, subway companies 2,047,812 



Manager's stock contract. 

Accounts received 

Interest and dividends 

Temporary invested 

Cash on hand and in bank. 



222,500 
95,504 
41,579 
220,582 
621,779 



Total $35,200,699 

LIABILITIES. 

Preferred stock $14,236,200 

Common stock 15,000,000 

Bills payable *i,26o,266 

Reconstruction and reserve 1,361,500 

Dividends accrued and payable 314,953 

Miscellaneous 34,952 

Undivided earnings 2,992,927 



nc. $502,683 
compares as 



1906. 

$26,739,734 
I 

1,708,183 
2,385,332 
1,575,537 
227,500 
63,560 

26,156 
494,456 

$33,220,459 

$14,236,200 
15,000,000 
500,000 
680,500 
289,052 
15,563 
2,490,144 



Total $35,200,699 $33,220,459 



*Collateral trust 6 per cent notes. 

President Emerson McMullen calls attention to the increase in 
gross earnings for the twelve months ended- Dec. 31, 1907, which 
was 8.81 per cent over the gross of 1906, with an increase in net 
of 9.52 per cent. The dividends charged off during the past 
twelve months exceed the amount of dividends of corresponding 
twelve months a year ago 5.87 per cent. The surplus for the 
twelve months ending Dec. 31 increased 13.62 per cent. The 
net surplus for the twelve months (after carrying to "recon- 
struction reserve" the sum of $681,000) exceeded that of same 
period last year by $141,417, an increase of 39.14 per cent. The 
net earnings for the past twelve months equal $2,426,595 ; divi- 
dends, $1,242,91-2; surplus, $1,183,683; "reconstruction reserve" 
account, $681,000; net surplus for the year, $502,683. The total 
undivided earnings to date amount to $4,354,327, less amount 
carried to "reserve" account, $1,361,500, leaves surplus Dec. 31, 
1907, $2,992,827. The net earnings for the last twelve months 
equal 6 per cent on preferred stock and ^3.26 on common stock. 
Deducting from net earnings, 6 per cent on preferred ($854,172), 
and the amount carried to "reserve" ($681,000) leaves a balance 
of net earnings equivalent to 13.19 per cent on common stock. 



January 25, 



1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



147 



TOLEDO RAILWAYS 



& LIGHT COMPANY'S REPORT 
FOR YEAR 



The Toledo Railways & Light Company has issued its annual 
report for the year ended Dec. 31, 1907. The report includes all 
the property of the Toledo Gas, Electric & Heating Company, 
purchased on June i, 1907, and operated since that date. In 
January, 1907, the company also became the owner of the entire 
capital stock of the Toledo, Ottawa Beach & Northern Railway, 
and is now operating that road under contract. In March, 1907, 
the company purchased the entire capital stock of the Toledo & 
Western Railroad Company. 

The following is a comparative statement of the earnings, etc., 
of the Toledo Railways & Light Company for the past two 
years. The figures for the year 1907 include the earnings of 
the Toledo Gas, Electric & Heating Company for the entire 
calendar year. 

Income account : 

1907. 1906. 

Gross receipts $2,565,200 $2,047,611 

Expenses and taxes 1.542,333 1,071,773 

Net earnings $1,022,867 $975,838 

Interest 708,166 509,607 

Surplus $314,701 $466,231 

Per cent of capital 2.27 3.89 

The capital stock of the company has been increased from 
120,000 shares to 150,000 shares; 18,750 shares have been issued 
to stockholders of the Toledo Gas, Electric & Heating Company 
in payment of that property. The balance, 11,250 shares, are 
unissued. 

The report states that, owing to the financial conditions, the 
large expenditures for improvements, and the company's ina- 
bility to market any treasury assets, it was the consensus of 
opinion of the directors to discontinue for the present fhe 
payment of dividends. 

The general balance sheet as of Dec. 31, 1907, compares as 
follows : 

ASSETS. 

1907. 1906. 

Road and equipment $28,319,740 $23,013,298 

Improvements 968,368 584,671 

Other permanent investments 2,733,556 1,185,680 

Current assets 594,6o4 698,466 

Sinking and special funds 3,876 4.373 

Expenditures 2,219,420 1,860,789 

Ticket stock 41,057 41,486 

Total $34,880,622 $27,388,855 

LIABILITIES. 

Capital stock $13,875,000 $12,000,000 

Bonds 14,500,000 11,283,000 

Deferred payments, real estate 99,500 99,500 

Real estate sale 31,871 31,870 

Accrued liabilities 393,971 259,240 

Current liabilities 2,234,400 637,808 

Earnings 2,362,976 2,047,611 

Tickets 4i,0S7 41,486 

Profit and loss 1,341,487 988,339 

Total $34,880,622 $27,388,855 

President Henry A. Everett says : 

"We arc now supplying the city with 1571 magnetic arc lamps 
for street lighting, an increase for the year of 195. The city 
lighting is the new system of magnetic arc lamps which was 
installed during the year 1907, in accordance with the contract 
entered into with the City of Toledo in October, 1906, for a 
period of ten years from Jan. i, 1907. 

"Extensive betterments have been made on the electric, gas, 
heating and railway plants, so that the capital requirements for 
1908 will be small. 

"The franchises of this company are being operated under 
something more than one hundred ordinances of the City of 
Toledo and proceedings of the Lucas County Commissioners, all 
favorable in their terms. 

"Those relating to gas, electricity, power, light, heating and 



the underground conduit system are perpetual, subject only to 
the ordinary police regulations and I0 the statutory requirements 
of the state of Ohio that the prices to be charged shall be regu- 
lated at intervals of not exceeding ten years. 

"The rights of the company to operate its street railway in 
certain streets will expire Nov. 9, 1910, but the larger part of 
the system is being operated under ordinances which expire in 
1914, 1915 and 1916, and the demand for transfers from one 
part of the system to the other makes it practically certain that 
no considerable change in the present operation or in fares will 
be made until about 1914. 

"The company has now 1829 stockholders of record. 

"The net results of the year's operation are unsatisfactory, 
owing (o an unexpected combination of circumstances which 
will probably never occur again. We look forward to a pros- 
perous year in 1908, not so much from anticipated growth in 
gross earnings as from a reduction in expenditures for capital 
account and also operating charges." 

At the annual meeting of the stockholders of the company, 
held Jan. 16, Louis E. Beilstein and Herman S. Swift, of 
Toledo, and Edward W. Moore and Henry A. Everett, of 
Cleveland, were re-elected as members of the board of direc- 
tors. Charles W. Wason, of Cleveland, and Albion E. Lang 
and John F. Collins, of Toledo, retired and their places were 
filled by the election of S. D. Carr and Jay K. Sccor, of Toledo, 
and R. B. Van Cortland, of Montreal. In addition, J. F. 
Demers, of Quebec, and W. E. Hutton, of Cincinnati, were 
elected to the board. The board organized by the election of 
the following officers : Henry A. Everett, of Cleveland, presi- 
dent ; Louis E. Beilstein, of Toledo, vice-president and general 
manager; Edward W. Moire, of Cleveland, vice-president; Her- 
man S. Swift, of Toledo, secretary; S. D. Carr, of Toledo, 
treasurer. 



LEHIGH VALLEY TRANSIT REPORT FOR YEAR 



The annual meeting of stockholders of the Lehigh Valle.v 
Transit Company was held in Alientown Jan. 14. R. P. Stevens 
was re-elected president, and John C. Dawson, of Brown Bros. 
& Company, was elected vice-president. The directors were re- 
elected. 

The annual report for the fiscal year ended Nov. 30, 1907, 
shows gross earnings of $926,799 by the railway companies and 
$104,761 by the electric light properties and from other sources, 
or a total gross for the year of $1,031,560. The railway gross 
increased $43,954, or 4^ per cent over the previous year. Gross 
receipts from electric light companies increased about 15 per 
cent. Operating expenses of the railways were $631,283, an in- 
crease over the previous year of 14 per cent. Operating ab- 
sorbed about 68 per cent of gross earnings. The company's con- 
solidated mortgage bonds began to draw interest from No- 
vember, 1906, and the full year's interest of $81,600 was for the 
first time included in the charges. The surplus for the year, 
after payment of all fixed cliarges and taxes, amounted to $5,264. 

The year was of unusual importance to the company, as it 
was practically the final period in the rehabilitation of the entire 
power system. During this time both the old and new power 
plants had to be operated, which temporarily increased costs 
and expenses. The entire new system is practically completed 
and is expected to result in a large reduction in operating ex- 
penses. In the item of repairs to cars alone a large saving will 
be effected. Under the old system, with different power houses 
scattered along the line and varying voltages, the expense of 
repairs to motors was especially heavy. 

The directors of the company considered the gross earnings 
good, in view of the severity of the early winter months of 1907 
and the easing off of general business in the latter part of the 
j'ear. The surplus of $5,264, although small, was also consid- 
ered satisfactory, in view of the e.xtra cost due to double opera- 
tion during part of the power transition period, the increase in 
interest charges, wage advances and the general heavier cost of 
operation. 

President Stevens, who entered the company's service last 
August, says : "We have the largest and best equipped power 
system for interurban operation in eastern Pennsylvania, and 
both service and earnings ought steadily to improve. We have 
thoroughly revised the company's schedules, so as to give better 
service at less expense, and have been effecting economies that 
should enable us 10 make a good sliowing this year, even should 
there be a quieting down of general trade." 



u8 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. 4. 



MEETING OF EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF ENGINEERING 
ASSOCIATION 



President Simmons of the Engineering Association has called 
a meeting of the executive committee of that association to be 
held on Thursday, Jan. 30. The meeting will convene in the 
offices of the main association in the Engineering Societies 
Building, 29 West Thirty-ninth Street, New York City, at 
2 p. m. 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE NORTH AMERICAN COMPANY 



The North American Company has issued its annual report 
for the year ended Dec. 31, 1907. The income account com- 
pares as follows ; 

1907 

Total receipts $1,610,965 

Rent, taxes, etc 206,322 



1906 
$2,773,892 
99,270 



•Balance 

Commissions paid 





$2,674,622 


1,117.211 


1.487,305 


• $-'87,43 ' 


$1,187,317 





Surplus for year $287,432 $1,187,317 

*Equal to 4.7 per cent on the $29,793,300 capital stock. 
The undivided profits account shows as follows : 

Dividends paid in 1907 $1,117,211 

Decrease in value of assets as readjusted Dec. 31, 

1907 2,290,365 

Balance as per balance sheet Dec. 31, 1907 1,996,614 

Total $5,404,190 

Balance on Dec. 31, 1906 3,999.548 

Net income for fiscal year ending Dec. 31, 1907 1,404,642 



Total 

The general Ijalance sheet as of Dec. 31. 1907, 
follows : 

ASSETS. 

1907 

Stocks $28,548,024 

Bonds 45.520,833 

Loans 4,047,452 

Property and office furniture I 

Bills and accounts receivable 92,879 

Cash 186,170 



. . .$5,404,190 

compares as 



Total $37..195„36i 

LIABILITIES. 

1907 

Capital stock '..$29,793,300 

Accounts payable 

Collateral trust- notes 2,500,000 

Loans 2,810,333 

Accrued interest 21,508 

Dividends 

Eunds of construction companies 269.975 

Undivided profits 1,996,614 

Dividends unclaimed 3,630 



$31,641,824 
159,292 
1,603,639 
I 

141,729 
913,655 

$34,460,140 

1906 
$29,791,300 
51,539 



614,892 
3,999,548 
2,861 



Total 



■$37..395-.36i $.34,460,140 



AFFAIRS IN NEW YORK 



Justice Mills, at White Plains, Jan. 18, appointed former Dis- 
trict-Attorney Young temporary receiver of the Westchester 
Electric Railway Company, of Mount Vernon, and former 
County Clerk Leslie Sutherland temporary receiver of the 
Yonkers Railway. The appointments were due to the applica- 
tion of the directors, who had set forth that the debts of the 
companies aggregate about $5,000,000, and the assets were small. 
An order to show cause why the two companies should not be 
dissolved is returnable on March 9. 

Directors representing the interests of holders and the trustees 
of the first consolidated bonds of the Third Avenue Railroad 
have been elected to the boards of certain subsidiaries of the 



Third Avenue, including the Dry Dock, East Broadway, and 
Battery Railroad, Forty-Second Street, Manhattanville, and St. 
Nicholas Avenue Railroad, and the Union Railroad. The Cen- 
tral Trust Company is trustee of the mortgage securing the 
bonds. The elections were in accordance with an agreement 
with the receivers, and follow the plan of separating the 
Metropolitan and Third Avenue systen^s. 

At the public hearing held Eriday, Jan. 17, by the Public 
Service Commission for the purpose of hearing suggestions as 
to the methods that should be pursued to make possible the 
building of additional subways in this city, it was urged by all 
speakers that the present Elsberg rapid transit act be amended. 
Senator Elsberg, one of the authors of the bill, and for whom 
it was named, was among those who thought the act should be 
amended. 'Many speakers were also in favor of securing 
legislative action to permit of the extension of the city's debt 
limit so that bonds put out for subway construction would not 
be included in the total amount of debt. More power for the 
commission was urged by several who spoke. 



DETROIT MAYOR'S SPLEENETIC ADDRESS TO THE 
COUNCIL 



Mayor Thompson, of Detroit, in submitting his annual address 
to the Council Jan. 15 felt it incumbent upon him to attack the 
Detroit United Railway Company. This he took occasion to do 
at the very beginning, making it the first subject to receive his 
attention. In part. Mayor Thompson said : 

Wlien, a year ago I addressed you for the first time as Mayor of our 
city, I emphasized the fact that tlie street railway situation was the para- 
mount question before the people. What was stated then, is repeated now: 
The Detroit United Railway can get no new lease of life in our streets, 
except upon the fundamental basis of three-cent fares for all the people 
all the time. Mayors and Aldermen may come and go, but the determina- 
tion of the people upon this point suffers no change. Of course, there 
are those, who, for reasons of personal prejudice or pencuniary profit, 
seek to dupe the people into giving away the valuable rights in the streets, 
which the street railway company must have in order to live. But the 
overwhelming majority of the people are too well educated in the merits 
of this controversy, and too unselfish and patriotic to yield to the plead- 
ings of either the paid advocate or the petty partisan. If any proof is 
needed of the temper of our people upon this question, in addition to 
the fate of the "Codd-Hutchins Ordinance," you need only recall the fact 
that when your honorable body submitted to popular vote the granting 
of a large number of valuable extensions to the Detroit United Railway — 
which were sorely needed in some districts — the people, even in the dis- 
tricts to be benefited, overwhelmingly voted to walk rather than give any 
new concessions to the Detroit United Railway. There has been no time 
during the past sixteen years, neither under the administration of my 
three immediate predecessors, nor myself, when this question could not 
liave been settled if the company had granted the reasonable demands 
of the people. N^o settlement could be forced during all these years, 
because the city was bound, at least until Nov. 14, 1909, by existing fran- 
chise contracts. As long as the company stood upon its rights and de- 
manded the letter of its bond, a settlement was out of the question until 
its franchises expire. Then it must settle on our terms. 

Settle the street car question before that time? Certainly. At any 
time. To-night, to-morrow, or next week, if the company chooses. But 
settle it right. Neither you nor I can settle it any other way, because 
the people who must pass upon it, finally, will see that it is settled right, 
when it is settled. It rests entirely upon the Detroit United Railway 
whether it will now concede three-cent fares for all the people all the 
time, or will wait to be forced to do so one year hence, when our 
people, exasperated by delays and oppression, will be in the right motfd 
to drive a hard bargain, not only on the matter of fares, but on the 
other matters of paving, taxation, service, time-term of franchise, the 
reserved right of municipal purchase and ownership, and the saving of 
potential competition for all time by the setting aside, as fre^ territory, 
of a substantial portion of the downtown terminals for the use of new 
competing lines. 

The so-called "twenty-four second measure" has been argued before 
Judge Swan and awaits his decision. While the court is considering 
vrhether or not it will grant the relief sought, it is our duty to cope 
with existing dangerous conditions, by passing an ordinance requiring 
two conductors — one to collect fares and the other to direct the car and 
guard the safety of passengers alighting from and boarding the car. If 
the court will not let us provide comfort, we can at least secure safety 
for our people. 

In concluding, the Mayor referred to the decision by the Su- 
preme Court of the state against the attempt by the city to 
build a street railway line, to be leased at such terms as the 
city saw fit to fix, and said that the charter of the city should 
be amended so as to make' possible municipal ownership of 
street railways. 



Janl'akv 25, J 908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



THE WORK OF THE NEW YORK UTILITIES BOARDS FOR 
THE FIRST SIX MONTHS 

In compliance with the statute creating thcni, the Public Ser- 
vice Commission for the First and Second Districts of New 
York have transmitted to the Legislature their reports cover- 
ing the six months from July i to Dec. 31. 

In the main, the report of the commission for the First Dis- 
trict, which includes New York, Kings, Queens and Rich- 
mond Counties, embracing Greater New York, is a detail 
of the work of the commission, as recorded from day to 
day. The most important recommendation contained in the 
document is that dealing with the present rapid transit law, 
in regard to which four important changes are suggested. 
After a general review of the transit improvements under 
way and planned, the report states that bonds issued for 
rapid transit purposes are reckoned as part of the debt in 
determining the debt limit of the city, altliough such improve- 
ments are not only self-supporting, l)ut revenue earning". The 
report continues : 

Becausfe of the financial condition of the city, and because 
of the present limitation upon the power of the commission to 
secure the use of private capital in the construction of rapid 
transit routes within the City of New York, the commission 
makes the four following recommendations as to legislation : 

(1) A Constitutional amendment e.xempting from the lo per cent debt 
limit bonds for the construction of rapid transit lines, when such rapid 
transit lines shall be self-supporting. 

(2) An amendment to the rapid transit law providing that leases of 
extensions of rapid transit lines may be made to terminate at the same 
time as the original leSse, this commission having the power, in con- 
junction with the Board of Estimate and Apportionment, to fix the terms, 
conditions and compensation and to readjust the same, each twenty or 
twenty-five years thereafter. 

(3) An amendment to the rapid transit law which shall give the local 
authorities and this commission the power to allow the construction and 
operation of rapid transit lines by private companies upon the payment 
of part of the earnings to the city, with a reservation to the city of the 
privilege to purchase at any time after a period of not more than twenty 
or twenty-five years and without any payment for the franchise itself, and 

(4) An amendment to the rapid transit law making it possible for the 
local authorities and this commission to let contracts for operation for a 
longer period than twenty years, or else to make the lease terminable 
at any time after a certain period of not more than twenty years, with 
a provision that the equipment shall be purchased at a fair price by the 
city on the termination of the lease. 

The report deals with the method of the commission in fol- 
lowing up complaints and holding hearings. All told, 179 hear- 
ings were held between July 18 and Dec. 31. As a result, the 
commission issued 186 orders. Of these, 84 were complaint 
orders, 46 were orders for hearings, 42 were final orders, and 
14 were general orders calling for information. 

The general transit inquiry is touched on rather lightly, but 
the improvements in service growing out of it are given in 
detail. Then the accident report is transmitted. It shows that 
the total number of accidents reported by the ransportation 
companies in the six months was 24,209, and that the total num- 
ber of deaths occurring in connection therewith was 288. The 
report continues : 

"The commission believes that no more important work 
could be undertaken than the reduction of this death list. 
Judicial processes in the nature of criminal prosecutions and 
civil suits for damages, partially because of the length of 
court calendars and the skill of counsel employed by the 
companies, have not been adequate, and regulative requirements 
by public officials are all the more necessary." 

According to the report, the gross earnings of the surface, 
elevated and subway lines for the period were in excess of 
$66,000,000. 

The following is a cc)mparative table of assets and liabilities 
from the reports of the street surface, elevated and subway 
railroads under the jurisdiction of the commission for the year 



ending June 30, 1907 : 

Cost of road and equipment $459,802,018 

Permanent investment, cash and other asserts 164,274,208 



Total assets $624,076,226 

Capital stock issued 270,617,350 

Funded debt 250,977,663 

Other liabilities 96,081,265 



Total liabilities $617,676,278 

Excess of assets 6,399,948 



riie following" is a comparative statement from the reports 
of the income account for the year ending June 30, 1907, of 



such companies : 

Earnings from operation : 

From passenger transportation $65,568,031 

Froi"n freight transportation 290,515 

From express transportation 132,559 

P"rom mail transportation 60,227 

From miscellaneous sources ' 42,443 



Gross earnings fron"i operation $66,093,776 

Operating expenses : 

Maintenance of ways and structures $4,303,898 

Maintenance of equipment 5,625,603 

Maintenance of power plant 6,107,673 

Operation of cars t,S,830,593 

General expense 6,145,293 



Total operating expense. $37,013,062 

Net earnings from operation 29,080,713 

Income from other sources 2,757,281 



Net income' $31,837,995 



According to the printed report of the State Board of Rail- 
road Commissioners for the year ending June 30, 1906, the total 
number of passengers carried by all the railroads of the state 
was 1,630,775,156, of which 105,757,957 were carried by the 
steam roads and 1,535,017,181 by the street surface, elevated and 
underground railroads. Of this 1,535,017,181, upwards of 80 
per cent, or 1,249,829,568, were carried by the railroads now- 
operated under the jurisdiction of this commission. From the 
reports filed for the year ending June 30, 1907, it appears that' 
the increase in passengers transported on these roads within 
the First District over the preceding year is 73,338,898, making 
a total of 1,323,273,368 passengers transported, daily average of 
upwards of 3,560,000 persons. 

A very large proportion of this daily traffic — conservatively 
estimated at 60 per cent, or something more than 2,000,000 — 
travels within the limits of four hours, 7.30 to 9.30 in the 
morning and 5 to 7 at night. At the time the commission 
came into office these companies were thus carrying passen- 
gers to the number of 500,000 an hour— more than 10 per cent 
of the entire population of the city — during some portions of 
the day. 

The report of the commission for the second district deals 
for the most part with the steam roads. In regard to the elec- 
tric railways the commission says it intends to cause annual 
inspection of each electric railroad within its jurisdiction. In 
its reference to the electric roads in the summary of the report 
the commission says : "A summary of the inspections made 
during the past six months will be published with the report. 
The inspections made include examination of track, roadbed, 
bridges, and other permanent structures, power-houses, car 
barns and repair shops, methods of operation, protection of 
grade crossings by steam roads, train dispatching, block signals, 
train rules, running schedules, discipline, sufficiency of service, 
and maintenance of equipment. The inspections show general 
improvement in track, roadbed and equipment of the electric 
roads in this dictrict. Where practicable, derailing devices 
have been required to be installed at grade crossings of electric 
and steam lines. The speed of su,burban and interurban roads 
has in recent years added greatly to the danger at highway 
crossings, and accidents at such crossings have materially in- 
creased. Greater consideration must be given in the future to 
protection of the public at crossings of this character. The 
part of the report devoted to electric lines also includes con- 
sideration in detail of bridges, trestles, structures, guard-rails 
and braces, power brakes, operation of trailer cars, single 
truck cars, height of car step, vestibules, the overhead trolley 
and third-rail systems, and high-potential or alternating-current 
systems. The commission is giving attention to the advisability 
of ordering" an increase in the equipment of electric cars, espe- 
cially those in high-speed service, with some form of power 
brakes. The subject of vestibules is also receiving attention. 
Some special statistics of electric roads are set forth in the 
report." 

. — 

Directors of the American Light & Traction Company have 
declared the regular quarterly dividend of per cent on the 
comrnon and preferred stocks, payable Feb. i to stockholders 
of record Jan. 24. 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. 4. 



PENNSYLVANIA'S TWO-CENT LAW DECLARED UNCON- 
STITUTIONAL 

Especially in States where two-cent fare laws on the railroads 
have been declared, will interest attach to the decision of the 
Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, handed down on Jan. 20, de- 
claring the two-cent law in that State unconstitutional. The 
opinion confirms the decision of the Common Pleas Court of 
Philadelphia, which was handed down last September. It de- 
clares that the real question is whether the law transgressed 
the provisions of the Constitution that the legislative power to 
alter charters shall be exercised only in such manner that no 
injustice shall be done to the corporators. Continuing, it says: 

"The court below found that the act does injustice to the 
corporators, in that it reduces the returns from the property 
to such an extent as to render it unremunerative. The cor- 
poration is entitled to make a fair profit on every branch of its 
business subject to the limitation that its corporate duties must 
be performed even though at a loss. The conclusion of the 
court below that the enforcement of the act of 1907 against the 
complainant would do injustice to the corporators is beyond 
just criticism." 

The two-cent fare law was enacted by the last Legislature. 
The railroads fought the bill, and after it became a law the 
Pennsylvania Railroad instituted suit in the Common Pleas 
Court of Philadelphia restraining the County of Philadelphia 
from enforcing the law. The railroad contended that the law 
was unconstitutional in that it was unreasonable and con- 
fiscatory. The county took the case to the State Supreme Court. 
•••♦^ 

NEW GOVERNOR OF NEW JERSEY RECOMMENDS PUBLIC 
UTILITIES COMMISSION 

John F. Fort was inaugurated Governor of New Jersey, at 
Trenton, Tuesday, Jan. 21. In his inaugural address Gov. Fort 
recommended moderation in dealing with the railroads and 
other corporations, and called for the creation of a public 
utilities bill which shall work wisely to the stockholder and the 
corporate interests. Another subject that received his attention 
was taxation. In regard to the public service bill, the Governor 
said : 

"A public utilities bill should be enacted that will meet all 
the demands of the most advanced thought upon governmental 
regulation of public utility corporations. Such a bill cannot 
harm such corporations, but will, in my view, strengthen them 
and theit" securities in public confidence. Of course, in the 
doing of these things it (the State) should act wisely and with 
conservatism, protecting all vested rights 'of property and the 
interests of the innocent holders of the securities of existing 
quasi-public corporations. Regulation, therefore, upon a wise 
basis, of the operation of these public utilities companies, in- 
cluding the fixing of rates and public charges, upon complaint, 
and subject to court review, should be intrusted to a proper 
board, as well as the right to regulate the output of stock and 
the bonded issues of such corporations. 

"If this were done it would inure to the benefit of the people 
and the companies, for it would fi.x the value of such securities 
and act as a guarantee against their depreciation. Under such 
a law the holders of existing securities would find them pro- 
tected, and new securities offered would have the confidence of 
the people, because of the guarantee of the State that they 
were only issued for extensions or betterments, and upon some 
basis of the cost of such extensions or betterments. It is 
difficult to suggest any legislation that would give greater con- 
fidence to the public and investors .than a wise public utilities 
bill; and the mere suggestion of its enactment should cause 
this class of security holders to feel that their holdings were 
strengthened, and that the State was about to aid the managers 
of its public utility corporations to conserve their corporate 
property for the public benefit and for the protection of invested 
capital. 

"There should be but one commission in the State for the 
regulation of railroads and all public utility companies, and, in 
case a new act is passed on this subject, it should embrace all 
the powers conferred upon the Board of Railroad Commission- 
ers under the act approved on May 15, 1907. The act of 1907 
is good as far as it goes, but its powers are not sufficiently 
broad or drastic to compel a compliance with its orders or to 
reach many matters over which it should have plenary control. 
The present method of enforcing orders, provided by the act 
of 1907, which requires proceedings in a court of equity, by a 



bill for specific performance, is so absurd as to be almost ludi- 
crous. Any order of the commission should become operative 
unless court review be commenced by the company afifected 
within a definite number of days, and, in default of proceedings 
for review or compliance with the order, a penalty should be 
imposed by the commission; the mere filing of the order for 
which in the Supreme Court should cause it to operate as a 
judgment against the property of the defaulting company, with 
the enforcement of this judgment by an execution out of the 
Supreme Court, as in the case of any other judgment. 

"With this sort of a public utilities bill, with a board of four 
commissioners, at a reasonable compensation, who should be 
required to devote all their time to the duties of the office, and 
three of whom should always be necessary to make any order, 
good results would be accomplished for the people." 

INDIANA DISCUSSION ON^THE RIGHT TO MAKE A 
SPECIAL FARE TO A PARK 

The Indiana Railroad Commission has had a close question 
to decide in the matter of rate discrimination. The Indiana 
Union Traction Company, which operates a line between' In- 
dianapolis and Broad Ripple, was alleged to have discriminated 
against the citizens of Broad Ripple in the matter of rates and 
the question was submitted to the commission. The commission 
sets forth that the fare between Indianapolis and Broad Ripple 
in each direction is 10 cents. It is set out also that by an agree- 
ment with the White City Company the fare from Indianapolis 
to White City and return is 10 cents, and that the citizens of 
Broad Ripple in order to obtain advantage of this fare must 
have their tickets validated in the White City Park, the ad- 
mission to the park being 10 cents. The commission, however, 
holds there is no well founded objections to the 10 cents round 
trip fare from Indianapolis to Broad Ripple Park, the purpose 
of this rate being to induce a flow of traffic from the city of 
235,000 inhabitants to a place of amusement and recreation ; the 
resort is lawful, well conducted and the object is to encourage 
patronage as it furnishes an additional point for recreation and 
rest for the residents of congested districts in the city. 



LEGISLATION IN OHIO 

Hon. Walter Ritchie, of Lima, Ohio, appeared before the 
Senate Committee on Taxation at Columbus a few days ago and 
argued aganist the passage of the Howe bill, which proposes to 
place a ta.x upon the franchises of interurban railroads and all 
other public service corporations. Mr. Ritchie said that such a 
law would be a death blow to one of the growing forces in the 
development of the state, and made an extended argument 
against anything that would retard interurban railway growth 
in the state. 

It is said that the bill introduced in the Senate by Senator 
Schmidt, of Cuyahoga County, will not only make it easy to 
secure rights of way in the streets of Cleveland, but that it will 
wipe out all the "sins of omission and commission" of the low- 
fare companies in the Forest City, including the financial in- 
terest claim aganist the Mayor. The companies will have a 
clean slate, if the bill goes through, and the long list of in- 
junction suits will then have no reason for existing. In effect, 
Mayor Johnson will succeed in legalizing his claim that where 
a franchise owned by one company expires in a street it can 
be renewed to another company. This idea, it will be remem- 
bered, was given the quietus by a court decision some time ago, 
and the Mayor was told that his companies would have to seek 
the consents of property owners and proceed in the same way 
as if no street railway had ever been operated on the street. 

A bill introduced in the General Assembly by Representative 
Kealy, of Hamilton County, seeks to confer power to regulate 
the service of street railway companies upon boards of public 
service. It is clamied that the law giving this authority to 
boards of public works was repealed with the Rogers so-year 
franchise law and that since that- time the municipal code 
statutes have contained nothing regarding it. 

The Wertz bill, establishing an initiative and referendum sys- 
tem in municipalities, provides that no ordinance or resolution 
granting any franchise or right to a public service corporation, 
and no measure involving the expenditure of money, shall take 
effect until sixty days after its passage, and in the meantime the 
measure may be submitted to a vote of the people on petition 
cf 10 per cent of the voters, and if a majority are opposed to 
the measure it shall not become effective. 



January 25, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



PUBLIC UTILITIES BILL INTRODUCED IN MASSACHUSETTS 



A public utilities commission similar to that created by the 
New York Legislature is provided for in a bill introduced in 
the Massachusetts Legislature Saturday, Jan. 18. It provides 
that the commission shall have supervision over railroads and 
street railroads, lying exclusively witliin the commonwealth. 
The commission is to consist of five members, appointed by 
the Governor, with the advice of the Council, and will be vested 
with the full power of a court in summoning witnesses and de- 
manding evidence. Causes of accidents on any railroad or 
street railway in which there is loss of life or injury to person 
or property shall be investigated by the commission. The com- 
mission may investigate or make inquiry in a manner to be de- 
termined by it as to any act or thing done or omitted to be 
done by a common carrier subject to its provisions or violation 
of any provision of law or any order of the commission. Com- 
plaints made by persons and forwarded to the commission shall 
be immediately sent to the person or corporation complained 
of, with an order that a satisfactory explanation be given in 
writing. If the charges demand investigation, the commission 
shall take' up the matter at a hearing. Whenever the commis- 
sion feels that rates, fare or charges of common carriers are 
unreasonable, it shall determine just rates and shall have the 
power to fix the same. The commission is to be vested with 
the power to approve issues of stock and bonds. All common 
carriers must obey the orders of the commission under penalty 
of $5,000 for each violation. It is provided that the act shall 
take effect July I, 1908. Power is given to the Governor to 
appoint and remove any commissioner for inefficiency, neglect 
of duty or misconduct in office. The commissioner shall have 
an opportunity to be heard publicly. The term of office shall 
be five years, but for the first commission the terms shall expire 
yearly from Feb. i, 1909, until Feb. i, 1913. The commission, it 
is provided, shall exercise all power heretofore conferred upon 
the board of railroad commissioners, telephone commissioner 
and the board of gas and electric commissioners. 

Several other bills affecting street railway companies have 
also been filed in the Legislature since the opening of the 
session Jan. i, but none have yet been disposed of. One of the 
first (House No. 25) revives interest in the project of Colonel 
Butler Ames, now in Congress, for a high-speed interurban 
electric railroad between Sullivan Square, Boston, and the cen- 
ter of Lowell. One of the difficulties previously encountered 
by the company was its inability to get from the edge of the 
Boston Elevated Railway territory to the heart of the traffic 
center without charging more than a 5-cent fare — the Boston 
Elevated rate — for that part of the ride. The bill now filed 
suggests that an attempt is to be made to get over this diffi- 
culty by securing legislation authorizing electric railroad com- 
panies organized under the laws of Massachusetts to build and 
operate "elevated or subway structures" longitudinally in the 
public ways of cities and towns with the approval of the local 
authorities and the Railroad Commissioners. The company 
must file plans with the local authorities ; these may be altered 
by the commissioners after thirty days, and if the local authori- 
ties neglect to act or refuse a location,.,the company, after three 
months, may appeal direct to the commission for a final decision 
in the matter. 

While this bill comes directly from the Ames people, it may 
prove effective in part at least for the Boston & Eastern Electric 
Railroad, which in its amended plans proposes entering Post 
Office Square, Boston, by way of a tunnel under the harbor 
from East Boston and a subway under the city proper. There 
is grave doubt whether the Railroad Commissioners have 
authority to grant any such location without additional legisla- 
tion, but the Ames bill, with one or two slight interpolations, 
would cover the rights now questioned for the Boston & 
Eastern. 

Two bills intended to provide band concerts in the Metro- 
politan Reservations at state expense are of interest to street 
railway companies, inasmuch as these concerts are no small fac- 
tor in developing summer business on the beach and park routes. 
One bill (Senate No. 23) merely authorizes the Metropolitan 
Park Commission to attend to the matter; the other (House 
No. 15) is imperative. Both mention $25,000 to meet the 
expense. 

House No. 75 aims to protect the public from falling electric 
wires by giving the Massachusetts Highway Commission 
authority to see that all such conductors of electricity are 



placed underground in conduits in all cities and towns of more 
than 25,000 population, on or before Jan. i, 1912. In the re- 
maining communities the requirement is to become effective two 
years later. The penalty named is a fine to be fixed at the dis- 
cretion of the court. 

The plan for a through avenue or boulevard across Cam- 
bridge and Somerville to connect the park system north of Bos- 
tor in developing summer business on t,he beach and park routes. 
No. 6, which names as termini Broadway Park, in Sorner- 
ville, and the Charles River, at or near Cottage Farm. Each 
time that this plan has been urged, it has provided for a 
double-track middle reservation for surface cars, which would 
be equivalent to an important trunk line for the Boston 
Elevated. 

Two bills contemplate reorganization of the Railroad Com- 
mission. House No. 41, on petition of James T. Heron, pro- 
vides that the commissioners shall be elected by the General 
Court and their expenses paid from the state treasury in- 
stead of being met by assessment on the railroad and railway 
corporations. The other, on petition of E. Moody Boynton, 
inventor of the bicycle railway, would abolish the commission 
and create a railroad court, composed of a chief justice and two 
associate justices, appointed by the Governor, with the consent 
of his executive council. The salaries mentioned are $7,500 
for the chief justice and $5,000 for each of the others. The 
bill provides for three expert assistants, at $2,500 each, to be 
appointed by the Governor. At present the chairman of the 
board receives $6,000, the two others $5,000 each, and the 
assistants are inspectors, whose appointment rests with the 
board. 

The first protest against the movement for higher street rail- 
way fares, now becoming general in Massachusetts, was set 
by the Railroad Commissioners for Jan. 22 at 10:30 a. m. 
It comes from the people of Stoughton, who object to the action 
of the Blue Hill Street Railway in raising the fares in their town 
from five cents to six, without extending fare limits. 



NEW TRANSFER SYSTEM IN NEW ORLEANS 



The New Orleans Railway & Light Company placed a new 
system of transfers in effect on Wednesday morning, January 
15. By the new arrangement the schedules and routes in force 
provide for practically tmiversal transfers at all intersecting 
lines, with the exception that one of the loop lines will not 
transfer to the other, though all loops will accept transfers 
from and give them to the terminal lines. Transfers on trans- 
fers will not be accepted. 

Prior to the inauguration of the system the company posted 
notices in its cars stating that booklets describing its working 
could be obtained at the general office on Baronne street. Sev- 
eral thousand of these booklets were in instant demand. The 
connections of all lines were tabulated in the booklets with the 
greatest care, to obtain accuracy in minute details and to fa- 
cilitate ready reference. 

When the inauguration of the system was announced the com- 
pany notified the public that transfers would be issued only on 
cash fares and at the time of collection. To facilitate this, con- 
ductors will distribute transfers while going through their cars 
for fares and punch them when returning from the rear plat- 
form. 

The principal transfer-using lines are the Henry Clay, Peters 
avenue and Village routes. With the launching of the new 
system motormen will stop at all receiving points, regardless of 
whether there are cars immediately behind or not. This decision 
was reached by the car service men among themselves at a 
recent meeting. 

On the evening of January 14 a meeting of the executive 
committee of the New Orleans Sewerage and Water Board was 
held, at which President Foster, of the railway compan}', dis- 
cussed the congestion of traffic arising from construction work 
on the streets. Mr. Foster stated that, as a rule, when excava- 
tions were made along streets where there are car tracks, vehicle 
traffic used the track as a roadway. Frequently heavy laden 
trucks and wagons get stalled, making it impossible to maintain 
schedules. He suggested that the engineer of the railway com- 
pany and the superintendent of the board map out the excava- 
tion work with the contractors so as to cause the least possible 
interference with both railway and vehicular traffic. The com- 
mittee expressed itself in accord with this plan. 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXI. No. 4. 



THE CLEVELAND SITUATION 



Last week the reports of committees in the street railway 
meetings before the City Council were lost sight of to a large 
degree, and the Mayor and F. H. Goff took matters into their 
own hands for a time. The most important question before 
them was the estimation of the overhead charges, and the two 
men found themselves far apart, with neither willing to concede 
on most of the items. Mr. Goff, as the representative of the 
Cleveland Electric, had fortified himself with opinions from 
prominent engineers on the subject of percentages and the 
charges for engineering services. He took this precaution be- 
cause he felt certain that he and Mayor Johnson would have 
greater difficulty in settling the question of overhead charges 
than any other that has yet come up. Mr. Goff's estimate of 
overhead charges, exclusive of brokerage and interest, was $2,- 
137,500, while Mayor Johnson's figures were $401,530. 

At a later meeting the two men agreed to refer the question 
of overhead charges to a committee of experts, to reconcile the 
difference of something like $1,700,000 between them. Mr. Goff 
said he wanted to go over the schedule and agree upon the 
items to be added, as suggested by the Mayor, and that he would 
prefer that it be referred to men who have heard the arguments. 
Mr. Christy and Mr. Andrews were suggested as men who 
understand these things. 

A. B. DuPont made a statement to the effect that the report 
on the Chicago street railway question was made up behind 
closed doors and that a valuation of $50,000,000 was decided 
upon, and the engineers were under the necessity of preparing 
figures that would produce this sum. To do so he said that the 
old cable lines were put in at their original cost or at the value 
they possessed when they were new and that the City Council 
accepted the figures. This is the first statement of any impor- 
tance that he has made regarding the work on that system, in 
which he aided in making a settlement. 

Mr. Goff also referred to the report made by Prof. Bemis and 
others on the Detroit lines, where the physical property was 
valued at $4,000,000, there being 176 miles of track. The Mayor 
said that this was the first work that Prof. Bemis had under- 
taken and that he had been called to Detroit just after leaving 
the Chicago University. 

In order to bring the settlement nearer Mr. Goff has conceded 
that the Corwin avenue ordinance does not extend the franchises 
of the old company on Woodland avenue and the West Side 
system to 1910, as has been contended, but that they expire on 
February 10, 1908, as Mayor Johnson and City Solicitor Baker 
have argued. Mayor Johnson, in turn, stated that he would not 
take advantage of the decision of Judge Chapman, which is in 
his favor, but at the same time does not amount to so much as 
the contention for the West Side franchises for two years. 
Under the Chapman decision it was claimed that the Woodland 
and Scovill avenue cars would not be able to reach the Public 
Square. Relinquishing the claim, however, gives them rights 
until 1913 and in some cases until 1914. Mr. Goff made the con- 
cession as a waiver and not because he admitted that the com- 
pany does not have the right to stand for just what has been 
claimed. The Tayler rule, regarding franchises outside of the 
city, was also discussed to some extent, but no decision has 
been arrived at in regard to it. Both men feel that they will be 
able to come to some conclusion on franchise values, however. 

Regarding the paving done by the Cleveland Electric, the 
Mayor said that, applying a harsh rule, if consents are paid for, 
then paving should also be paid for. He said he was willing 
to pay whatever it would cost to acquire the same amount of 
paving. Robert Hoffman, city engineer and member of the 
committee on paving valuation, reported the value of the Cleve- 
land Electric paving at $1,814,659. 



LECTURES ON THE ELECTRIFICATION OF STEAM 
RAILWAYS AT U. OF M. 



Edward P. Burch, electric railway engineer, is giving a course 
of lectures to the senior electrical engineering students at the 
University of Minnesota on "Electric Traction for Heavy Rail- 
way Service." These lectures supplement the regular course in 
electric railways by Professor Springer, and include the fol- 
lowing subjects: "Introduction," "Advantages of Electric 
Traction," "Characteristics of Steam Locomotives," "Charac- 
teristics of Electric Locomotives," "Problems of Electrification," 
"Load Factor," "Cost of Steam and Water Power," "Power 



Plants and Transmission Lines," "Plans of Complete Electrifica- 
tion" and "Data Sheets." 



RUMOR OF TERMINAL FOR CINCINNATI 

Plans are said to be on foot in Cincinnati to organize a ter- 
minal company to build a common entrance to the city for inter- 
urban lines and a passenger and express station to cost $500,000. 
For some time Cincinnatians have been endeavoring to get rid 
of that part of the Miami & Erie Canal lying within the city or 
convert it into a parkway of some kind, in order to improve 
its appearance. Now the idea is to turn the water from this 
canal into Mill Creek and use the ground for a double-track 
terminal line to enter the heart of the city. This could be done 
by the city's purchasing the portion of the canal land within its 
limits or a purchase or lease of the land by the terminal com- 
pany. 

Of course, these reports are largely speculative, but it is said 
that the syndicate represented by W. Kelsey Schoepf stands 
ready to construct the terminal tracks and the interurban station 
at a cost of $500,000, if arrangements can be made for the use 
of this land for the tracks. The Cincinnati Northern Traction 
lines are but a short distance from the point where the canal 
crosses the city line, so this would form an entrance for the 
whole extensive system of this syndicate. Provision would be 
made for the entrance of all other lines now in operation or 
any to be constructed in the future, provided they are not 
direct competitors of the Schoepf lines. The basis suggested for 
their use in this way is three cents for each passenger for the 
use of the entrance lines and one cent each for the use of the 
station. Expressage could be handled on the basis of weight. 


EFFECT OF NEW TUNNEL ON BROOKLYN TRAFFIC 

Vice-President Calderwood, of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit 
Company, issued last Saturday the following statement regard- 
ing the effect on the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company of the 
opening of the new subway extension from the Battery, New 
York, to Brooklyn, under the East River: 

"The receipts of the company have compared very favorably 
with last year. Thus the gross receipts and operating cost do 
not appreciably reflect the weight of tunnel service as 2 trans- 
portation factor. 

"So far as the traffic is concerned there has, of course, been 
a change in the nature of the distribution. This, while more 
definitely ascertainable than the revenue side of the proposition, 
is somewhat confusing on account of the probable considerable 
number who are impelled by curiosity to make use of the sub- 
way service from Borough Hall. 

"We have found a decrease in bridge traffic in the midday. 
This, I take it, indicated that some shoppers are making use of 
the subway service. There is also during these hours a con- 
siderable falling off in traffic to and from South, Hamilton, 
Wall and Fulton ferries. On the other hand, our midday traffic 
in the borough keeps up very well, indicating that we are 
bringing this traffic to the subway instead of to the bridge and 
ferries. We anticipated a somewhat similar change in the after 
dinner and late theater travel, and provided service accordingly. 
Somewhat to my surprise, while there was a considerable trans- 
fer at the Borough Hall in the early evening, travel was not 
what was anticipated about midnight. 

"We have found similar surprises in the effect of redistribu- 
tion of travel over the surface lines. Some lines which it is 
believed would be affected, as Gates Avenue, Fulton Street and 
Putnam Avenue lines, showed increased receipts, while the 
Graham and Flushing Avenue lines, which do not provide direct 
service to Borough Hall, seem to be otherwise affected. This is 
possibly a result of people traveling to and from the Eastern 
District adopting entirely new routes. 

"There has, of course, been something of a decrease in sur- 
face traffic on the Brooklyn Bridge, with the result that the 
cars have been handled with greater regularity and despatch, 
which, of course, means much for the traveling public. 

"At the two elevated stations in Fulton Street additional sta- 
tion force was provided for the sale and collection of tickets, 
and substitution of chopping boxes provides freer passage to 
and from the platforms. We think that the arrangements as 
now made will enable us to handle the business there until the 
new central Borough Hall station, plans for which are well 
under way, is constructed." 



January 25, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



153 



MEETING OF THE WISCONSIN ELECTRIC AND INTER- 
URBAN RAILWAY ASSOCIATION 

The Wisconsin Electric and Interurhan Railway Association 
met at Milwaukee on Jan. 15 to consider what steps should be 
taken to best protect the interests of the electric railways in the 
State in the matter of a uniform system of accounts and reports 
proposed by the State Railroad Commission, and in the adjust- 
ment of rates for public utilities. Only about 15 members were 
in attendance, and the discussion was informal. The chair- 
man, B. F. Parker, of Green Bay, appointed a committee con- 
sisting of Henry D. Smith, of Appleton ; B. G. Broad, of She- 
boygan, and J. Carson, of Superior, to act with a similar com- 
mittee of three members of the Northwestern Electrical Asso- 
ciation in conferring with the State Railroad Commission be- 
fore final action is taken on these matters. A committee was 
also appointed to draft a new constitution under which the 
Interurban Association and the Northwestern Electrical Asso- 
ciation could be combined into one state association, having for 
members both railway and central station properties. 



THE NEW HAVEN ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT 

It was announced last week that the Westinghouse Electric & 
Manufacturing Company had taken charge of the operation of 
the single-phase electrical equipment of the New Haven Rail- 
road. The company will take charge of the electrical apparatus 
for a period, it is said, of six months for the purpose of demon- 
strating its effectiveness. The plan went into effect Jan. 15. 

At the New York office of the Westinghouse company the fol- 
lowing statement was confirmed as official : 

"The report that the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing 
Company has placed its own men in charge of the operation of 
the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad's electrical 
equipment on the New York division is true fundamentally. 
But this must not be taken to mean that the railroad has raised 
any serious objections to the working of the equipment fur- 
nished by this company. The relations of the two companies are 
entirely harmonious, and it was at the request of the New 
Haven's executives that our experts were furnished to assist 
their own employees in overcoming the minor difficulties of 
operation that have been encountered." 

The following statement from the New Haven company was 
also authorized: "Ever since the installation of the electric 
service on the New York division of the New Haven system the 
Westinghouse company has had supervision of its operation and 
maintenance and will continue such supervision." 



ATTEMPT TO DEFRAUD IN WASHINGTON 

By the arrest in Washington and New York on Jan. 18, 1908, 
of three men the police of the two cities believe they have 
stopped a very clever scheme to defraud the Washington Rail- 
way & Electric Company of Washington. This company sells 
six tickets for a quarter and has its tickets printed by a bank 
note company, of which one of the men arrested was superin- 
tendent of the engraving department. Through this connec- 
tion he was able to admit one of the others to the bank note 
company's plant at night, where they abstracted tickets to the 
value of several thousands of dollars. These tickets were 
shipped to Washington to the third conspirator who was an ex- 
conductor and whose business it was to dispose of them, the 
proceeds being divided among the prisoners. 

Information came to the office of the railway company to- 
ward the end of November that counterfeit or stolen tickets 
were being dealt in, and the matter was placed in the hands of 
Drummond's Detective Agency of New York City. Mr. Drum- 
mond's personal investigation speedily convinced him that the 
tickets were not counterfeit but were genuine and that the 
source of supply must have been some one in the bank note 
company. Further work on the case discovered the superinten- 
dent of the engraving department as the connecting link between 
the company and the outsiders. After that the matter was plain 
sailing. 

A search of the house of the engraver is said to have re- 
vealed a large number of tickets as well as finely engraved 
plates and dies. 

Independent of the information which the railway company 
had, the bank note company, through its effective system of 
checking its work, discovered that something was wrong with 



these railway tickets and at once notified the Washington Rail- 
way & Electric Company, and thereafter co-operated in every 
way that lay in its power. Both the railway company and the 
bank note company are determined that, as far as they can do 
so, these men shall be punished to the full extent of the law. 



INTERNATIONAL ELECTRICAL EXPOSITION AT 
MARSEILLES 



Plans are being completed to open an international electrical 
exposition at Marseilles, France, on April 19, 1908. The expo- 
sition will remain open until Oct. 31, 1908. It is under the 
sanction and authority of the French Government and the City 
of Marseilles, and will occupy a large park called the "Rond 
Point du Prado" at the disposal of the committee. This park, 
with a superficial area of 60 acres, was, in 1906, the site of the 
brilliant and successful French Colonial Exhibition, whose 
buildings will be used for the electrical exposition. Others have 
also been erected. 

The exposition will be devoted entirely to applications of elec- 
tricity, and will be divided into 17 departments. Exhibits from 
American manufacturers are especially invited in the depart- 
ments of traction, mining and lifting. The management propose 
to give to the section for electric traction a particularly large 
space, this being amply justified by the fact that Marseilles, as 
the pioneer of electric traction in France, is now in possession 
of a street railway system which includes 155 miles of single 
track, and of which the generating and sub-stations, as well as 
the car shops, will be visited with interest. Mr. Dabs, general 
manager of the Marseilles Tramway Company, is one of the 
commissioners of the exposition. Paul Dieny, commissioner for 
the United States, Park Row Building, New York, will an- 
nounce the names of the American committee later. 



COMPLETING THE TOLEDO, FOSTORIA & FINDLAY 

The 16-mile extension of the Toledo, Fostoria & Findlay 
Railway, from Pemberville to Toledo, has been completed to 
Toledo city limit, with the exception of a few hundred feet 
over the overhead structure across the Hocking Valley Railroad, 
near LeMoyne, and a short stretch under the Lake Shore & 
Michigan Southern tracks near Toledo. Had it not been for 
these two grade separations the line would have been in 
operation several months ago. The work upon these structures 
is being done by the steam roads and has been much delayed 
by bad weather. The overhead structure spoken of is ap- 
proached by earth embankments, instead of by the usual trestle. 
The steel bridge, upon concrete abutments, being erected by 
the Hocking Valley road, will be 125 ft. long and span the 
entire right of way. The subway under the four tracks of 
the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern will also be of concrete, 
with four 24-inch I-beams under each rail. The electric gradi- 
ents at each of these separations are 4 per cent. At no other 
point on the line does the grade exceed i per cent, and even this 
figure is approached only in two places and for a short distance. 

The track is entirely upon private right of way, except through 
the village of Wallbridge, a suburb of Toledo, the width being 
50 ft. At times, to maintain the line, it was necessary to cut 
directly through the centers of farms. As a result a 6-mile 
tangent resulted. The line has heretofore been operated by 
direct current from Fostoria. With the addition of the new- 
mileage the line is 48 miles long, and to solve the power 
question the company has erected at Pemberville a 400-kw sub- 
station, buying the alternating current from the Lake Shore 
Electric. A 6-nnle transmission line has been put in between 
that point and Woodville; and at the Toledo end, near where 
the line is paralleled by the Lake Shore Electric, a direct-cur- 
rent feed line from that ipad supplies current. 

The road is well equipped with cars, having ten modern 
coaches and a number of open cars for summer use. Four 
new cars recently received from the Niles Car Works are 51 
ft. long and equipped with four 93-A motors, geared to 55 
miles per hour. The ballast on the line is crushed stone 
and is obtained from quarries on the line. The quantity 
used is 1800 yards to the mile. J. E. Reeves, of Canal Dover, 
Ohio, is the president, and A. J. Krantz, of the same place, 
secretary and treasurer of the company. F. W. Adams, of 
Fostoria, Ohio, is vice-president and general manager, in 
charge of both operation and construction. 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. [Vol. XXXL No. a. 



154 

WESTINGHOUSE COMMITTEE AGREES ON BOND PLAN 

The Committee of Creditors of the Westinghouse Electric & 
Manufacturing Company, which has been working out a plan 
for the readjustment of the company's debt since shortly after 
the appointment of receivers last October, made its plan public 
Monday, Jan. 20. As has already been made known, the con- 
summation of the plan is conditioned upon the payment of 
$7,000,000 of new capital into the treasury for stock which, it 
has been understood. President George Westinghouse and his 
friends are to take up. It is also provided that the new board 
of directors shall meet with the approval of the committee, and 
it is specified that the future election of directors to the satisfac- 
tion of the creditors be insured by the creation of a voting trust 
or similar device. It now remains to secure the assent of the 
various classes of creditors to the readjustment plan, and to 
obtain the new capital needed. The committee reserves the 
power to modify the provisions of the published plan should it 
be found impracticable. The officers of the Westinghouse 
Company are said to have expressed their confidence in the 
acceptance of the reorganization plan, and look for the early 
discharge of the receivers. 

The statement of unsecured deljt is as follows : 

Ccnvertible sinking fund 5 per cent gold bonds, due Jan. 

I, 1931 - $18,500,000 

Five per cent gold debenture certificates, due July i, 1913... 1,969,000 

Kills payable $9,209,766.21 

Accounts payable, about 3,952,843.13 

Indebtedness of subsidiary companies, subscrip- 
tions to stocks or bonds of subsidiary companies 
and indorsements of notes of subsidiary com- 
panies and other obligations, for which pro- 
vision should be made, about 1,368,390.66 

Total floating debt, about 14,531,000 

Total unsecured debt to be provided for. about $35,000,000 

As has been known for a week, the new securities which are 
to provide for the unsecured debt are to take the form of a 
twenty-five-year bond issue, bearing 5 per cent interest. These 
bonds are to be secured by a first mortgage upon the principal 
manufacturing plants of the company and by the pledge of the 
greater part of the company's unpledged stocks and bonds of 
subsidiary and other companies. Although the convertible bonds 
outstanding are only $18,500,000, $20,469,000 of the new issue is 
to carry the conversion privilege, after Jan. I, 1910, in order to 
give the holders of the $1,969,000 existing debenture certificates 
the option of exchanging for bonds with or without the con- 
version feature. The amount of the issue which will be re- 
quired to take care of the floating debt is estimated at 
$14,531,000. 

The receivers and the lioard of directors have approved the 
plan, which has also been submitted to Kuhn, Loeb & Company 
as the representatives of large amounts of the collateral trust 
notes. 

The directors of the British Westinghouse Electric & Manu- 
facturing Company have issued a plan for financing that com- 
pany's needs independently of the American company. An 
issue of $1,500,000 prior lien debentures is authorized to be used 
as follows : 

To repay advances from bankers $500,000 

To meet .accounts payable now due 550,000 

To meet additional requirements on account of expansion of 

business 450,000 



Total $1,500,000 

The new securities were authorized at a meeting of the de- 
benture stockholders on Dec. 18. In order that the whole of 
this amount might be available for present and future needs, 
the American companies agree to accept in liquidation of the 
amounts due them, approximately $931,870, shares of the Trac- 
tion & Power Securities Company (an asset of the company) 
at par. 

The eleven months of the present year show a trading profit 
of $380,000 and a net profit of approximately $88,900, after pro- 
viding for interest on loans and debenture interest. The board 
states that there has been a considerable improvement in the 
affairs of the company, and that the directors believe that, 
barring unfavorable developments in industrial conditions, the 
position of the company will continue to improve. 



WEAR OF TROLLEY WIRES WITH SLIDING CONTACT 



In making some changes and repairs in the overhead line con- 
struction on the Indianapolis & Cincinnati, near Connersville, 
Ind., a few short lengths of trolley wire were recently removed 
after having been in service for more than three years. It is 
estimated that in that time about 39,000 car movements were 
made under the wire, each car taking about 40 amperes, at 3300 
volts, single-phase alternating current. A bow trolley with 
aluminum sliding contactor is used outside of Indianapolis. The 
wire removed showed only slight wear, an almost imperceptible 
flattening, a little to one side of the center, due to the fact that 
the pieces taken out were on a curve. The surface in contact 
with the trolley was fairly smooth with some grooving and 
occasional small pieces of aluminum embedded in the copper. 
There were no signs of pitting or burns from arcs. The 
surface of the wire not in contact with the trolley was covered 
with dirt collected from construction locomotives and other 
causes. The loss in weight was trifling, being less than i per 
cent. The sample was secured through the courtesy of Charles 
L. Henry, president of the Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction 
Company. 



INCREASE IN CAPITAL IN MONTREAL 



The directors of the ^Montreal Street Railway Company have 
decided to ask the authorization of the shareholders to issue 
$1,000,000 new stock, and a special meeting of the shareholders 
has been called for Wednesday, Jan. 29, for that purpose. 
It is proposed to issue the new stock at 125, or at a premium 
of 25 per cent over the par value, and the stock will be allotted 
pro rata to shareholders of record at a date to be hereafter 
decided. It is also announced that the directors have sold in 
London $2,300,000 4^/2 per cent debenture bonds, due in 1922, at 
92%, and the shareholders will also be asked at the special 
meeting to authorize the issue and sale of these bonds. It is the 
intention of the directors to use the proceeds to extinguish the 
floating indebtedness of the company, amounting to some $1,- 
800,000, which, according to the last annual statement, includes 
$300,000 of bonds due on March I, $1,000,000 notes sold in 
England last June, and $500,000 owing the Bank of Montreal. 
After the paying off of the floating indebtedness there will be a 
lialance of some $500,000, which will be available for the im- 
provement and extension of the system. The authorized capital 
of the company is $18,000,000, of which $9,000,000 has been 
issued, so that, including the new issue, the paid-up capital will 
be $10,000,000. 



CHANGES IN OPERATING DEPARTMENT METHODS IN 
RHODE ISLAND 



The Rhode Island Company, of Providence, R. I., announces a 
number of changes in the methods of its operating department, 
deemed advisable owing to the fact that many of the individual 
car houses are nearly as large at the present time as the divi- 
sions were when the system of division superintendents, having 
jurisdiction over several car houses, was first inaugurated. It is 
hoped that the change will prove beneficial, as it will enable the 
superintendent of transportation to take up matters of disci- 
pline, etc., direct witli the man in charge of the employes at 
each station. 

Foremen of the various car barns of the company will assume 
immediate charge and supervision of the lines running out of 
these barns, and the "divisions" and division superintendents are 
to be abolished. Under this change the third division now in 
charge of F. H. Brown will be no longer in charge of that 
official. He will simply attend to his duties as superintendent of 
the Pawtucket Street Railway. A. F. Searls, now first division 
superintendent of the Elmwood, Riverpoint and South Provi- 
dence barns, will take direct charge of the lines that run solely 
out of the Elmwood barn. Foreman G. R. Jerolman becomes 
superintendent of the lines operated from the Riverpoint barn. 
J. M. Rounds becomes superintendent of the South Providence 
barn. Division No. 2, composed of Cranston, Mount Pleasant 
and Olneyville lines, is to have three superintendents, as No. i. 
B. D. Sweet, formerly in charge of the division, becomes super- 
intendent of the Mount Pleasant service. W. T. Mathewson 
will succeed to charge of the Olneyville lines, from which B. D. 
Sweet goes to Mount Pleasant, by preference, and B. M. Taylor 



January 25, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



T55 



will handle the Cranston lines. J. H. Chamberlain is to have 
charge of the line leaving the North Main street barn, and 
James F. Downes will have charge of the Traverse street center. 
Andrew Potter becomes superintendent of the Riverside terri- 
tory. 



STREET RAILWAY PATENTS 



UNITED STATES PATENTS ISSUED JANUARY 14, 1908. 

[This department is conducted by Rosenbaum & Stockbridge, 
patent atorneys, 140 Nassau Street, New York.] 

876,387. Brake Setting Apparatus for Railways; John J. 
McNamee, Norwood, Ohio. App. filed Aug. 5, 1907- An elec- 
trical device for operating the brakes in conjunction with a 
Westinghouse air-brake and which may be readily actuated by 
an employee, not upon the car, to set the brakes, and may then 
be readily reset by the engineer or motorman of the train. 

876,397. Vestibule-Door and Platform Controlling Mechan- 
ism; Frank C. Reynolds, Columbus, Ohio. App. filed March 

II, 1907. By the movement of a single lever the trap door 
provided for closing the space at the top of the car steps may be 
first swung up against the end of the car and the door may 
then be swung back against said trap door. 

876,419. System of Automatic Block Signaling for Rail- 
ways ; Samuel M. Young, New York, N. Y. App. filed Nov. i, 
1907. A signaling system for a trackway having a plurality of 
pairs of tracks divided into block sections and having a single 
source of energy for' the signals and controlling mechanism, in 
which the traffic rails of each section constitute separate con- 
ductors for the track circuits and a joint track return for the 
signaling current. 

876,456. Brake Applying Mechanism; James M. Hines, Al- 
bany, N. Y. App. filed Oct. 23, 1907. Relates to brake-applying 
mechanism for four-wheel trucks provided with attachments 
for automatically taking up the slack in the system due to wear 
of the brake-shoes, stretching of the brake-rods, etc. 

876,489. Electric Railway System; Samuel B. Rappleye and 
John J. Devine, Philadelphia, Pa. App. filed Nov. 22, 1906. An 
inverted U-shaped supporting device for the trolley or con- 
ductor is attached to the web of the traction rail. 

876,492. Trolley Pole Controller; Oscar A. Ross, Chicago, 

III. App. filed Jan. 12, 1906. The pole is mounted on a swivel- 
ing support on the roof of the car and has a trip connection with 
its operating spring so that it drops in case of an undue up- 
ward movement. 

876,594. Control System; George B. Schley, Norwood, Ohio. 
App. filed Dec. 31, 1906. A multiple unit train control system 
having pneumatically operated main controllers operated by a 
master controller of the engineers' valve type. 

876,600. Trolley Guard; Charles W. Sheehan, Lubec, Maine. 
App. filed Oct. II, 1907. Yielding guard arms are mounted on 
each side of the trolley wheel, said arms carrying at their top 
elastically yielding gates which close over the conductor. 

876,659. Electric Railway; Orlando D. Prescott, New York, 
N. Y. App. filed May 25, 1906. Relates to the construction of 
a spring mounted shoe for under-side engagement with a third- 
rail. 

876,684. Block Signal Apparatus; Alexander Bevan, Provi- 
dence, R. I. App. filed March 8, 1907. Adapted for use on 
single-track trolley roads to warn cars from entering a block 
from opposite directions. Is applicable to "space" cars or 
trains on double-track roads. Has circuit-closing devices ac- 
tuated by the trolley wheel. 

876,703. Engineer's Brake Valve ; Frank H. Dukesmith, 
Meadville, Pa. App. filed Dec. 28, 1905. In addition to the 
usual functions, the engineer's valve controls the engine brakes 
independently of the train brakes, both as to application and 
release, and enables the engine brakes to be quickly released in 
case of a burst hose or emergency application of the brakes. 

876,722. Trolley ; Joseph H. Kroen, Monaco, Pa. App. filed 
July 23, 1906. Upwardly projecting guard arms mounted on 
the trolley harp carry vertically pivoted rollers on either side of 
the trolley wheel. 



876,730. Car Brake Operating Mechanism; Nocklos Rushe, 
Rankin, Pa. App. filed Oct. 28, 1907. A manually operated 
brake for freight cars providing mechanism for retaining the 
brake handle in a fixed position after it has been moved, with- 
out the use of a ratchet wheel, pawl, dog or similar device. 
Uses a gear wheel and reinforced worm. 

876,830. Switch Stand and Signaling Device Therefor; Plarry 
C. Odenkirk, Cleveland, Ohio. App. filed Oct. 15, 1906. Re- 
lates to means for operating the signaling device. 

876,841. Observation-Swing; Winfield S. Ritch, New York, 
N. Y. App. filed Nov. 9, 1907. Details of a pleasure swing. 

876,871. Car Vestibule Door and Trap; Charles E. Griffith, 
Philadelphia, Pa-. App. filed Aug. 20, 1907. The trap is hinged 
to the car and also has a vertically adjustable hinged connec- 
tion with the door. 

876,876. Automatic Pressure Retaining and Graduating Re- 
lease Device for Air-Brakes ; Even B. Hillman and Louis E. 
Roberts, Chico, Cal. App. filed Feb. 14, 1907. Provides means 
whereby the brakes may be applied instantly after having been 
released, and the second application of the brakes secured with 
fully as great a pressure as was employed in the last preceding 
application. 



PERSONAL MENTION 



Mr. G. E. MILLER has resigned as superintendent of the 
Union Electric Company, of Dubuque, la., to accept the position 
of general superintendent of the Chattanooga Railways Com- 
pany, of Chattanooga, Tenn. 

MR. ARTHUR H. MANN has been appointed general master 
mechanic of the Michigan United Railways, with headquarters 
in Albion, Mich., in charge of the Kalamazoo, Battle Creek and 
Albion shops of the company. 

MR. P. C. DOLAN has been elected president of the Pitts- 
field Street Railway Company, of Pittsfield, Mass., to succeed 
the late Mr. Joseph Tucker. Mr. Dolan has for some time been 
general manager of the company. 

THE INTERBOROUGH-METROPOLITAN COMPANY 
has re-elected six of the retiring directors for a term of three 
years. Mr. August Belmont. Jr., was elected a director to fill 
a long-standing vacancy. The directors re-elected are : Messrs. 
E. Mora Davison, H. M. Fisher, W. Leon Pepperman. Theodore 
P. Shouts. R. .\. C. Smith and George W. Young. 

THE INTER-URBAN RAILWAY COMPANY, of Des 
Moines, la., announces that the positions of general freight 
agent, general passenger agent, superintendent and general road- 
master have been abolished, and the following new positions 
created, viz. : Traffic manager, in charge of freight, passenger 
and industrial departments ; general agent, in charge of the Des 
Moines station, and superintendent track and motive power, in 
charge of track, buildings and equipment. The following ap- 
pointments have been made to these positions: R. A. Belding, 
traffic manager ; J. F. Johnston, general agent ; Geis Botsford, 
industrial agent; E. B. Beighler, ticket auditor; F. S. Eberhart, 
superintendent track and motive power. 

MR. B. M. BROWN, who, as recently noted in the Street 
Railway Journal, has been appointed general superintendent 
of the Cincinnati Northern Traction Company, began street 
I'ailroading in 1894 with tiie Columbus Street Railway, at Co- 
lumbus, Ohio, as motorman. After two years he was promoted 
to division foreman, which position he occupied until December, 
1902, when he became superintendent of transportation of the 
Dayton, Springfield & Urbana and the Urbana, Bellefontaine & 
Northern, with headquarters at Springfield, Ohio. A year and a 
half later Mr. Brown was transferred to Columbus and became 
superintendent of the Columbus, London & Springfield and the 
Columbus, Grove City & Southwestern, occupying this position 
until August, 1906, when he was again transferred and became 
superintendent of the Dayton & Western and the Dayton & 
Northern, now the western district of the Ohio Electric Railway. 
On Jan. 15, in addition to the last mentioned, he became super- 
intendent of the Cincinnati Northern Traction Company, with 
headquarters still remaining at Dayton. Previous to entering 
electric railroading Mr. Brown was in train service on steam 
roads in the South. 



156 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Vol. XXXL No. 4. 



NEWS OF THE WEEK 



CONSTRUCTION NOTES 



Items in this department are classified geographically by 
States, with an alphabetical arrangement of cities under each 
State heading. 

For the convenience of readers seeking information on par- 
ticular subjects, the character of the individual item is indi- 
cated as follows : 

* Proposed roads not previously reported. 

o Additional information regarding new roads. 

t Extensions and new equipment for operating roads. 

Numerals preceding these signs indicate items referring to: 

1. Track and roadway. 

2. Cars, trucks and rolling stock equipment. 

3. Power stations and sub-stations. 

4. Car houses and repair shops. 

5. Parks and amusement attractions. 

ifLOS ANGELES, CAL. — Arrangements have been completed by 
which the yellow cars of the Los Angeles Railway Company will be run 
into Glendale within a month. These cars will run on an extension of the 
Eagle Rock line and will enter Glendale by way of the Verdugo road. 
Turning westward on a private right of way between Third and Fourth 
Streets the cars will run to Belmont Street. The service on the line is 
to be half hourly through from Los Angeles. 

tLOS ANGELES, CAL. — The Pacific Electric Railway Company is ex- 
pending about $40,000 in the installation of interlocking and derailing 
switches and semiphores at the two railroad crossings on the Long Beach 
line. 

ifLGS ANGELES, CAL. — The Los Angeles-Pacific Railway Company 
has started work on a line to Toluca from Santa Monica Avenue. 

tMONROVIA, CAL. — The Pacific Electric Railway Company has just 
completed a station in Monrovia at a cost of $6,000. It is in the modified 
mission style of architecture, and is built of reinforced cement, with red 
enameled metal tile roof. Its dimensions are 121 ft. x 26 ft. Besides the 
business office, there are inclosed and open-air waiting rooms, express 
and freight storage rooms and a covered loading platform. The interior 
is finished in oak, with mission style benches. A double roof and solid 
walls, ten inches thick, insure coolness in summer and warmth in winter. 

3tRICHM0ND, CAL.— The East Shore & Suburban Railway Company 
has just purchased from the General Electric Company a 500-kw motor 
generator, complete with switchboards, and three 200-kw transformers, 
10,000 to 440 volts. 

*RICHMOND, CAL. — The Trustees have passed an ordinance granting 
to John NichoU a franchise for an electric street railway. 

ifSAN DIEGO, CAL. — Petitions were filed with the city clerk several 
days ago by the San Diego Electric Railway Company asking for exten- 
sions of time for the completion of the construction of the car lines on 
First and State, between D and H Streets, to Oct. i, and of the Old 
Town line, from Winder, on India, to Congress and Smith Streets, to 
Oct. 22. 

tSAN FRANCISCO, CAL.— The Ocean Shore Railway now extends up 
the coast from Santa Cruz to the new town of Folger, a distance of twenty 
miles. From San Francisco end cars are regularly run to the San 
Pedro Valley, and the work of extending the line is being carried on 
steadily. While 80 per cent of the work is completed, it is necessary for 
the company to sell bonds in order to finish in the thorough manner 
planned. The bonds are being offered to local investors on the installment 
plan and are being sold rapidly in this manner. 

tSAN FRANCISCO, CAL. — As soon as the franchises of the proposed 
electric system of the Southern Pacific Company are granted, it is an- 
nounced, the actual work of construction in Alameda will commence. 
1 he changing of the motive power from steam to electricity will first start 
in Alameda, and then the change will be made in Oakland and Berkeley, 
according to the information furnished. With the changing of the steam 
system there will also be a change in the manner in which the trains 
from other points in the county are handled. The electric service is to be 
extended ultimately as far east as Niles, and all electric trains are to run 
to the Alameda mole to allow the better handling of the freight and over- 
land passenger trains at the Oakland pier. The plans for the power house 
to be situated at the estuary shore have been completed, and immediately 
after the granting of the franchise in Alameda it is said that work will 
commence on its erection. It is possible that the franchises will be 
passed at the first meeting. 

tSAN JOSE, CAL. — ^The City Council has given first reading to an 
ordinance providing for the disfranchisement of the San Jose Railroad 
Company, which operates five miles of electric car lines within the cor- 
porate limits. The road is owned by the Hibernia Savings Bank of San 



Francisco. The ordinance empowers the mayor to cash the company's 
forfeit check and turn the money over to the general fund. The company 
was given a standard-gage franchise twenty-two months ago. 

fDENVER, COL. — Plans have been about completed for the construc- 
tion of a viaduct at Twenty-third Street, which is to bring the Denver & 
Interurban Railroad into the city. No definite date has been set for 
beginning construction work on the viaduct. 

oWASHINGTON, D.'C.- The application for a permit of the Wash- 
ington, Spa Spring & Gretta Electric Railroad Company to begin work 
on that line has been approved by Engineer Commissioner Morrow. Be- 
fore the permit will be granted a deposit of $500 will be required. The 
road will be constructed along the lines approved by Commissioner Mor- 
row. The railway will run along the Bladensburg Road, from H Street 
to the District line and to Spa Spring. B. D. Stevens, of Riverdale, Md., 
is president of this company. 

oACWORTH, GA. — Austin Granville, of New York, has petitioned the 
Acworth Council for a franchise to run an electric railway through the 
streets of Acworth. It is proposed to run the electric railway from 
Acworth to Kennesaw, Lena, Noonday, Elizabeth, thence to Marietta, and 
north to connect with Allatoona, Bartow, Hugo, Emerson to Cartersville. 
A part of the track has already been laid and a large amount of the 
machinery ordered. Work will be pushed forward at once. 

oATLANTA, GA.— The Atlanta, Norcross & Gainesville Railroad Com- 
pany has been organized to construct an electric railway from Atlanta to 
Gainesville, a distance of about fifty miles. It will be run through Cham- 
blee and Boraville in DeKalb County, Norcross and Buford in Gwinnett 
County, and thence into Hall County. The capital stock of the line will 
be $15,000, with the right reserved of increasing this amount to any the 
incorporators may decide upon. Th«: incorporators are of Hall County 
and are H. D. Jaquish, C. C. Sanders, W. B. Smith, J. H. Hunt, R. 
Smith, A. J. Mundy, H. B. Smith, M. M. Ham, J. W. Bailey, H. H. 
Dean and L. B. Stevens. 

itMACON, GA. — It is said that the directors of the Macon Railway & 
Light Company are contemplating the extension' of the Bellevue car line 
to the rack tracks at Idle Hour Farm. 

itCAIRO, ILL. — The City Council has granted a franchise to the Cairo 
Terminal Traction Company to build an interurban road into Cairo. The 
franchise is for fifty years, and entrance into the city is made over 
Sycamore Street to Washington Avenue, and down that street to Fourth. 
The line must be completed to Mound City and Mounds within three 
years and to Villa Ridge in ten years. 

4tCHICAG0, ILL. — The Chicago & Joliet Railroad has increased the 
capacity of its Joliet sub-station by the installation of a 500-kw motor 
generator set, consisting of a three-phase, 2300-volt induction motor and 
an interpole generator. Partly in anticipation of heavy travel during the 
coming season between Joliet and Dellwood Park, near Joliet, the capacity 
of the Lemont and Summit sub-stations will probably be increased by 
500-kw and 250-kw machines. Traffice on the Chicago-Joliet line will be 
increased considerably by the erection of a plant to cost $5,000,000 by 
the Corn Products Company. The new plant will be located on the line 
about four miles from the Chicago terminal. 

*CHICAGO, ILL. — The Southern Street Railroad Company, of Chicago, 
has been incorporated with a capital stock of $10,000 to operate street 
railways in Cook County. The incorporators are J. C. Cleary, John A. 
Early and E. J. Stevens. 

oPANA, ILL. — The City Council of Shelbyville has granted a franchise 
to the Mattoon-Shelbyville-Pana-Hillsboro Traction Company. The fran- 
chise extends for twenty years. The Town Council of Tower Hill has 
also granted a franchise to the company. There now remain only a few 
towns along the proposed route that have not granted franchises. The 
president of the company is W. R. Patton, of Charleston, 111. 

oBLOOMINGTON, IND.— The City Council has granted a franchise 
to the Grand Central Traction Company, which proposes to build an 
electric railway between Indianapolis and Evansville. It is expected that 
construction work will begin early in the spring. 

*CLINTON, IND. — A mass-meeting of Vermillion County citizens was 
held in Clinton on the i8th inst. and preliminary steps were taken to 
organize a company to build an interurban line from Clinton to Danville, 
111. No trouble in securing right of way is predicted, as nearly every 
farmer along the route proposed has voluntarily agreed to donate land 
for the road. The Commercial Club of Clinton will endeavor to interest 
Terre Haute and Danville capitalists in the enterprise. The proposed 
route is studded with a number of prosperous towns, including Hillsdale, 
Newport, Cayuga and Perrysville. 

tTERRE HAUTE, IND. — Traction service between Terre Haute and 
Indianapolis by way of Brazil and Greencastle was inaugurated Jan. 20. 
The distance is seventy-three miles. This line makes connection in Terre 
Haute with the Paris, 111., line, thus for the first time linking the three 
states, Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, by traction service. Only a short gap 
remains between Paris and Danville, 111., when Missouri will be added. 

oATLANTIC, IOWA. — The Atlantic & Northern Railway Company 



Street Railway Journal 



Vol. XXXI. 



NEW YORK, SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 1, 1908. 



No. 5 



Published Every Saturday by the 

McGraw Publishing Company 



James H. McGraw, Pres. 



Curtis E. Whittlesey, Sec. & Treas. 



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Code used. 

Copyright, 1908, McGraw Publishing Company. 

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Of this issue 8250 copies are printed. 



Association of Operating Managers 

iVs this paper is going to press a number of electric rail- 
way officials are meeting at the headquarters of the Ameri- 
can .Street and Interurban Railway Association to organize 
the affiliated association authorized at the Atlantic City 
convention. Owing to the lateness in the week at which 
this meeting is being held it is impossible to include in 
this issue a report of the meeting, but the interest mani- 
fested in the movement and the prominence in the traction 



field of those present in New York guarantee the estab- 
lishment of the new association under the most favorable 
auspices. Its exact scope and even its name yet remain 
to be determined. The committee of the American Asso- 
ciation which called a meeting, wisely decided to leave 
these subjects to be decided later by the delegates, with, of 
course, the subsequent approval of the executive com- 
mittee. 

In some respects the new organization constitutes a 
radical step in the history of the association, in other re- 
spects it is a natural outcome of the reorganization effected 
in Philadelphia in 1905. For some time there has been an 
obvious need of greater attention to operating problems 
than could be given by the main association, so that it is 
a logical step to provide means by which this result is 
secured. Although the constitution of the new organiza- 
tion has not been promulgated we presume that it con- 
templates an association which will differ from the pas- 
senger and freight associations of the steam railroads, and 
even from the traffic association recently formed by the 
electric railway companies of the Central States. The 
latter was brought into being on account of the inter- 
change of traffic among the electric railways in that sec- 
tion, and its evident purpose as indicated by its articles of 
agreement is more to promote the general interchange 
of traffic than to consider technical problems relating to 
electric railway operation. We have no hesitation in say- 
ing that the organization of the new association is one of 
the most important steps which has ever been taken by the 
street railway interests of the country, and ranks in im- 
portance with the creation of the original association and 
the reorganization at Philadelphia. 

Aids in Schedule Analysis 

The study of schedules and service is a complex problem 
on most of the larger street railway systems, and it needs 
to be attacked on more than one side if an efficient and at 
the same time economical service is to be given. Close 
watch of conditions on the streets by inspectors and other 
officials will do much to determine whether too generous or 
an insufficient car movement is being carried out, but sta- 
tistical methods also have their place. In another column 
mention is made of the daily report of earnings used at 
Buffalo, and it is applicable to many other systems that an 
interpretation of the kind of data collected on the blank 
form shown will prove helpful in keeping the schedules at 
the best point. 

The earnings of a given line from day to day and in 
comparison with the same week day of the year previous 
are worth studying in the light of schedule changes, but 
until one begins to secure data on earnings per car mile 
and per car hour, on schedule speed and headway, number 



158 

of cars used compared with the total quartered at a given 
station, amount of transfer traffic, mileage of regular and 
extra cars and platform labor, the basis for generalization 
is but partially complete. One line may earn fifty times as 
much as another in a day, but the earnings per car mile 
and per car hour may be nowhere near comparative. The 
less heavy line may be operating at a higher efficiency than 
one earning many hundreds of dollars a day, in relation to 
the cost of service given. By preparing a few simple sta- 
tistics each day or week along the lines indicated above, 
and interpreting the reasons for the certain dissimilarities 
in figures that will result, the work of the inspectors in the 
field will be valuably supplemented, with a strong proba- 
bility that the service will be improved in the interests of 
Ixjth the company and the public. 

The Central Electric Traffic Association 

The organization at Dayton last week of the Central 
Electric Traffic Association is another indication of how 
far the interurban roads in the Middle West have advanced 
from the methods and theories of urban street railway 
operation. It is but little more than ten years since the 
first interurban road was built in that territory. To-day 
there are over 6000 miles of such roads in the States in- 
cluded by the Central Electric Railway Association, with 
which the new traffic organization is affiliated. One may 
ride on electric cars from Paris, 111., to Zanesville, Ohio, 
or from Flint, Mich., to Louisville, Ky. These roads carry 
freight, express, baggage and passengers ; they sell mileage 
books and coupon tickets, run sleeping and dining cars and 
in every respect are more and more closely approaching the 
service given by the steam roads in handling through 
traffic. They have found that through traffic pays, and the 
new association is the first important step toward develop- 
ing it in successful competition with the steam roads. 

The freight and passenger traffic associations of the 
steam roads have been of inestimable value in handling 
through business, and wisely enough the electric railway 
traffic association has been organized along the same gen- 
eral lines and with the same purposes in view. In fact, the 
articles of agreement of the Central Electric Traffic As- 
sociation are substantially a combination of paragraphs 
taken from the articles of the Central Passenger Associa- 
tion and the Central Freight Association, arranged to in- 
clude in the one organization matters pertaining to both 
freight and passenger tariffs and with only such changes 
in wording as were required to fit them for the use of elec- 
tric instead of steam railways. The purpose of the asso- 
ciation is not to make rates and arrange divisions of 
through tariffs. It has been formed solely for the purpose 
of disseminating to all of its members accurate and con- 
cise information as to the rates, classifications and tariffs 
in force on the several roads subscribing to the agree- 
ment. The members agree to furnish to the chairman 
copies of their rates and agreements with connecting 
steam and electric railways and these will be used as the 
basis for compiling joint tariffs for all points in the terri- 
tory included by the association which can be reached by 
the lines of any of its members. These tariff sheets will 
be printed and distributed to every station for use in nam- 
ing rates to any point on connecting roads. 



[Vol. XXXI. No. 5. 

The value of such an organization is obvious, if it can 
be made to include the great majority of the electric roads 
in the territory covered. At the present time the most 
serious obstacle in the way of developing through traffic, 
both freight and passenger, is the lack of information or 
the difficulty of applying such meager information as is 
at hand in naming through rates to points on distant con- 
necting lines. Passengers and shippers want to know what 
a journey or a shipment of freight is going to cost before 
starting. The representation at the meeting to organize 
the association was encouraging and when the work of 
compiling tariffs has advanced far enough to show some 
tangible results to the charter members there should be no 
difficulty in persuading most of the remaining roads to 
subscribe to the agreement. A road touching competitive 
points could hardly afford not to subscribe and enjoy the 
same benefits on through traffic as its competitor in the 
association. 

It will be no easy task to compile such tariff sheets as 
are proposed. The wide variations in local rates and 
classifications at present in force on individual roads, the 
many local interchange agreements and in some cases the 
fierce competition of parallel lines will inevitably result in 
some injustice and dissatisfaction at first. Much depends 
on the caliber of the chairman to be selected by the asso- 
ciation and the spirit of fairness and co-operation mani- 
fested by the members. Provision has been made in the 
articles of agreement for arbitration of cases in dispute 
and the right to make rates and divisions of through tariffs 
is reserved to each road. If the interurban roads which 
are striving hard to build up through traffic in competition 
with the steam roads once come to a full realization of the 
need of pulling together, the ultimate success of the new 
association is assured. 

Convention of the Central Electric Railway Association 

The progress made by the Central Electric Railway As- 
sociation since its organization two years ago was summed 
up concisely in the presidential address of Mr. Nicholl at 
the Dayton meeting last week. Through the support of a 
large membership, composed of the interurban railways of 
Ohio, Indiana and Southern Michigan, the association has 
been able to advance the subject of standardization- of ap- 
paratus and rules so that the interchange of rolling stock 
and even to some extent of crews need no longer be diffi- 
cult, while through the newly organized Central Electric 
Railway Traffic Association a medium has been established 
for conducting the business of accounting for and main- 
taining through tariffs for both passengers and freight. 
By this action the association has placed itself upon a basis 
for handling business on a scale which was not possible 
when the companies were operated in a disconnected and 
entirely independent hianner and has evolved from an 
association devoted to the study of engineering problems 
to one which acts as a stimulus upon the amount of busi- 
ness transacted. In his presidential address President 
Nicholl takes the position that the work of the future 
will be as important, if not more so, than that which has 
been accomplished in the past and suggests various ways 
in which the association can be of benefit to its members. 

Of the three papers presented at the meeting, two were 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



February i, 1908.] 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



159 



published last week and one, the report of the standardi- 
zation committee, appears in this issue. The latter con- 
tinues the discussion on foundation brake rigging for high 
speed electric cars which was begun by the paper of 
Fred Heckler read at the November meeting of the asso- 
ciation. Mr. Heckler pointed out the defects in existing 
foundation brake equipments ; the report this week now 
makes definite recommendations on the essential features 
of design. Some of these recommendations are radical 
departures from present practice and all are for the pur- 
pose of making the brakes more powerful and effective 
under all conditions. A discussion on the practicability of 
certain of the suggestions in this report will also be found 
* in our correspondence department this week. 

Economy in the Transportation Department 

In electric railway work there is always in well-managed 
properties a constant pressure upon the heads of depart- 
ments to reduce their expenses of operation. It is well that 
this is so, for only a brief study of the complex and shift- 
ing conditions of service in any given city is required to 
demonstrate the opportunities constantly arising for both the 
spending and the saving of considerable sums of money. 
Too great zeal for economy is as blameworthy as extrava- 
gance in the conduct of the service ; but, on the whole, the 
policy of making each expenditure on the basis of an esti- 
mate which justifies its disbursement is a wise and con- 
servative course. 

For many years the supply of power has been the subject 
of analysis with the object of cheapening its cost of pro- 
duction, and the end is not yet in sight. There is still 
room for very large improvements in methods of generat- 
ing electricity for railway service, and the building of each 
new important plant continues to arouse the interest of 
designing engineers and operating men- — an interest which 
crystallizes in the question, "How low can the plant run in 
power cost per kilowatt hour?" It is open to debate, how- 
ever, if the economics of its power station have not received 
undue prominence of expert attention at times in compari- 
son with the investigation of possible economies in the 
transportation department. ■ 

The labor cost of conducting electric transportation de- 
serves the most thorough and constant study from operating 
officials. The cost of idle mileage including its power, and 
the economies of different types of cars, the expense of 
operating one timetable as compared with another, the in- 
fluence of tripper runs upon the cost of regular service — 
these and similar issues warrant the closest kind of analysis. 
On many roads the cost of transportation service receives 
never-ending scrutiny, but on some systems the evidence i^ 
not wanting in the shape of wholly or nearly empty cars 
often reported, that the managements could profitably de- 
vote more time to the cutting down of the service on the 
basis of correct operating records. Even in a city of one 
or two hundred thousand inhabitants it may pay well to 
keep on file for convenient use a dozen different timetables 
conforming to the varying conditions of travel. The run- 
ning times may be substantially the same between all points 
on the system, but the times of starting different runs and 
the combinations of headway and routes desirable will 



usually vary through a wide range. On lines operated with 
long headways like fifteen to thirty minutes it is desirable 
not to change the schedules as much as on short interval 
routes, for the reason that the public feels the change in 
the longer interval more acutely. 

No small amount of analytical skill is required to draw 
wise conclusions from complex service data in street rail- 
way work, and yet the institution of economies without 
injury to the convenience of the great majority of a com- 
pany's patrons demands the most careful interpretation of 
records of car and line earnings at different times and 
through prolonged periods. It is desirable to plot graphic- 
ally the movements of cars on a given route before deciding 
that any given run is not worth while. Experienced trans- 
portation superintendents can tell a great deal about the 
way a schedule will operate by seeing it in tabular form, 
but the graphic diagram of runs is bound to be helpful in 
the picking out of such trips as appear not to be paying. 
Progressive companies are leaning more and more toward 
the graphical method of attack. 

Doubtless it is true that some trips on street railway 
systems must inevitably be operated at a loss. No human 
foresight can provide for every contingency. Some of the 
lines of a given system will supply even revenues month 
after month ; the cars will be well loaded, and seldom over- 
crowded, except perhaps for a few minutes in the peak 
period, while other lines will fluctuate in earnings like an 
ammeter needle registering an electric elevator accelerator. 
Policy requires the maintenance of steady service on certain 
lines, particularly those where the number of cars needed 
to maintain the schedule is small. It is on the short interval 
Jines that the best chances for a favorable adjustment of 
car type and frequency occur. 

Without a first-class system of records little can be done 
toward saving money in transportation cost. These must 
be simple enough not to require bookkeepers instead of con- 
ductors on the cars and yet complete in all essential data. 
Accurate methods of gaging the use of transfers are ex- 
ceedingly important, especially in cases where time limits 
are strictly enforced. A company which takes a record 
of the passing time of all cars at a single point is in excel- 
lent condition to fight transfer abuses. Records of the wa)' 
discipline is enforced also have their place. 

When the conditions are determined by careful analysis 
the line of economy will generally lie in the direction of 
reduced non-revenue mileage, increased headway on certain 
sparsely settled routes at certain times by the use of signed 
turn-back points, decreased delays and shortened stops, in- 
creased schedule speed, use of cars having a high load 
factor in relation to their carrying capacity, retention of 
desirable employees, closer inspection of traffic and equip- 
ment, provision of ample telephone facilities, power house 
and feeder capacity, installation of improved and simplified 
methods of handling clerical work, encouragement of sug- 
gestions from car service men and the extension of double 
tracking on single-track routes. The money value of these 
matters is difficult to determine in many instances, but, in 
so far as the records throw light upon the changing condi- 
tions and inter-relations of subdivided traffic streams, they 
are bound to be of high value in making out economical 
schemes of operation. 



i6o 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[\'c)L. XXXL No. 5. 



THE NORTHAMPTON TRACTION COMPANY 



In a general way it is known that Eastern Pennsylvania 
is one of the most flourishing industrial sections of the 
United States, but few are aware that it is also a region 
of great natural beauty in which its residents find pure air 
and recreation at their very hearthstones. 

As noted in the article on the Easton & Washington Trac- 



The greater part of the route is a single-track line 17.25 
miles long, between Easton and Bangor, except the branch 
to Nazareth, which is 3.25 miles in length. There is also 
a second route in the upper part of Easton built to secure 
local traffic and over which every other car leaving Easton 
is operated. The greater part of the line is over right of 
way averaging a width of 40 ft. At the time the land was 
bought for this purpose there was considerable prejudice 




Street Railway Journal 

KOUTE OF XORTITAMPTON TRACTION COMPANY BETWEEN EASTON, NAZARETH AND BANGOR, PA., SHOWING ALSO ELECTRIC 

RAILWAY CONNECTIONS. 

tion Company,* this district is well supplied with steam and among the farmers against a line going through their farms, 
•electric railway lines, the former being great freight car- Hence, in several instances, the company was obliged to 
riers, while the latter supply the passenger transportation purchase farms outright, while in others it was obliged to 
in and between the many moderate-sized towns and villages. make long detours. These difficulties were so aggravated 
Among the important svstems in this district is the North- Ijv tiie mountainous nature of the country that grades over 




ampton Traction Company, running from Easton to Naza- 
reth and Bangor, as shown on the accompanying map. 
Connections are made from Bangor for the far-famed Dela- 
ware Water Gap and other mountain resorts, and from 
Easton to Allentown and Philadelphia. As will appear 
later, the Philadelphia connection is of great importance in 
the Northampton Traction Company's summer business. 



♦Street Railway Journai., Dec. 28, 1907. 



5 per cent are the rule rather than the exception. The fol- 
lowing table illustrates this condition in detail : 

GRADES OF THE NORTHAMPTON TRACTION COMPANY 
Location. Per cent of grade. Length. 

Spring Garden St., Easton g 270 ft. 

Car Barn Hill 9.5 150 

Pushkin Park Trestle 8 200 

Walters' Hill 8 no 

Beers' Trestle 8 ' no 

Belfast Hill 6.1 200 

Belfast Hill S 120 

Kesslervil